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Urban Planning Assignment: Development of Sufficient Housing Greater Adelaide

Question

Task:Report on metropolitan planning (2,300 words excluding reference list). The 30-Year Plan for Greater Adelaide introduced and gazetted in 2010 by the Government of South Australia is the context for this assignment. The plan was revised and released in 2017. The plan is available at http://www.dpti.sa.gov.au/planning/30_year_plan.

Choose ONE of the following two topics:

1) Planning policies in the development of appropriate and sufficient housing for Greater Adelaide. It includes existing housing stock and projected housing demand and how it will be met through the planned development of Adelaide including programs and land use policies to achieve its proposed housing targets. Example of the structure of the report (just an example): How housing demand is projected in the 30-Year Plan? How are many additional dwelling units needed over the plan period? Is there any breakup of housing in terms of owner-occupied or rental or public housing? What is the strategy to build adequate housing and how it is phased over the planning horizon? What are the specific housing policies proposed in the plan? How is housing affordability promoted in the plan? What is the role of Local Governments in housing? What is the role of the housing industry and the government? How do the 30-Year Plan strategies compare with planning strategies for other capital cities in Australia, for example, Melbourne or Sydney?

2) Movement and accessibility. It includes types of transport infrastructure, society’s transport choices, the degree of accessibility and planning for the movement of people. Example of the structure of the report: What is accessibility and how does it relate to transport infrastructure? How transport network/infrastructure shape urban structure? What are the main transport strategies and policies of the 30-Year Plan? In what ways housing strategies and transport strategies are linked to each other? How are different modes of transport proposed to be integrated? What is the role of TODs with respect to transport? How does the 30-Year Plan propose to improve the share of public transport? How do the 30-Year Plan strategies compare with planning strategies for other capital cities in Australia, for example, Melbourne or Sydney?

The assignment will be assessed based on the following criteria:

  • Ability to comprehend the plan proposals
  • Reflection on the chosen topic
  • Critical discussion of the plans and targets
  • Clarity of expression, presentation, referencing

Answer

Executive Summary
This Urban Planning Assignment will mainly focus for the strategies of the planning in development of the metropolitan cities of Greater Adelaide. Local government and state government council take an active pert to increase the export and import facilities. Government council led some principle to control the transport Infrastructure and roads development. This report will also focus the improvement of the metropolitan cities from 2010 to 2017. Further, the proper planning that has been done by the government of South Australia has also been discussed in the Urban Planning Assignment. Moreover, the strategies and the policies adopted by the government and the appointing of a dedicated committee have also been discussed in the report. Lastly, a comparison has been provided of two cities of Australia regarding their strategic planning for development.

Introduction
Adelaide or greater Adelaide is one of the states of South Australia, according to the population ratio about 75% of South Australian people live here. This state is covered by both mountains and rivers. The 30-year plan for Greater Adelaide refers to the plan of making Adelaide more suitable for living. The plan aims for the development and growth of Greater Adelaide by making it more liveable, competitive and sustainable. The 30-year plan was started in 2010 and this plan now has been updated to face the new challenges and opportunities. Greater Adelaide is gradually improving day to day to inspiring the peoples to live. This Urban Planning Assignment focuses on the 30 Year plan where the local government helps in building various infrastructures.

Findings
Overview: As commented by Gurran et al. (2018), the Greater Adelaide has an area of 9000 square kilometres; it is covered by Victor Harbour in South Gulf. Greater Adelaide is one of state in southern Australia where about more than 75% peoples live there. As commented by Jacobs, et al. (2016), Greater Adelaide is the home for about 1.3 million people and it provides 80% of the state employment. The economic condition of Greater Adelaide is highly developed due to its clean technology business and developed technology on products and services.

Mission: The 30 years planning aims in upgrading the level of living standards of the people of Greater Adelaide. As 70% of the people of Southern Australia live there, it is required to upgrade the metropolitan cities (Baum et al. 2017). Implementation of various modern infrastructures will make the living environment more suitable.

Objectives: The 30-year plan for Greater Adelaide has the following objectives to develop the social and the economic development of the state.

