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Total Quality Management Assignment: Lean Management Strategies in Automobile Industry in UK

Question

Task: In this coursework, you need to choose a research topic and then develop a research proposal
Choosing a research topic for your coursework. Clearly, you are approaching the stage of needing to think about your dissertation. You are therefore strongly advised to base this coursework on your forthcoming dissertation topic that must in the project management context. Design a succinct research proposal for your chosen topic using appropriate methodology and justification of your choices. Going down through each layer of Saunders et al.’s (2016 or earlier) ‘Research Onion’, write a justification and critical evaluation of your research proposal (drawing on a wide range of research methodology literature).
Having chosen a research topic, you should complete the following parts:
1. Introduction
a. Provide a title and background
i. Background: a brief overview of the topic or problem, including your
motivation for selection of this research topic, a brief literature review,
drawing on some key pieces of topic-related literature, explain why
researching the topic or problem is important
b. Overall research question(s), aim(s) and objective(s): these should be clear,
succinct and specific.
2. Methodology
  a. Philosophical position
  b. Methodology (survey, case study, ethnography, …) and the reason why this
  methodology is suitable for this research
  c. A clear and suitable sampling method.
  d. A clear and suitable data collection method (including administration and a list
  of interview questions or an example of a questionnaire).
  e. A clear and suitable explanation of how the data will be analysed.
3. Critical evaluation
Going down through each layer of Saunders et al.’s (2016 or earlier) ‘Research Onion’,
write a critical evaluation of your research proposal developed (drawing on a wide
range of research methodology literature). As a result you should state based on your
critique, why your approach is the most suitable approach for your chosen research
topic and why other approach(es) are NOT suitable. This may be the quantitative or
qualitative approach, or indeed a mixture of the two – you must decide and defend your
choice. Remember you need to justify all the steps, eg. why have you chosen this
specific methodology and data collection tool? Why they are appropriate for addressing
your research question and research problem? PRISM1 asked for a general indication
of your method, so this is the opportunity to give a detailed justification and demonstrate
your application of deeper levels of critical ability applied to research design.

Part B Critical reflection 400 words
Critically reflect on the feedback from PRISM1 and how this has been implemented in your research proposal assignment, what have you changed/altered as a result of the feedback.
Additional information
1. The maximum wordcount is 3,400 words for both parts. This is a maximum, not a
target.
2. Structure your report. Include a title page with the unit title, report title, your student ID
number. Use clear, numbered section headings. Include your student ID number and
page number on each page. Include a title for every table or figure, along with a source
(if you have not originally developed it). Ensure any figures or tables are clearly legible.
3. References must be given using the APA 6 style every time you mention a theory, or
another person’s idea(s) – refer to and follow the School’s referencing guide. Be
selective and only include material that is relevant to your case. Avoid (over) reliance
on websites for your sources as they are rarely peer-reviewed and often contain errors.
The reference list (ie. not a bibliography) should be sorted alphabetically by first author
surname, do not separate out different types of sources (books, journals, etc) into
different lists.
4. One of the key abilities developed through your Master's course is in developing
arguments for why other people should agree with your decisions to the point where
they can consider it further for adoption. The PRISM assignments are not assessed on
what your topic is (since everyone will have a different topic), but they are assessed on
criteria such as how your use of evidence, your analysis of literature, and your reflection
on your work build convincing and logical reasons to agree with you.

Answer

1.0 Introduction:
1.1 Background: The total quality management assignment is based on the Application and importance of lean management strategies and Total Quality management across automobile product manufacturing companies of UK. In the industry of automobile parts manufacturing, it is important to ensure that the products are made up of high quality to suit the requirements of the modern day vehicles. Moreover; it is also essential for the companies of this industry to ensure that the manufacturing cost is kept low so that the parts can be sold at a lower cost. High quality performances as well as reduced cost are the important requirements for the companies of this industry for making financial profits (Abdulrahman et al 2015). In UK, the competition among the companies of this industry has become high and therefore; for maintaining the competitive advantage, it has become necessary to supply the automobile parts at lower costs. Quality of the products is an important requirement as the vehicle manufacturing companies around the world always look for the parts which are strong and which would meet with the required standard quality for the manufacturing process (Raja Sreedharan, Raju and Srivatsa Srinivas 2017). In this aspect, it is also important to induce some important methodologies as well as techniques for reducing the production costs and to improve the quality of the products.

Therefore; lean manufacturing process is an important methodology which can help in enhancing the quality of the products along with helping these companies to reduce the production costs. On the other, total quality management is the technique which can help in enhancing the quality of the products along with assisting the organizations to make the quality improvement throughout the business levels (Hartini and Ciptomulyono 2015). Many automobile manufacturing companies such as Toyota have been extremely successful due to the implementation of the lean manufacturing process in the business. Therefore; it would be interesting to analyze how these techniques can help the automobile parts manufacturing companies of UK (Toma and Naruo, 2017).

