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Human Resource Management Assignment: Theoretical Understanding Of HRM

Question

Task:
You are required to submit a 2500 word report on human resource management assignment demonstrating your theoretical understanding of the topics as well as your understanding of why this is important in organisations. You should choose three topics to focus on for this report. Your choice of topics can be based on a range of factors including those which are linked most closely to your future employability goals; those which you have enjoyed studying; or those which you think are most important in today’s organisations

Answer

Introduction
The theoretical understandings of human resource management are important to develop ideas about the importance of each factor. The key purpose of human resource management assignment is to reflect on the theoretical understandings of the module learnings. Among the ten topics of the module, three topics are selected for the report. The topics are learning and development, performance management and employee relations. Based on the three topics the report will be focused on, the theoretical lessons from the topics and their importance in an organizational context are also discussed. The importance of the three selected topics for my future employability is also discussed in the context. The report mainly includes three parts, and in each part, each selected topic is discussed. Based on the three selected topic, the important factors from the topics that are important for an organization are also discussed.

Learning and development
Learning and development are crucial things in an organization that aligns the goals and performance of the employees with the organizational goal. The learning and development cycle includes four steps that ensure effective design and implementation of the learning and development programme. The four steps are- training and learning need analysis, design and development of the related interventions, delivery of the interventions and evaluation of the interventions. The learning and development topic of the module provides crucial information about the importance of adequate learning and development approaches. The key theoretical models that are presented in the topic are key theoretical approaches to learning and development, Kolb's learning cycle, Honey & Mumford's learning style, and types of on the job and off-job training approaches. The role of technology to improve learning approaches is also discussed. The learning and development opportunities are beneficial for both employees and the organization. Training is a crucial part of learning and development, which is an opportunity for the employees to improve their knowledge. There are many benefits of effective learning and development opportunity for employees. . It improves the performance of the employees by providing them with a better understanding of the job role and responsibilities.

Effective learning and development opportunity allow the organization to address the weakness of the employees. For example, the learning and development cycle includes four stages, and the first stage is the need analysis of the employees, which includes the assessment of the employees about their strengths, weaknesses and skills. Based on the need analysis, the learning and development interventions are implemented, and the employees are provided with the necessary training. Effective training ensures the performance of the employees and reduces employee turnover. Overall, it improves the productivity of the employees as well as the organization . There are different types of training implemented for employees based on learning needs and performance efficiency. Career development opportunities are one of the crucial things that an employee looks for while working in an organization. Career development opportunity has a direct relation with the employees' retention as it allows the employees to learn more about their job responsibilities and helps them to carry out their activities effectively . Learning and development opportunity in an organization increases job satisfaction and assures the chance of employee retention.

The learning and development chapter of the module provides detailed information on certain theoretical models such as Honey and Mumford learning style, Kolb's learning style and other theoretical models related to learning style. The different theories related to learning stole provides crucial aspects about the different type of learners and the suitable approach that can be implemented to address their training needs. In the context of Kolb's learning cycle and styles, there are four types of learners- activists, theorists, reflectors and pragmatists. . The activists learn better from practical tasks rather than theories, so the best suitable learning activities for them are problem-solving simulations, games, challenging tasks, etc. The theorists learn from hand-outs that can help them to take away and study. The suitable activities for the reflectors are the activities where they can learn from observation, passive involvement, and interaction with others. The Pragmatists learns from shortcuts and tops that are related to their jobs, relatable to successful role model and the learning can be transferred to their jobs. The learning and development is important for current organizational scenario, in which lack of adequate training or improper training acts as a reason behind low job satisfaction and not able to meet the expected goals by the employees.

The questionnaire developed by Honey and Mumford reflects on the learning styles that are developed by an individual over the years, and it helps to find out the suitable learning style of the individual. The theoretical approaches and models related to learning and development help to come up with the best training solutions for the employees. The key on the job training that is implemented by organizations is instructions based training, self-directed learning, mentoring, coaching, self-directed learning and job rotation. On the other hand, the off job methods are role plays, seminars, outdoor training, workshops, and business simulations. The training programs are conducted based on the job role, organizational goals and learning needs of the employees.

