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Type Of Non-Destructive Testing In Automobile Industry


Prepare a detailed report on the type of non-destructive testing in automobile industry.


Non-Destructive Testing, NDT is one of the testing and analysis techniques that are used by the industries to evaluate the specific material properties. These are also used to determine the properties and specifications of the components or system. The determination of the welding defects and errors without causing any additional damage to the original part is possible through NDT. It is also referred as non-destructing examination, NDE, non-destructing inspection, NDI, and others (Changliang et al. 2017).

NDT is used in several industrial areas and applications with automobile industry as one of the significant industries. There are different NDT methods that are used and applied in the automobile industry.

Non-Destructing Inspection and Testing in Automobile Industry
The NDT technology is one of the significant means to enhance the quality of the automobiles. The technology is currently being applied in various areas of automobiles, such as manufacturing, research & development, maintenance, etc. There are different methods that are defined under the domain of the NDT technology. The selection and application of these methods must be based on the technique used and the defects that are to be inspected and detected in the automobiles (Bakerhughesds 2019). The description of these techniques and the various applications of the NDT technology in the automobile industry are covered in the sections below.

NDT Techniques and Methods
Radiation detection methods
It is one of the widely used NDT methods and is based on the principle that a wide range of materials have varying absorption and attenuation properties to the rays. As a result, the blackness of the negative varies to determine the defects in the material. The use of the method is done in the automobile industry to determine the castings along with the welded components. The inspection of wheel hubs, for instance can be performed through the radiation detection methods (Dwivedi, Vishwakarma & Soni 2018).

Penetration testing methods
This is the method utilized for surface inspection and can be used to determine the metallic as well as non-metallic materials. The open defects can be identified with the use of the colouring permeation fluid. It is passed through the defects on the material surface and the image of these defects is sent for the amplification process. The method is applicable in the component performance testing along with the maintenance of the automobiles.

Eddy current detection methods
The method is defined on the basis of the electromagnetic induction theory. The application of this method can determine the physical as well as structural defects of a wide range of materials. These are detected on the basis of the formations of differential amplitude and phase eddy current as identified in the alternating magnetic fields environment. The detection of the defects is possible for the ferromagnetic and the non-ferromagnetic materials through this method. It is also not required to have specific electrical conductivity. As a result, the application is possible on a wide range of materials (Kroening, Sednev & Salchak 2014). The utilization of the method is primarily done in the ring seats and ball pins in the automobile industry.

Ultrasound methods
This method is developed as per the transmission properties of the ultrasound waves in a wide range of materials. The method is applied to determine the internal defects as generated by the materials along with the location of the defects. It is essential to keep the surface component clean during the inspection as the attenuation of the ultrasonic waves is high in the air. With clean surface, it will be possible to introduce the sound waves in the interior of the surface and the object with the aid of coupling material. The inspection of the tappet or crankshaft can be performed using this method.

Magnetic particle inspection methods
These NDT methods are usually implemented to determine the surface defects of the components. The magnetization of the ferromagnetic materials may lead to specific cracking on the surface or there may be certain leakage that may be formed. The leakage is determined through the magnet-sensitive element and the defect details are hence, determined. The cleaning of the components is not essential in these methods (Lu & Wong 2017). Due to the high inspection efficiency, it is possible to determine cracks and rust along with the other defects in these methods. The application of this method is also not restricted on the basis of the component size.

Laser holographic detection methods
It is the method that utilizes the laser holography technique to identify the defects on the surface and inside the component. There are several deformations that develop as a result of the application of a wide range of external stresses. The internal defects are detected through the holographic interference method.

NDT Technology – Applications in Automobile Industry
Automotive semi-axial ultrasonic testing
The issues around the fracture or failure of the half-shafts in the automotive are primarily because of the high frequency of low stresses. These lead to the fatigue and damage to the components involved. The structural defects also result in the breakage. The inspection of the materials involved can be conducted through the water immersion method based on the ultrasonic testing technique (Modalshop 2020). In this method, there is an electric pulse signal with a high frequency that is converted in the form of an ultrasonic signal. The utilization of an adequate probe device is done to carry out the conversion. In the case of a defect, there are changes that are made to the acoustical properties of the half-shaft. Also, the sound beam that will be returned will be converted in to a higher frequency pulse signal. With the use of this method, there is significant amount of sound energy in the component that can be utilized to enhance the accuracy and sensitivity of the detection. The stable detection waveform can therefore be obtained.