1.2 Purpose of the research:
This research on total quality management assignment intends to analyze about how lean manufacturing process and total quality management can assist the automobile parts manufacturing companies of UK. It can enhance the quality of the products and to cut down the production costs effectively (Dedyet al. 2016). The purpose is also to analyze how these techniques can be implemented in these companies and how change management can be properly implemented so that these techniques can be implemented properly.

1.3 Aims and objectives:
1.3.1 Aim:
The aim outlined in the total quality management assignment is to analyze the importance of lean manufacturing process and total quality management in the automobile parts manufacturing companies of UK. It will be also important to assess all the benefits that these techniques can provide for these companies so that the quality of the products can be improved and the cost-cutting strategies can be implemented successfully (Murugananthamet al. 2018).

1.3.2 Objectives:
The objectives for this research are as follows:

  • To analyze the critical importance of implementing total quality management and lean manufacturing process for the automobile parts manufacturing companies of UK
  • To identify the different techniques that need to be used for implementing total quality management and lean manufacturing process for the automobile parts manufacturing companies of UK
  • To assess the strategies of change management for implementing total quality management and lean manufacturing process for the automobile parts manufacturing companies of UK

1.4 Research questions:
The research questions examined in the segments of total quality management assignment are as follows:

  • What is the critical importance of implementing total quality management and lean manufacturing process for the automobile parts manufacturing companies of UK
  • What are the different techniques that need to be used for implementing total quality management and lean manufacturing process for the automobile parts manufacturing companies of UK
  • What are the strategies of change management for implementing total quality management and lean manufacturing process for the automobile parts manufacturing companies of UK

1.5 Rationale:
1.5.1 The main issues identified in the context of total quality management assignment:
The automobile parts manufacturing companies need to constantly improve the quality of the products in order to meet with the changing demands of the industry. On the other hand, in order to maintain profitability of the business, it has also become important for these companies to cut down the production costs (Bornschlegl et al 2015). Organizations of this industry often struggle to maintain all these requirements and therefore; fail to remain competitive in the industry.

1.5.2 The reasons for the issues:
The main reasons for the issues are that these organizations do not have the effective strategies to implement the objectives of quality improvement and low production cost (Marodin et al 2019). Therefore; they struggle to maintain sustainability in the business. Moreover; poor change management is also a major cause for their struggles.

1.5.3 Points that will be covered:
In this research of total quality management assignment, the main focus will be to analyze how total quality management and lean manufacturing processes can help these organizations to solve the issues and to identify the change management strategies that will be important to be implemented for successfully implementing these techniques (Dedyet al. 2016).

2.0 Literature review
2.1 Total quality management and lean management across automobile sector
The concepts related to lean management and total quality management fragment are efficient across each of the industry that involves regular progress across their operational processes. Developing a better operational design that can help counter issues and establish required standards across the industry are put in to effect with the affiliation of lean management and total quality management concepts (Zainuddinet al. 2019). The ideologies related to change and growth management are significantly helpful in attracting a much wider range of operational excellence for facilitating the desired goals. The total quality management interventions help the industry to accomplish regular changes across their operational structures which is largely required to keep up with the growing industry standards (Sabetet al. 2016). These obligations provide an opportunity to guide and establish improvised set of outcomes throughout the whole process of development. The concerns and liabilities for progress across an industry are largely depicted by its available quality standards. As the quality standards have a major role to play in cooperating with the customer’s requirements and acting accordingly. Each of these dimensions illustrated in this section of total quality management assignment is based on achieving better reach and problem solving abilities for the management processes (Laureani and Antony, 2018). The obligations are linked to associate and integrate a smooth framework that is eligible for putting in to context the whole system of operation and accomplish better end results.

Customer focussed progress is one of the key attributes linked to the operations under total quality management and lean management processes. Thus, an efficient lean or total quality management process is feasible in terms of improvising customer experience and direct customer centric development proposals (Ahmadet al. 2017). Demand centricity of these management interventions are also capable of driving bigger changes that in many cases lead to a remarkable growth it a specific organization or the entire industry (Bastas and Liyanage, 2018). It also helps the customers in making informed choices and thus selecting the best possible product across the industry. The obligations are limited and can be used to diverge the high end impacts across the manufacturing process.