Performance management
Performance management ensures better performance of employees, job retention, improvement of productivity, and ensures better team outcomes. The benefits of performance management can be classified into three types- benefits for employees, manager and organization. The learnings from performance management reflect on the importance of performance management and performance appraisal. Performance management and performance appraisal are crucial things that improve the performance of the employees and ensure job retention . There are severe things in performance management that ensures better performance of the employees, such as performance assessment, employee motivation, reward and recognition, appraisal system, and employee engagement. The effective training and motivation approach was undertaken by the organization to boost employee engagement that encourages the employees to work better and produces better results. Increasing employee engagement boosts productivity. Adequate performance management also provides crucial information about the employees, which are helpful for developing employee performance-related strategies.

The engagement of managers is important as the employees working under the managers follows the instructions of the managers or team leaders and expects their support and guidance for better results. If the managers are not properly involved in the development of the employees, then it may affect the performance of the individual or the group performance. The performance management chapter provides crucial reflections on performance appraisal. Performance appraisal is basically the periodic assessment of the employee performance, and the feedback is provided to the employees according to the performance. Based on the employee appraisal system in an organization, the bonuses, salary increase, promotion and termination related decisions are made. Performance appraisals are conducted semi-annual, annual or quarterly basis. Performance appraisal system ensures fair treatment to the employees based on their growth and development in the organization. Ineffective performance appraisal can cause major problems such as increasing employee turnover, poor performance, work burnout, less job satisfaction and conflict among employees. A good performance appraisal system allows the organization to assess the performance of the employees based on which future decisions are made. The UK employers are facing problems to recruit and the employees because finding the suitable candidate who can retain for long became an issue. The problem is mainly faced by the retail, hospitality and catering & leisure companies. There are severe issues that caused to this problem such as low payment, long working hours, slow career growth. Due to these reasons employees are leaving their jobs. To address this issue, the role of performance management is important.

The performance appraisal and job satisfaction are related to each other; if the employees are satisfied with the performance appraisal system, then there are less many chances of employee retention. Low employee retention causes more expenses in the training and recruitment activities. Hence, retaining employees is the best way to control the cost of recruitment and training. To retain the employees and create positive employee engagement, performance appraisal plays significant role . There are severe performance appraisal approaches that improve the performance of the employees. They are 360-degree feedback, management by objectives, assessment centre method, behaviorally anchored rating scale, psychological appraisals, etc. Each of the approaches works differently from the other. The approaches include both advantage and disadvantages. The implementation of the appraisal method should be based on the organizational goal and the way it aims to improve its employees’ performance.

Performance appraisal is important for employees as they can realize their strengths and weaknesses and can work on their skills. The performance appraisal results help to identify the gap between the expected and actual performance of the employees. In many organizations, the performance appraisals system is not adequate, and the employees are not rewarded, promoted or get benefits as per their hard work . In such a situation, there are chances of increasing work burnout, which leads to low retention of employees. Biased behaviour in the appraisal system also creates problems as the employees do not get the benefits that they are eligible for. Hence, an effective and fair appraisal system is important for better productivity and employee retention. The key things that should be focused on while developing appraisal based strategies are- feedback on the employees’ performance, development opportunities for the employees, rewards and benefits, and growth opportunities for the employees. While developing the strategies related to performance appraisal and implementation of the approaches, the current requirement of the organization needs to be assessed.