  • To identify the new challenges and its impacts on the social and economic environment.
  • To understand the importance of measuring the delivery of the new walkable urban city.
  • To execute the planning policies for the development of the appropriate and sufficient housing for Greater Adelaide

Projected Housing Demand in 30 years plan
It has been analysed and evaluated in the projected 30-year plan that there is a demand for more than 25% more housings in South Australia by the year 2045 as analysed by the dwelling count data. It has been predicted and assumed by the statistics that houses with lone persons shall be growing by more than 44%. As opined by Mosler (2015), the massive count shall be increasing from 131,000 to 188,000 by the end of the year 2031. It has been projected that 85% new housing is required in the metropolitan boundary of Adelaide and it has also been projected that by the year 2045, the required housing shall be established in the urban area of Adelaide (Livingadelaide, 2018). Further, it has also been analysed by the annual dwelling count data that over 90% new housing in the Greater Adelaide has been planned to develop a township or a housing area in the parts adjoining Adelaide or known as the Greater Adelaide.

Breakup of housing in terms of owner-occupied or rental or public
The plan does not have specific areas for owner-housing or rent housing. However there care special places and areas assigned for the public places and for local neighbourhoods. There are also alternative housing types (the Missing Middle) in addition to the huge number of detached houses. The neighbourhoods have parks, schools and recreational areas. The Metropolitan Adelaide will be of three storeys that will be connecting the city to the suburbs (Troy, 2017).

Strategies and Policies Adopted
The strategies and policies that are adopted by the government of South Australia for implementing the 30-year plan for making and transforming Adelaide to be more liveable, sustainable and competitive are discussed in this part of the Urban Planning Assignment. According to Geertman et al. (2017), the primary strategies adopted for the proper implementation of the project, that is to build 85% new housing in the in the established urban areas by the year 2045 and 90% new houses of the adjoining areas of Adelaide to be made in the designated housing projects and township by the projected year (Cityofadelaide, 2018). The government has adopted the certain policies of adopting the suburbs of the city of Adelaide primarily focusing on achieving a city free from carbon and generate healthy communities and assist in the progress of economic growth. Garnett et al. (2018) theorizes that the residential and the mixed development policy of the government include creation of favourable communication corridors.

Moreover, the proper implementation of systematic railways stations is one of the most important policies that have been adopted by the government. The strategies associated with the policy include increase in the city economy by building and providing adequate houses to the people. As opined by Mosler (2015), other policies include the strengthening of the cultural environment while focusing on the tourism and entertainment industry. The government too wants Adelaide to be a centre of financial and related legal and banking services. The strategies that the government has adopted in order to gain the policies adopted is by building and constructing public building. It has also been decided that the overall structure of the city of Adelaide shall be formed as per a grid structure.

The roads and the squares where the government plans to build parks for the dwellers are also planned to maintain the grid pattern. As per Amati (2016), the government has also planned to promote a distinctive housing pattern so as to cater to a large variety of peoples from different sections of the society. The strategy implied as per the policy shall be implemented by building and innovative houses as per the growing needs of the new Adelaide. It has also been strategized that the housing and buildings shall be reflecting a lot of the character of the city and further the price makeup shall also be kept in mind. The government has also implemented the house building structure for the project.

Specific housing policies
In 30 year plan of Greater Adelaide, the local government has laid down some policies regarding the effective land use. As commented by Gurran et al. (2015) the policies and the program of the landscape is to protect the existing primary production of land. Protection of the landscape is required to provide the additional value in increasing the productivity.

Identifying and recognising the landscape which encompasses a range of rural production activities and support. As commented by Robinson and Liu (2015), according to the plan effective utilisation should be made to improve the districts local agricultural production. As commented by Hamnett and Freestone (2016), the programs of the land use policy enhance to develop the local rural village by developing their living conditions. It also offers small-scale tourist browsing and sightseeing experience. That means other than agriculture the rural people also invest their time in bring the tourist people and offering the various services like providing food and wine.