2.2 Effective tools used for TQM and Lean management
A typical TQM or Lean management process requires a series of graphs, data collections, results analysis, activities related to work and progress monitoring. Thus, it is not a simple task to keep these functions operational. Although there are several contradictions relating to the usage of total quality management and lean management possibilities across the organizations. But since the number of such contradictory factors is significantly low, any major consideration is not made. The team requires a number of specialized tools and techniques to completing each of these tasks positively (Pa?aiová and Ižaríková, 2019). Thus, a number of supportive tools are placed and a relatively strong form of operational design is used to strengthen the available framework and attract better results related to all-around development (Raja Sreedharanet al.2017). The tools and techniques used in the case scenario of total quality management assignment are based on a general perception and are liable to promote better outcomes for the related industrial progress. A number of tools rated to lean management and Total quality management attributes are discussed across the available sections. The below mentioned sections are feasible in providing a smooth transition and a significant amount of belief over the system.

  • Pareto principle: Pareto principle is an important tool as it plays an efficient role in designing developments across the process of manufacturing and development. This principle discussed herein total quality management assignment suggests that focussing on relatively smaller number of causes can lead to major effects across the organizational structure. This principle has been used in undermining the quality evolution across companies in a research by Raja Sreedharanet al. (2017). In addition to this, the Pareto principle technique has also been used by Kadoet al. 2016 in its research that is based on analysis of total quality management status across Nigerian firms.This tool is integrated to identify the root cause related to most of the issues and their respective eliminating according to the set standards. Apart from the process identification and analysis, this tool is also linked to assess better comparisons between the before and after situations linked to quality and operations management (Netland, 2016). These comparisons are also very important as these act as the confirmation process for application of these strategies in their full strength. The success aspect that is integrated across this particular tool is linked to promote a hit and trial method of continuous improvements.
  • Control charts: The total quality management assignment examines the concept of control charts that are statistical process control that is extensively in usage across production and manufacturing operations. This process of controlled variation disturbance is more feasible than the initial process of controlling each of the individual variation. Marodinet al.(2019) have used control charts across their research for relating lean management with operational performance across Brazilian automotive supply chains. Kumar and Wagh(2018), have used control chart as an effective tool for assessing the analytical dimension of quality checks across different production process in their research. The association factor for variations are collective and thus assessment of its trend, helps in gaining a better outcomes and distinguishing possibilities across the whole process of production. Control charts not only control the negative aspects but also suggest regular improvements across the entire variation (Khaliliet al. 2018). Thus, initiates a more feasible standard and initiates a less complex form of process management.
  • Fishbone or cause and effect diagram: The fishbone or cause and effect diagram is a crucial tool that is widely used for process dispersion analysis. The basic principle for the operation of this tool is its ability to link the problems along with their relative causes. The total quality management assignment analyses the words of Coccia(2018) that describes fishbone diagram as an effective tool for identifying, systematizing and analysis of the sources related to general purpose Technologies in his research.These attributes are segmented and supported with profound techniques and are liable to promote better and less problematic operation. This tool provides the management to acknowledge which are the most prominent reasons that have been directly linked to provide a less impressive form of operation as described by Soareset al.(2017) in their research. This tool helps in increasing the relatability and organizational possibilities across the whole process of manufacturing. The increased relatability supports a significant decrement in the quality and amount of issues that are prevalent (Sabbaghaet al. 2016). A more organized and detailed assessment of the shortcomings relate to a better operational design and an ultimate influence on the organizational as well as industrial health.
  • Flow charts: Flowcharts are a systematic approach to assess information in order to attain a better understanding of the entire process and its relative complications. Text, pictures and symbols are incorporated together to initiate a more ideal form of approach based on which significant decisions can be made. Flowcharts have also been used by Sreedharan and Raju(2016), in their research of assessing importance of Lean Six Sigma across industries.Especially in a vast sector like automobile manufacturing and management, which requires consistency across insights and a reliability across the design sections. Thus, it is stated herein total quality management assignment that flowcharts are a major help. Tahir(2018), used flowcharts for determining the role of Quality Planning and Quality Improvement Tools in Improving the Quality of Products among the Manufacturing Sector of Punjab, Pakistan in his research.These initiate a more ideal form of managing the information and using it to build positive impact on the business processes. Flowcharts are also an efficient method to add significance across the communication structure. During a communication process the whole system is linked to facilitate better outcomes and the availability of supportive information in the form of flowcharts help the management increase its effectiveness and attract better outcomes (Fonseca and Domingues, 2017).
  • Bar graphs and histograms: Bar graphs and histograms initiate a more responsive and understandable analysis of the regular data and information forms. These are crucial for providing additional insights to the nature and operational types of a particular event. Thus, are crucial for figuring out the most significant ways to understand a process by assessing its relative data and information segments. This total quality management assignment is also helpful in improvising the entire process by promoting the understanding of operational design linked to a particular process (Gupta and Vardhan, 2016). This helps in increasing the overall efficiency and also initiates a more dedicated design segment for relating the progress to its initial counterparts. Neyestani (2017), has included Bar graphs and histograms as one important constituent in his research named seven basic quality control tools. In addition to this, Lixandru(2016), has mentioned Bar graphs and histograms as important component in his research for Supplier quality management across automotive industries. Bar graphs and histograms are an authentic piece of information that is linked to facilitate a check for any available pattern across the relative process. Category specific forms of histograms and bar graphs are equally important as they are related to understand the individual requirements across each section in consideration to a collective progress.
  • Check lists and check sheets: The concept of Check lists mentioned in the total quality management assignment are the set of important items that are essential for formulating better outcomes all along the process of management. Each of the design segment across the process of managing resources are sufficient in building a positive environment across the available aspects and thus the entire process is monitored with the help of relevant check lists. Hines et al.(2018) has considered check lists and check sheets as an important tool for reviewing lean journey of a manufacturing organization across its research named The Lean journey: have we got it wrong. Check lists are also crucial for taking informative decisions and incorporating better outcomes for the whole analysis process. It helps in suggesting proper additions at particular point of time and are liable to integrate the formalities positively to the whole system of production and manufacturing. Fonsecaet al. 2017 has elaborated the positive impacts of using checklists for managing quality in its research named Leading quality in the 21st century: Profiles of quality and organizational excellence managers. The check sheets are relative set of data recordings that are put in to place for accepting the desired obligations and attaining a more reasonable form of understanding across the operational structure.