Employee relations
Effective employee relations increases the productivity of the organization, assures good relations between the employer and the employee, reduces the chance of conflicts and increases employee retention. Employee relation depends on the workplace culture and rules about how the organization treats their employees. . The employee relations chapter of the module is selected for the report as it is important for an organization to maintain better relationships with the employees. The employee relations chapter identifies key theories related to employee relation, factors affecting employee relation and the role of a trade union, ideas about positive and negative employee relations. Traditional employee relation theory indicates four types of employee-employer relation- pluralist, egoist, unitarist and critical. The pluralist type of relation means the employee and employer are always in competition, whereas the unitarist indicates the two parties have a common interest. The egoist relation is based on the competitive labour market, and critical means employment held unequal power of relationship. The employment relations based on four key factors, and they are employee communication, employee involvement, employee discipline and employee rights. The chapter is important as in the current context; organizations are failing to meet the needs of the employees due to which the employees are leaving their jobs. Hence, providing more flexible working condition and formalised career paths are the options to maintain positive employees’ relations. The organizations need to work more on building good relations with the employees.

Positive employee relations can ensure many benefits for the organization, such as increased productivity, little conflict, high retention of employees, strong recruitment, and increased volunteerism. On the other hand, negative employee relation decreases cross-collaboration, reduces productivity, causes lower morale of employees, high turnover, and increases conflicts . Strong employee relations can be maintained by severe ways such as motivating the employees, setting proper goals for them, increasing employee engagement and improving training methods. Harmonious employment relationship increases efficiency and leads to higher productivity. In this context, employee motivation and engagement plays a key role. If the employees are motivated towards their work and feel engaged with their workplace, then it will lead to positive outcomes. On the other hand, if the employees are not feel motivated with their work, then it will affect their performance as well as the productivity of the organization.

Good employee relations assures better job satisfaction of the employees and encourages them to work better in the existing organization, which reduces the chance of shifting jobs. Poor employee relations affect the overall productivity of the organization and create conflict between the employer and the employee. If the employees are really satisfied with their work and positively motivated for their work, it means there is more chance of creating loyal employees for the organization. The work environment also helps to develop positive employee relations. Positive employee relations are managed by employee engagement strategies, improving the workplace culture, learning and development opportunity for the employees and improving the growth opportunities for the employees. The key elements of positive employee relations are trust, good communications, ethical approach, clear expectations, belief and perception management and conflict resolution. Positive employee relations are a crucial thing that should be focused on by every organization to ensure better productivity and to retain the employees.

The employee relation is a crucial thing to understand by the managers and team leaders along with the organization. Employee engagement plays a key role in employee relations, so the managers and team leaders need to implement effective strategies that can engage the employees in work through various activities. Active participation and the role of an individual in the decision making also increase the engagement of the employees as they feel more prioritized by the organization. in many organizations, the employees are given various types of benefits apart from their base salary, which acts as a motivational factor and improves the performance of the employees . Such strategies can also be considered as a part of employee relation as it helps to maintain a positive relationship with the employees. Higher productivity lead by better employee relations increases the revenue of an organization, as the performance of the employee's increases due to good relation and engagement with the organization. There are five ways to boost workplace productivity through internal communications, and they are knowledge sharing, facilitation of innovation, focus on problem-solving, employee engagement and encouraging open discussions.

Conclusion
Based on the above discussions on the three topics, it can be said that learning and development, performance management and employee relations are important in the context of an organization. The reports reflect on the three topics and their importance based on the module learning, importance for organization and relevancy to my career. My career path is based on customers' service, where employee performance is a crucial thing. The learning and development of the employees play a significant role to provide better services to the customers. If the employees are satisfied with the work as well as the work environment, then the chance of employee retention is higher. Employee relation is another thing that is important for an organization, and it is related to the performance management and learning & development of the employees. In the skill framework attached in the appendix, the key knowledge gathered from the module learnings is discussed, and the relevancy of the three topics with my personal skills is also mentioned.