There are various sites which are designed for the tourist facilities. This program also helps to protect the open rural area by adjusting a balance between visual amenity and productive land use (Baum et al. 2017). It encourages the low scale and low-density styles of buildings allocation and significant landscape which helps in landscaping the historic village location. In Greater Adelaide the rural landscape is mainly covered by vineyards and wineries, the landscape of the rural areas with olive tree planting also presents a nice view. As commented by Madigan and Kroll (2016) in rural areas the agriculture mainly includes the wheat production, orchards and timber products which are mainly cultivated in the rolling hilly areas. There is the vast amount of bare landscape which is replaced by farming, vineyards and olive trees which gave an added value to the land (Paz et al. 2016). About 40% of the total landscape is suitable for agricultural activities like farming, grazing, cropping etc. From 2010 till now farming activities has improved so that nowadays Greater Adelaide is famous for its quality foods and wine (Baum et al. 2017). Greater Adelaide attracts tourist for their best production of high-quality wine.

Maintenance of housing affordability
The housing affordability has considered the purchase price, energy, waste generation as well as running costs and travels. It also includes the maintenance cost. These affordability aspects have been considered by the plan and the housing is made as to comply with it. The policies have been underlined with respect to the projecting order to reduce the transport cost (Cityofadelaide, 2018). In addition to this, the dwellings are planned to be created near schools and hospitals in order to make the facilities available for the people. It has also considered the indirect affordable aspects such as the employment areas, expenditures on electricity and also proper services and adaptable houses for the disable people.

Role of housing industry and Local Government
The government also plays a very important role in this 30-year planning. Local government is taking a major part for the development the metropolitan cities of southern Australia. Local government is taking part in annual regions forums for the development of the regional implementation strategies. As commented by Lewis (2017), the cost of the various infrastructures is provided by the local government. Proper transport facilities and connectivity between roads has been developed by the local government. Other than the local government state government has also participated to assist with fine-tuning the strategies for input from councils and assisting with designs. State and the local government help to improve the employment rate in Adelaide city.

The housing authority is responsible to build different types of housing designes and incorporate affordability in their planning. They also play a role in investigating the design and sustainability of the designs in order to comply with the policies. Government help to increase the rate of export and import in the city and it also improve the business transactions (Newton et al. 2017). Metropolitan local government body supports Transit Oriented Development across the state. The Local government encourages more and urban infill and Greenfield the development of the rural areas (Baum et al. 2017). Thus it can be stated that Local council or the local government has an important role in supporting the plan of creative ways to deliver the compact vision of the city.

Comparison of the 30-year plan strategies with the planning Strategies of Sydney
The planning strategies for creating a more developed and innovative Adelaide does find a little similarity with the planning strategy of Sydney. The South Australian government that plans and implements the planning for Adelaide predicts a boost in the housing and building in the adjoining part of Adelaide. This Urban Planning Assignment explores government plans in developing Greater Adelaide for increasing the housing capacity of the city (Adelaide, 2018). Whereas, the planning commission of Sydney launched the metropolitan hub and the main strategy of the commission is to improve and boost the investment in the city. The prime aims of the commission are to gain financial and cater to the financial development of the city. Further, both the planning commission of the two cities Adelaide and Sydney plan to boost potential tourism in both the cities. As opined by Garnett et al. (2018), Sydney plans to launch a few squares in the city for the recreational purpose of the residents as well as the incoming tourism.

The planning commission of Adelaide to has incarnated such plans so as to create city squares in the city to cater to the general needs of the residents and the tourists. Sydney too has a great demand for new housing plans alike Adelaide. But due to the vast area already under the influence of urbanisation, the planning commission of Sydney has been shifting focus towards the adjoining cities and towns of the capital (Cityofadelaide, 2018). Whereas Adelaide has large areas of inhabited lands around the prime city which results in the formation of Greater Adelaide for the expansion of the housing around the current city limits. Further, as per the Sydney Metropolitan plan, the city has an increased demand for housing and the projected growth has been analysed to be 71% more than the current population by the year 2035, whereas Adelaide projected a rise of about 44% in the total population of the city in about 20 years (Livingadelaide, 2018). Thus the planning commissions of both the cities differ in their strategies for catering to the needs of an unparalleled population.

Recommendation
Plans for Implementation: The prime plans of the Urban Planning Assignment is to explore the 30-year plan for developing and transforming Adelaide include a proper coordination with the different levels and stages of the government. As per Amati (2016), it has been evaluated that the State Planning The proper implementation shall be done by further coordinating the land-use plan by the department of the planning of Adelaide (Sa, 2018 Further, the most important plan that is been projected to be implemented is the engaging of participation by the local community and the sustainability of it (Sa, 2018).