Check sheets are created to achieve a more dedicated form of operation for each of the independent sections and integrate them with a more positive approach to build a better framework for progress. Thus this tool holds an important position across the relative obligations of quality management under automobile sector (Sreedharan and Sunder, 2018).

2.3 Theories and concepts related to total quality management and lean management
Theories and concepts related to a particular process or management system illustrated in the total quality management assignment are crucial and are integrated to facilitate better understanding linked to real time obligations and approval of their respective objectives. The outcomes are monitored and assessed with the availability index attached to them (Chuganiet al. 2017). Thus there is a respective number of approach that suggests acknowledgement of a theoretical concept prior to conclusion in any major area of interest. Some of the most effective theories and concepts related to the management obligations across an automobile sector are acknowledged and analysed in the below mentioned sections.

  • Deming's theory

This theory defines the basic nature of total quality management interventions across any specific industry. This theory describes quality as a ratio of work efforts and the total costs of completion. It provides a comparative relationship between the efforts put in across a process and the total costing involved across the entire process (Pinjari and Teli, 2018). The fact that with an increment in the respective costing there is a significant decrement in the quality standards of the product or service. In order to facilitate a better understanding of these attributes, four significant aspects are promoted under this theory.

  1. System appreciation

This section of total quality management assignment describes the ways in which an organizational system or process works. This segment is important as it helps in building a better outreach and a more desirable form of approach to the whole system.

  1. Variation knowledge

This segment is responsible for dealing with a particular variation across the process. This information linked to variation is quite helpful in achieving a better understanding and initiate a more justified form of progress across the system.

  1. Knowledge theory

This segment of total quality management assignment acknowledges the fact that adequate knowledge is required to establish a better control over the proceedings and also in achieving a thorough analysis of the subject. It increases the chances of success with its high end approval strategies (Bernardoet al. 2018).

  1. Psychology knowledge

A production process is largely affected by the human nature and its related psychologies. Thus inclining a more justified form of understanding is important for facilitating better reach and outbreak for the whole system.

  • Crosby’s theory

The Crosby's theory of quality management is influential in analysing the expenses and quality standards across the process of manufacturing. This theory suggests that any investment that is carried out across quality enhancement is a good investment. The funds allocated to quality improvising are directly invested to a better customer support and a significant design fragment that will definitely profit in the coming future (Heet al. 2018). There are specific set of absolutes that are important for a manufacturing process based on this particular theory discussed in the context of total quality management assignment. Firstly, define quality as a requirement. This absolute defines the importance of quality across the manufacturing sector. Secondly, application of preventive methods is the best form of approaches to avail better quality standards (Pugnaet al. 2016). Thirdly, this theory defines zero mistakes as the quality performance standard. And fourthly, the measurement of quality can be availed through the price of nonconformity. This theory is crucial for the acknowledgement of better-quality standards for the process of automobile sector manufacturing and management.

2.4. Different research techniques across relevant subjects
Majority of the researchers have concluded total quality management as an important segment across the automobile sector across different market conditions. And this factor also holds true due to the highly enhanced set of jurisdictions that have been promoted across the automobile sector with implementation of total quality management. However, there are some researches who have used the amount and extent of customer responses and appraisal techniques as the best measurement channel for analysing total quality management. According to the views of Yuen and Thai (2017), consideration of interaction effects among customer depict the optimized consumer satisfaction across a product or service. This technique was used to assess the usability factor that may or may not be exhibited by total quality management possibilities.