References
Ali M, Lei S, and Wei X, 'The Mediating Role Of The Employee Relations Climate In Therelationship Between Strategic HRM And Organizational Performancein Chinese Banks' (Reader.elsevier.com, 2017) accessed 10 May 2021

Educational Settings; Role Of Human Resource Development Practitioners' (D1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net, 2018) accessed 10 May 2021

Chaubey D, Mishra N, and Dimri D, 'ANALYSIS OF EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT AND ITS IMPACT ON JOB SATISFACTION' (researchgate.net, 2017) accessed 10 May 2021

Hassan W and others, 'The Effect Of Training On Employee Retention' (Globaljournals.org, 2013) accessed 10 May 2021

Hearn S, 'Why Is Performance Management Important? | Clear Review' (Clear Review, 2018) accessed 10 May 2021

Jhansi K, and Rambabu V, 'EMPLOYEE AND EMPLOYEE RELATIONS' (Jisps.net, 2021) accessed 10 May 2021

Kamalaveni M, Ramesh S, and Vetrivel T, '(PDF) A REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON EMPLOYEE RETENTION' (ResearchGate, 2019) accessed 10 May 2021

Naji A, Mansour J, and Leclerc A, 'Performance Appraisal System And Employee Satisfaction: The Role Of Trust Towards Supervisors'' (Jhrmls.com, 2015) accessed 10 May 2021

Sheeba M, and Christopher P, 'EXPLORING THE ROLE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN CREATING INNOVATIVE WORK BEHAVIORS AND ACCOMPLISHING NON-ROUTINE COGNITIVE JOBS FOR ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS' (Jcreview.com, 2020) accessed 10 May 2021

Singh A, and Shukla T, 'Role Of Training And Development On Work Proficiency: Employee Perspective' (researchgate.net, 2018) accessed 10 May 2021

Appendix
Personal Skills Framework

Weekly Reflection – Lecture; seminar activity; wider reading; independent study

Target Role/Industry (This could be for placement or post-graduation):

 

1. Human Resource Management in Context  200 word limit

What new knowledge did you gain and which skills did you develop this week?

How does this knowledge and/or skills relate to your future career goals?

2. Strategic Human Resource Management 200 word limit

What new knowledge did you gain and which skills did you develop this week?

How does this knowledge and/or skills relate to your future career goals?

3. Recruitment and Selection 200 word limit

What new knowledge did you gain and which skills did you develop this week?

How does this knowledge and/or skills relate to your future career goals?

4. Learning and Development 200 word limit

What new knowledge did you gain and which skills did you develop this week?

 

Learning and Development (L&D) is an essential process for the individual which sharpens human behavior and conduct in personal and organizational aspects. I got knowledge about Honey & Mumford's learning styles and Kolb”s learning cycle. Honey Mumford”s style offered me a better understanding of myself and my learning style through various questionnaires. Kolb”s learning cycle gave me knowledge about four types of learners that is activist, theorist, reflectors, and pragmatists.

The skills that I develop are being analytical, cautious, think smartly and logically, and being a keen observer. I got the skill of using technologies like social media and E-learning for the learning process for skill development.

How does this knowledge and/or skills relate to your future career goals?

 

Honey Mumford's learning style helped me to know my activist's characteristics like being open-minded, enthusiastic, being flexible, and always ready for new experiences. These are some of the important characteristics that will help me in my future career goals to work in the customer service department. Being flexible and open-minded will allow me to work under any circumstances, work with different customers, and know their needs. Analytical and logical skills can help me to face different circumstances and work efficiently.  Technologies help to connect with people and to understand their needs. Thus, the use of social media and technological learning skills shall help to connect with people.

5. Managing Absence and Health 200 word limit

What new knowledge did you gain, and which skills did you develop this week?

How does this knowledge and/or skills relate to your future career goals?

6. Total Reward 200 word limit

What new knowledge did you gain and which skills did you develop this week?

How does this knowledge and/or skills relate to your future career goals?

7. Performance Management 200 word limit

What new knowledge did you gain and which skills did you develop this week?

Performance management is beneficial for employees, managers, and organizations. For the employees, its raises self-esteem and helps to know the strength and weakness of each employee. It helped me to know that performance of the employees can be increased by motivation and rewards.   Performance management helps in the overall development and management of the business performance in the market. Measurement of performance is essential for the improvement of the performance. The skills which I have developed are to supervise and guide people for better functioning. It also helped me empower, motivate, constructive criticism, attentiveness, and decision-makingdecision-making skills development.