Magnetic Particle Inspection Method
The surface defects detection in the ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic components can be conducted using this method. The determination of the defects is performed through this method that involves a large number of parts, such as connecting rods, crankshafts, etc. in the automobiles. With the application of this method on the surface layer or the near-surface layer, there is specific leakage that can be identified. The method involves the development of the magnetic field in the objects that shall be inspected. The components have a wide range of shapes and sizes, and therefore, specific magnetization method shall be utilized. For instance, to identify the defects in the connecting rods, the clamping of the different ends of the rods shall be done through magnetization and electrification (Rem 2013).

Laser holographic inspection of tyres
The automobile tyres involve the use of the materials, such as rubber, nylon filaments, and curtain. All of these materials involve multi-layered structure with the overlap pattern involved. Due to these overlaps, there are several impurities that get involved and there are numerous defects that also occur, such as bubbles or delamination. The usual testing techniques and equipment do not succeed in the detection of these impurities and defects. These defects can cause a number of safety issues and risks if not identified and resolved.

The holographic inspection technique is utilized to identify these minute defects and impurities in the automobile tyres. The interference and diffraction of the light is used to reproduce the light waves (Twi 2019). The 3D image of the type is obtained and the defects are detected through the abnormal light streaks. The distance between these abnormal streaks is used to understand the associated depth of the defects. The defect depth is directly proportional to the distance between the interference streaks. As a result, the defect depth and the distance between the streaks can be used to understand the degree of the defect. The degree, size, and type of these defects present within the tyres vary. As a result, the loading of the tyres shall be performed so that the defects are presented as local distortion. It can be carried out through the placement of the optical path system within the insides of the tyre. The vacuum housing is placed and the application of the pressure-reducing loading treatment is then done. The method assists in the determination of the defects present in the tyre (Yang, Song & Kang 2015).

There are several changes that are occurring in the different areas of technology, such as computer or electronic technology. The same is observed with the NDT technology as it is also experiencing some rapid changes in terms of the digitalization and efficiency. There are new forms of NDT technologies that are being developed that come with improved stability and efficiency levels. Currently, NDT technology is combined with the modern intelligent technology along with the adaptive techniques. The detection of the surface defects as well as the internal defects is possible through the application of NDT. The selection of the specific methods must be based on the targeted defect type. For example, the tyre defects can be best identified using the laser holography technique.

Bakerhughesds 2019, Automotive Industry | Inspection & NDT Solutions by Waygate Technologies, Baker Hughes Digital Solutions, viewed 10 December 2020, .

Changliang, S, Hao, Z, Shiyun, D & Weixue, T 2017, ‘Novel nondestructive testing applications in old automotive engine’, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 182, p. 012060.

Dwivedi, SK, Vishwakarma, M & Soni, ProfA 2018, ‘Advances and Researches on Non Destructive Testing: A Review’, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 3690–3698.

Kroening, M, Sednev, D & Salchak, Y 2014, ‘Heavy-Loaded Components Quality Assurance by Means of Non-Destructive Testing’, Advanced Materials Research, vol. 1040, pp. 937–942.

Lu, QY & Wong, CH 2017, ‘Applications of non-destructive testing techniques for post-process control of additively manufactured parts’, Virtual and Physical Prototyping, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 301–321.

Modalshop 2020, Automotive Part NDT Quality Inspection | NDT | The Modal Shop, Inc.,, viewed 10 December 2020, .

Rem, L 2013, Non-Destructive Testing (Ndt) Technique., Lap Lambert Academic Publishing.

Twi 2019, What is Non-Destructive Testing (NDT)? - Methods and Definition,

Yang, L, Song, F & Kang, Z 2015, ‘Research on non-destructive testing technology for welding defects of TWT collector’, 2015 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference (IVEC).


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