In addition to this there are research attributes mentioned in the total quality management assignment that signify the process of total quality management as a difficult commitment to achieve. The research suggests that achieving a wide ranged change across the quality attribute under total quality management requires high end and companywide commitments. These commitments are in many cases not feasible for the whole unit and thus any minor changes can ruin the entire performance plan at once. This will also enable the authorities to extend less impacts over the whole system of quality management. The research justifies the fact that in order to successfully allocate the provisions of quality management, there is a need for including all the levels of organizational management together. This particular requirement is not fulfilled in many cases and thus full advantage of this concept is not achieved.

2.5. Change Management and Automobile Part Manufacturing Industry
Change is an important aspect for any domain, especially when it develops something new. Change management is a process which is implemented across the organizations for adopting recent developments. The literature identifies change management from three different perspectives such as project management, infrastructure management and organizational. Hence, from all perspectives, it is clear in this section of total quality management assignment that the definition is, "a process which approves changes for budget, scope and project timeline; approval for new equipment; and adoption for change in organizations” (Perkins, 2018). Hence, change occurs whenever there is a need for new processes in a domain-oriented industry.

However, change management applies to automobile parts and its manufacturing companies across the UK. As per research study for 156 UK based automobile firms, it is benchmarking used as a form of performance and process evaluation technique to implement changes (Panwar et al., 2013). Henceforth, companies are open to adopting change management processes for obtaining better product quality.

In the manufacturing of automobile parts, engineering change management is implemented to make changes. Engineering change management can be described as modification made in structure, behaviour, and functions of automobile components (Kurdve et al., 2016). In other words, changes are performed in the designing of equipment as per requirements. Thus, change management is a consistent goal for a better and qualified product due to continuous improvements. Moreover, change management strategies are useful in total quality management and lean manufacturing processes.

Change Management Strategies
The change management strategies are implemented by the manufacturing companies to obtain systematic solutions. As per the readings used to prepare this total quality management assignment strategic change management is circular in organizations for making more significant changes without leading towards any project failures. Furthermore, strategic change offers modifications for the company's strategies such as scope, deployment of resources, and gaining competitive advantage (Ali Naghibi and Baban, 2011). Hence, in the case of developing automobile parts changes should be implemented for the scope as well as resources of automobile part development. Therefore, change management uses a strategic approach for the planning of modifications in an effective manner. As a result, strategic planning offers direction for development; purpose, identity and control for resources; and efficiency as well as competitive power (Bordum, 2010). Therefore, change management strategies are important to make products successful within manufacturing organizations in the UK.

As per existing literature utilized to prepare this total quality management assignment, strategic change management was implemented by manufacturing organizations through two specific models. John Kotter's Eight-Step model was launched in 1995, defining the vision to make certain changes in the organizations in a short-term goal (Pollack and Pollack, 2014). This model was highly productive and offered objectives to be fulfilled in terms of strategic planning. The eight steps of model include the creation of urgency; provide guidance for the coalition, identify an objective and strategy to be completed; offer communication for change vision to employees; empower people to follow change; complete short-term goals; identify gain; design new approaches (Appelbaum et al., 2012). This model is quite applicable to the automobile parts companies to plan improvement for products. The research of total quality management assignment reveals that the UK provides opportunities in terms of the automobile like modular manufacturing, digital trials, outsourcing, and flexible manufacturing system parts (Trimble et al., 2013).

Whereas another model implements the concept of strategic change management for the manufacturing domain. Kurt's Lewin's three-step model was developed in the year 1950 with processes like unfreeze, change and refreeze. According to this model for strategic change, the organization groups cannot exist in a steady-state. However, they are always moving so that new changes could be adopted smoothly (Cummings, Bridgman and Brown, 2015). In other words, unfreeze process describe that people should choose with the changes occurring in the manufacturing design of parts. Second, change is actual process where change is going to happen for the design and development of a product. Finally, unfreeze process makes people familiar with the new changes acquired in the engineering of automobile parts. Therefore, change management strategies includes models so that practical solutions with high-quality product are obtained.

The change management strategies are applicable to TQM and lean manufacturing processes. Total quality management is a useful measure which depicts a continuous process for improvement of product through employees and customer feedbacks must be followed. Hence, considering the analysis done in this context of total quality management assignment, it is clear that it offers opportunities to the organizations for continuous improvement in the automobile parts designing and engineering processes. It can be observed that change management is a vital source offered by TQM management strategies. As the demand for manufacturing of new automobile parts in the UK has been increased, it is highly important to focus on providing solutions so that higher quality result must be obtained.