How does this knowledge and/or skills relate to your future career goals?

The knowledge about raising self-esteem and to identify strengths and weaknesses will help me to know my abilities to work and cooperate with people and to deliver more effectiveness with patience and empathy.  Motivation always improves efficiency and skills; thus, it can help my future carer goal of customer service. Being constructive will help me offer better performance measurement to my co-workers and workers under me better. The ability to listen to customers and employees is important to offer better services in my future career. It is also significant to be attentive and mindful of the feedback received from the customers.

8. Employee Relations 200 word limit

What new knowledge did you gain and which skills did you develop this week?

Employee Relation (ER) is an important aspect of is functioning of any business or firm. There are positive as well as negative Employee Relations. Positive ER is beneficial, and it offers better productivity and efficiency in the firm.  Communication is a key element to a better ER. There are different kinds of employee relations like unitarist, pluralist, and critical. The skills I have developed this week are problem-solving skills in conflict situations, using positive communication skills to understand the problem, being resourceful, and using a methodical approach.  Employees Relations helps to build skillful and effective employees in the firm.  Thus, positive communication and motivation help to unite the employee to work under the same firm.

How does this knowledge and/or skills relate to your future career goals?

 

The knowledge of better communication helps me for problem-solving in customer care services. The ability to clear and good communication is a major skill as miscommunication can lead to frustration and disappointment.  The better customer service workers know the way to communicate with customers will simple and understandable language. A methodical approach is essential for better communication which will lead to better employee relations in the firm. In the customer service firm, rush leads to waste. The organized and systematic approach will help in fulfilling the needs of the customers. Being creative and resourceful will always help to counter the problem in more fun and clever way. Thus, it is essential in the customer services sector to be more friendly and creative to fulfill the customer demands and to fulfill the firms objectives.

 

 

9. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion 200 word limit

What new knowledge did you gain and which skills did you develop this week?

How does this knowledge and/or skills relate to your future career goals?

 

 

10. Future Challenges in Human Resource Management 200 word limit

What new knowledge did you gain and which skills did you develop this week?

How does this knowledge and/or skills relate to your future career goals?

Objective Setting – What would you like to develop further?

SMART Objective Number One 150 word limit

 

Reading the physical and emotional cues of customers is one of the important skills which I would like to develop further. The skill development process will be of 3 months. The process of skill development will start with communications with various customers and people and to know their needs properly and to develop attentiveness skills also. Firstly, ten customers can be selected with different fields and needs. The face to face communication has to be done by asking about their needs personally.  Mass communication also has to be performed like seminars for having attentiveness tests. Thus the three months of practices will help to develop to know the customers' needs and demands properly. As customers cannot always convey their problems and want properly, it is essential to have this skill to properly understand the customers. Being attentive will help to understand each behaviour, physical and emotional cues of customers and to analyze it for the services

SMART Objective Number Two 150 word limit

My second goal is to expand my career in customer service management, which means a managerial role in an organization. To follow this goal, I require experience in the customer service field, so I am planning to experience in the retail sector as it includes direct communication with the customers. It will be a great opportunity for me to start my career and will help me learn many things about customer service management. Currently, I am working on my teamwork skill, communication skill and time management skill. To enhance the skills, o am planning to take some online courses to learn about the skills, so it will take 4-6 months.

SMART Objective Number Three 150 word limit

 For my long-term goal, I am planning to build up my leadership skill and aiming to gain more knowledge about performance management and employee relations. There are severe online courses related to performance management; hence, taking an online course is an effective way to learn about things quickly. For employee relations, the help of journal article and relevant books are an effective way to gain more knowledge about employee relations. After 2-3 years of job experience, my aim is to get promoted with managerial responsibilities in the same organization, or I will shift to another organization if I get a better opportunity. To obtain this goal, I will work on my previous two goals and enhance my leadership skill and knowledge related to customer service.

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