Conclusion: Hence, it can be concluded that the plans implemented by the South Australian government for providing sufficient housing in the city and the adjoining areas of the city are being implemented by proper measures. The city planning commission has projected the housing demand of the city by the coming few decades. It can also be concluded that the government's land use policies and programs for constructing the new building in the city are also being well planned. As per the Urban Planning Assignment, the government shall be creating more than 40% of the present houses in the urban as well as the adjoining areas of Adelaide. Further, the strategies adopted by the government in meeting the requirements include local tie-ups and implementation of a proper body for consistent monitoring. Further, it can also be concluded that the government plays an important role in the development and betterment of Adelaide.

Reference List
Amati, M. ed., (2016). Urban green belts in the twenty-first century. Abingdon: Routledge. Garnett, S., Woinarski, J., Lindenmayer, D. and Latch, P. eds., (2018). Recovering Australian threatened species: a book of hope. Adelaide: CSIRO PUBLISHING.

Geertman, S., Allan, A., Pettit, C. and Stillwell, J. eds., (2017). Planning Support Science for Smarter Urban Futures. New York City: Springer.

Mosler, S., (2015). Heritage politics in Adelaide (p. 202). Adelaide: University of Adelaide Press.

Ballard, M., Karuppannan, S. and Sivam, A., (2015). High density development: community attitude and urban planning response.

Gurran, N., Gilbert, C., Gibb, K.D., van den Nouwelant, R., James, A. and Phibbs, P., (2018). Supporting affordable housing supply: inclusionary planning in new and renewing communities.

Gurran, N., Phibbs, P., Yates, J., Gilbert, C., Whitehead, C., Norris, M., McClure, K., Berry, M., Maginn, P. and Goodman, R., 2015. Housing markets, economic productivity, and risk: international evidence and policy implications for Australia—Volume 1: Outcomes of an Investigative Panel. Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Melbourne.

Hamnett, S. and Freestone, R., (2016) The Australian Metropolis 2000-2015In 2000 the authors published The Australian Metropolis: A Planning History, an account of the evolution of Australian metropolitan planning from the early years of colonial settlement to the end of the twentieth century. International Planning History Society Proceedings, 17(6), pp.83-92.

Jacobs, K., Hulse, K., Stone, W. and Wiesel, I., (2016) Individualised housing assistance: findings and policy options.

Lewis, S.A., (2017). Reconciling Australian planning, development and housing outcomes.

Madigan, D. and Kroll, D., 2016. Alternative infill strategies for established residential suburbs in Adelaide and London.

Robinson, G.M. and Liu, Z., 2015. Greening and “un” greening Adelaide, South Australia. AIMS Enviro Sci, 2, pp.511-532.

Baum, F., Delany-Crowe, T., MacDougall, C., Lawless, A., van Eyk, H. and Williams, C., 2017. Ideas, actors and institutions: lessons from South Australian Health in All Policies on what encourages other sectors’ involvement. BMC public health, 17(1), p.811. Available from https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-017-4821-7 [Accessed on 02.03.2018]

Newton, P., Meyer, D. and Glackin, S., 2017. Becoming Urban: Exploring the Transformative Capacity for a Suburban-to-Urban Transition in Australia’s Low-Density Cities. Sustainability, 9(10), p.1718. Available from http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/9/10/1718/htm [Accessed on 02.03.2018]

Paz, S., Negev, M., Clermont, A. and Green, M.S., 2016. Health Aspects of Climate Change in Cities with Mediterranean Climate, and Local Adaptation Plans. International journal of environmental research and public health, 13(4), p.438. Available from http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/13/4/438/htm [Accessed on 21.1.2018]

Troy, P., 2017. A national strategy for a low-carbon economy: The contribution of regional development planning. The Economic and Labour Relations Review, 28(1), pp.57-76. Available from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1035304617694826 [Accessed on 2.1.2018]

Livingadelaide (2018) SA Planning Portal viewed on: 5th June 2018

Adelaide (2018) Planning & Analytics viewed on 6th June 2018

Sa (2018) Adelaide development plan viewed on 6th June 2018

Cityofadelaide (2018) Planning and Building viewed on 6th June 2018

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