The TQM process explored in this chapter of total quality management assignment offers different principles which apply to the manufacturing companies. The principles include – focus on customer services; employee involvement for delivery; must provide a process-centric solution; strategic approach; continuous improvement by making changes, and secure communication (White, 2019). Another implementation of change management includes Lean manufacturing process where solutions are offered when waste becomes minimum and productivity maximum. The TQM and Lean manufacturing both offer continuous change so that new changes in companies could be obtained simultaneously with technological innovations (Rehman, 2013). Hence, the change is vital and applies to TQM and lean manufacturing processes in the automobile domain.

Change Management Strategies for Total Quality Management Implementation
Total Quality Management is a process which focuses on offering improvised quality and performance for a product. Their main concern is to exceed the expectations of customers regarding a product. To achieve better quality, the metrics are aligned, such as quality design, quality control, improvements, and quality assurance. However, TQM is a very complex process and offers difficulties for manufacturing organizations to adopt. Therefore, change management is introduced so that people in the firms could adopt TQM process rapidly and reduce difficulties for remodelling and redesigning of a certain part. However, it important to understand different reasons which bring troubles for total quality management processes (Tiwari, 2018). The reasons will bring the requirement of change management model in the organizations.

One of the reasons illustrated in the context of total quality management assignment is a lack of management commitment towards performing processes inadequate manner — secondly, expectations of the part which are unrealistic and cannot be fulfilled to meet basic customer requirements. Third, the limited time frame for reconstruction makes total quality improvements completely inconsistent. Third, the cost for total quality management is much more and cannot be afforded by small scale organizations effectively. Lastly, failure to obtain sustainability in quality-oriented culture is another drawback. Therefore, after understanding all the consequences of TQM failure, one of the key solutions is a change management strategy (Mishra, 2013). The studies have depicted that the use of change management model offers a possible solution for being consistent. Kenya’s manufacturing firm Bamburi Limited applied change management strategy to adopt total quality management process by creating awareness and offering quality vision to develop cultural change (Keinan, and Karugu, 2018).The people will be made aware of changes through a systematic approach. It will lead towards no confusion and team of restructuring for manufacturing parts will be effective.

Lewis Kurt’s change management model is an effective way to improve total quality management processes. There are three steps in this model such as unfreezing, change and defreezing (Cummings, Bridgman, & Brown, 2015). In the first step mentioned in this total quality management assignment, management who are resisting change for the TQM process will be encouraged to gather current issues. The freeze stage will be executed by reaching the employee’s emotional side for implementing TQM as a more straightforward and better approach in automobile parts. After this step, now, management is completely ready for continuous change, and the change process will start where people could update their skills and seek new pieces of training by sharing a good rapport with customers. The last step is defreezing in which maintenance is obtained successfully.

Change Management Strategies for Lean Manufacturing Process Implementation within this total quality management assignment
The UK offers good economic revenue and demands an instrumental innovation for building new things. The automobile industry provides the most significant income to them for inventing new parts of vehicles. This constant pressure for creating some innovative brings the concept of lean manufacturing practises. However, lean manufacturing brings several adoption barriers for the organizations such as adoption conflict, cultural differences, health and safety issues as well as a misunderstanding for understanding the purpose of lean (Nordin et al., 2012).

Hence, lean manufacturing even if offers productivity benefit nobody wants to implement it in automobile manufacturing companies in the UK. Therefore, the requirement of change management strategy seems applicable so that culture and structure changes are implemented in the unpredictable environment successfully (Nordin et al., 2012). Thus, Kotter's eight-step model is offered as the desired strategy in the literature for change management.

As per one research study examined in this section of total quality management assignment after using Kotter's eight-step model manufacturing companies obtained some critical benefits like leader support, employee involvement, long term commitment, as well as a systematic lean deployment (Mishra, 2013). Each step defines a methodological approach for seeking the final lean manufacturing result whenever an innovation begins. Another study establishes culture emergent change model which offers solution for change management to lean manufacturing. Furthermore, the process includes shared vision with all the staff members followed by identifying basic rules of operations, as well as the alignment for staff to complete organization's necessary gaols (A. D. and D. J., 2017). Hence, the eight steps in context of total quality management assignment with lean manufacturing are applicable for organizational change.

3.0 Methodology:
3.1 Introduction:
This chapter of total quality management assignment will describe the methods that have been used for completing the research. In order to collect and analyse data from various resources, it is extremely essential to choose proper methods. In this aspect, this chapter will describe about the philosophy that has been selected for this research. Further, this chapter discussed within this total quality management assignment will include the description about research approach, research methods, data collection methods, sampling and analysis method that have been used for this research. This chapter will also provide an analysis about the research ethics and limitations regarding the methods that have been used.

3.2 Research philosophy:
Due to the fact that for this research, it was essential to collect the data based on realistic overview of the research topic, hence; positivism philosophy has been used. This philosophy has been useful for gaining factual knowledge from the resources that have been used for collecting the data. The main benefit of this philosophy is that the human experience can be used for gaining knowledge regarding the research topic (Sheikh and Sultana 2016). In this aspect, with the help of this philosophy, the factual data have been explained herein total quality management assignment with the help of logic.

3.3 Research approach:
For this research on total quality management assignment, deductive approach has been used. This is because; it was important to generate existing theories behind the data that have been collected. With the help of deductive approach, it has been possible to examine the existing theories from the data that have been collected from various resources. According to authors Fletcher (2017), deductive approach is a beneficial way by which a qualitative research can be conducted. Due to the fact that there have been abundant sources for this research, therefore; deductive approach has been considered to be suitable one to support the theories that have been used. The existing theories have been validated with the help of deductive approach used in this research.

3.4 Research design:
This research on total quality management assignment will follow a descriptive design based on detailed explanation and summary of all the data that would be collected. This design would help in gaining a detailed knowledge about the perceptions of the sources and also it will be possible to conduct a descriptive analysis of the collected data. Authors Hunter, MacCullum and Howes (2018) summarized that in case of qualitative research; descriptive design helps in analyzing the data in details and also provides the scope for explaining the theories behind the research. Data that have been collected from both primary and secondary resources thus can be analyzed with a detailed description which further will help in explaining the theories with perfection. These are the main reasons why a descriptive design has been chosen for this research.

3.5 Which research strategy is suitable in the context of total quality management assignment?
For this research on total quality management assignment, the strategy will be as such that an in-depth analysis could be conducted for all the data that have been collected. In this way, it will suit with the use of qualitative data for this research. Main focus of the study examined in the total quality management assignment will be on conducting an in-depth analysis regarding the use of lean management and total quality management for developing automobile parts in UK. In this aspect, interview technique will be used which will help in conducting the in-depth analysis in a better way. Qualitative method has been used for collecting both primary and secondary data. This is because with the help of qualitative data, it would be possible to conduct a detailed analysis in a better way. Authors Basias and Pollalis (2018) cited that qualitative method helps in analyzing the research data with a descriptive approach and also helps in analyzing the data in details. Moreover; in case of conducting an in-depth analysis on the case scenario of total quality management assignment, qualitative data would be more significant than quantitative data.

3.6 Methods of data collection:
Data have been collected from the primary as well as secondary resources. As discussed earlier in this total quality management assignment, qualitative methods have been used for collecting the data, therefore; the secondary data have been collected as detailed theories from the online articles and journals. Along with this, primary data have been collected by conducting an interview with 4 managers of 4 respective automobile parts manufacturing companies of UK. Participants for the interview have been selecting by approaching managers of 8 successful automobile parts manufacturing companies of UK. From them, 4 managers have agreed to participate in the interview and given their consent on the processes that were considered for conducting the interview. Nvivo tool has been used for collecting the data. This tool is extremely useful for analyzing qualitative data and for collecting data from close-ended interviews (Maher et al 2018). Mails were sent to them regarding the interview after taking permission from the human resource departments of the respective companies. Managers were made aware of the purpose of the interview and the ethical considerations that would be maintained while collecting data from them. This helped in taking their consent with ease. The interview questions undertaken in the total quality management assignment were based on open-ended answers and therefore; it has been possible to collect some detailed data as per the perceptions of the managers regarding the questions that have been asked (Guest et al 2017). Questions were based on the research objectives and the topic on the impact of total quality management and lean manufacturing for the automobile manufacturing companies of UK.

For the questions: Refer to appendix..

The answers were used for analyzing the perceptions of the participants of the interview and the results of the analysis were used as the findings of the research. Detailed discussions regarding the findings will be provided in the next chapter of this research. In case of secondary research, data have been taken from the online resources and have been analyzed in the literature review chapter of this research. Secondary data have been based on theories and research from other authors regarding the research topic (Gray 2019). The data that have been collected from the secondary resources in order to prepare this total quality management assignment have helped in understanding the impact of lean manufacturing and total quality management on the automobile parts manufacturing companies of UK.

3.7 Data sampling:
Data collected from the primary resources which are from the managers have been sampled separately. According to author Taherdoost (2016), simple random sampling technique helps in avoiding errors as well as biases while sampling the data collected from various sources. In this aspect, simple random sampling technique has been selected by which it has been possible to consider the overall data that have been collected. 4 different samples have been considered for analyzing the data. With the help of the simple random sampling technique, it has been possible to understand the variance in the collected data as well.

3.8 Data analysis:
Qualitative analysis technique has been used for this total quality management assignment. This method helped in analysing the data with a descriptive approach. The method of qualitative analysis also helped in conducting an in-depth analysis of the research data (Mohajan, 2018). In this aspect, for this research, content analysis method has been used for the qualitative data. With the help of this method, it has been possible to conduct an analysis on the behaviour and the perceptions of the participations of the interview. Therefore; analysis has been made in the context of total quality management assignment with the sampled data and a detailed result of the analysis will be highlighted in the next chapter of this research.

3.9 Justification of the methodology:
The methodology that has been chosen would help in conducting a thorough analysis of the data. Due to the fact that it is important to have a detailed description about the perception of the people associated with the automotive parts manufacturing in UK, hence; qualitative data and interview technique would be extremely useful for this research (Kallio et al 2016). According to authors Kim, Sefcik and Bradway (2017), it is noted herein total quality management assignment that in case of descriptive analysis of data and for using a deductive approach, qualitative method is more beneficial than quantitative or mixed methods in research. Moreover; the design and approach that have been used for collecting data to prepare this total quality management assignment would help in meeting with the requirements of conducting a qualitative analysis. In the case of selecting the participants for the interview, importance has been given on choosing those stakeholders who have significant knowledge regarding the industry and the techniques that have been discussed. Authors Androniceanu (2017) highlighted that in case of implementing TQM in business contexts, it is always important to have a thorough knowledge and experience about it. In this aspect, for the interview, those professionals have been chosen who have the relevant knowledge about the process of TQM and lean manufacturing. For collecting data from the secondary resources, it has been ensured that only the up to date and relevant resources are considered. This method helped in choosing the articles and journals without difficulties. Therefore; the overall method that was used for the research on total quality management assignment has been justified and the benefits of the method have been highlighted as well.

3.10 Limitations of the methodology:
Although the methods that were chosen for the research on the total quality management assignment have been effective, however; there are some limitations with these as well. First of all, only qualitative data have been considered for the research. This is mainly due to the fact that the focus of the research has been to collect descriptive data regarding the topic (Quieros, Faria and Almeida 2017). However; it would have been better if some statistical data regarding the past and current scenario on utilization of lean manufacturing process and total quality management in the automobile parts manufacturing companies of UK would have been assessed. Those statistical data analysed to prepare this total quality management assignment would have justified the methodology and would have made it for useful. Moreover; focus was to collect data from managers of at least 8 automobile parts manufacturing companies of UK for ensuring that a significant volume of information would have been analyzed. However; it has been possible to include managers of only 4 companies which have resulted in the collection of limited data for the research. Despite of the limited data collected for the research on total quality management assignment, it has been ensured that important information has been collected for conducting a detailed analysis for the research. Due to this process, it has been possible to use the analysis technique with perfection.

3.11 Ethical considerations for data collection herein total quality management assignment:
In terms of collecting data from primary resources, some ethical requirements have been considered. First of all, the participants of the interview were made clear regarding the purpose and requirements of the data. Further; they have been assured about the confidentiality of their personal information as well as other data (Rahman 2017). A signed consent has been taken from the participants regarding their participation in the interview. Transparency has been made regarding the method of communication and data collection. After collection of the data, the information has been kept in a confidential storage system with passwords. This ensured that the data have been kept secured from the access of any unauthorized individual. During analysis of the primary data, the personal information of the participants was kept secret and it has been decided that the data would be disposed securely after 2 years from the completion of the research. In terms of collecting the secondary data for this total quality management assignment, it has been ensured that the original information has not been modified and the references of the authors and their articles have been included. Moreover; the issue of plagiarism has been avoided by the researcher while developing this total quality management assignment during the analysis of the secondary data. It was the responsibility of the researchers to maintain the basic ethics while conducting this research successfully.

3.12 Conclusion:
In this chapter of total quality management assignment, a detailed summary of the research methods and their justification has been provided. Along with this, descriptions have been made within this total quality management assignment regarding the proper utilization of the methods for the research. Discussions have been made regarding the method of data collection, sampling and analysis. Moreover; the data collection technique and its benefits for this research have been summarized in this chapter as well. Then, the limitations and the ethical considerations for this research on total quality management assignment have been highlighted in details.

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Appendix:
5 questions have been selected for the interview. The questions that have been asked to the 4 managers are:

  1. What are the current strategies your company has implemented for manufacturing the automobile parts?
  2. What are the challenges your company is facing while manufacturing the automobile parts?
  3. What are your opinions on using lean manufacturing process for manufacturing the automobile parts?
  4. What are your opinions on using total quality management for manufacturing the automobile parts?
  5. According to your perceptions, what strategies of change management should be used for implementing total quality management and lean manufacturing process for the automobile parts manufacturing companies?
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