Report On Tesla Organizational Structure
Collectively, technological disruptions are seen as very significant drivers of industrial change. Among these, growth in cheap computing power and the ubiquity of the mobile internet have already had widespread impact on existing business models. Demographic and socio-economic shifts are expected to have nearly as strong an impact on business models and Organisational structures as technological change. Application of technology has already changed when and where work is done in practically every industry as workplaces of the industrial age give way to work practices of the digital age, including work, flexible work and on-demand work.
This task requires you to develop a ‘Socio-economic and legal assessment Report’ by choosing an organisation from the list of 25 ‘disruptive brands’ available here:- http://fabrikbrands.com/25-disruptive-brands/
Your report should include the following aspects:
1. Executive Summary: You should summarize your entire report briefly (hopefully on no more than one page of A4 paper). [5 Marks]
2. Introduction: Provide some background information on the chosen case study organisation and identify the socio-economic trends which affect the chosen organisation’s business model. [15 Marks]
3. Literature Review on Knowledge economy and various drivers of economic change: You should conduct a review of relevant academic literature and provide a critical analysis of the current issues/concepts that are relevant to your chosen organisation. To achieve this, you must explore macro-economic dimensions of business, knowledge economy concepts, demographic and socio-economic shifts, and technological drivers of change to support your review of the knowledge economy and the drivers of economic changes with regard to the chosen organisation. Your literature review should include at least 6-8 articles taken from reputed research journals/ article publications, as well as in addition consider any other secondary literature reports which might also be nonacademic. [25 Marks]
4. Impact of legal framework and political factors: In this section, you should critically evaluate the legal frameworks and their implications on your chosen organisation’s current and future position. A critical evaluation of the organisation’s political factors and their influence on management and its dynamics. Therefore, the focus of this section needs to be on:
(1) The influence of Political factors in the economic growth and future development of your chosen organisation. [5 Marks]
(2) The long-term implications for the sector of your chosen organisation. [5 Marks]
(3) A review of the formal and informal legal systems and anti-trust laws and their impact on the chosen organisation’s industry [5 Marks]
5. Conclusions and Recommendations: You should summarize the main findings, including their implications, and provide recommendations for the organisation and its industry in coping with these realities. [10 Marks]
6. References: You should use the Harvard Referencing System (HRS) correctly throughout in your report. [5 Marks] The report shall not exceed 5,000 words and should include relevant examples and illustrations.
The assignment emphasizes on the socio-economic and legal environment associated with the Tesla organizational structure. It deals with the critical analysis of the knowledge economy and various drivers of the economic changes. The economic changes discussed in the article are mainly concerned with its impacts on the business management of the organization. It also deals with the legal and political framework that is involved in the Tesla organizational structure influencing its business processes. It includes the impacts caused by the political factors within the business management of the organization facilitating economic growth and development. It also includes a clear understanding of the long-term implications of the organizational sectors. The article emphasizes various factors related to the formal and informal aspects of the law associated with the Tesla organizational structure. It also portrays the impacts of the anti-trust laws within the industrial orientation of the organization. It emphasizes on the ethical dilemma of the organization in economic and legal terms. It focuses on developing a better understanding of the aspects of socio-economic and legal resiliencies that are to be adopted within the business management of the company. It aims to provide a base for decision-making and proper strategically planning of the policymakers and business stakeholders for reflecting their approaches for supporting the business improvement of the organization.
The company possesses a U-form functional Tesla organizational structure. It supports the continuous growth of the business. The Tesla organizational structure that is corporate is designed by defining the interactive patterns of the elements of the organization in terms of the socio-economic and legal aspects. In analyzing the business processes of the selected company, the Tesla organizational structure is molded by a traditional form along with the consideration of its managerial emphasis on the limited expansion of its operation within the international market of the economy (MacDuffie, 2018). The major principles of economics featuring the distinguishing growth of business within the organization cover the aspect of opportunity costs and their role in analyzing the choices of decision-making. It also includes maximization of the consequences in terms of profitability and productivity for bringing into changes in the activity levels of the company.
The economic interpretation of the Tesla organizational structure involves the analysis of making choices for achieving various goals related to the improvement of the organization. It helps to deal with confronting the scarcity of resources in the production choice. It is mainly concerned with the construction of a possibility curve of production. The legal factors associated with the economic conditions and proper maintenance of the principles of the professional firm of Tesla are associated with the laws related to the increase of opportunity in the production processes (de Vries, et al., 2017).
The Tesla organizational structure is associated with the legal aspects to improve its business processes through the proper maintenance of the ethical code of conduct by following a series of rules, regulations, and norms. It leads to the political engagement of the organization as government intervention plays an important role. The government decides certain rules and regulations which the organization is expected to follow to achieve development. Also, the political factors influence the organization’s capability for establishing a well-connected relationship with its suppliers and investors.
2. Literature review of the knowledge economy and various drivers of economic changes influencing business activities
According to the macro-economic factors of the Tesla organizational structure within their business, the knowledge economy involves individual countries and levels of technological development. It also includes the size of the economy of the country, contributions to the GDP of the country, vitality of the economic exchange rates, and the present state of production level in economic development (Øversveen, et al., 2017). The drivers of economic changes influencing the business activities of the Tesla group are considered from three aspects. They are innovations in technology, aspects of socio-economy, and aspects of demography.
Technological innovations of the company
The Tesla organizational structure contributes to the market of the economy and technological innovation through the production of automobiles and their electric vehicle cleaning energy (Varkkey, et al., 2018). It is concerned with the manufacturing of electric vehicles, energy battery storage, and the acquisition of solar panels, SolarCity, and the manufacturing of solar roof tiles. The technological innovations in the Tesla organizational structure are represented through its manufacturing of electric cars that are defined within the expectations of the consumers. The company is committed to producing distinct vehicles by incorporating world-changing factors of technology and production of fast batteries that aim to sustainable charging.
Economic aspects of the company
The economic aspects of the Tesla organizational structure introduce sustainable financial conditions through keeping its mission of global transformation of transportation and energy production to the market-centric evaluation by the support of customer engagements and board campaigns. It also includes direct marketing to enthusiastic customers along with lacking reliable dealers for watering down the high opportunities of energy (de Vries, et al., 2017). It helps to keep the business motivation of the company to a high extent. It includes the building out as a new infrastructure of energy at stations of the supercharger to make the owners of the company comfortable in traveling long distances and boost an important uptake in its line of production.
Social aspects of the company
The social aspects of the Tesla organizational structure are associated with legal and political factors that are to be followed by the ethical code of the company to maintain certain norms and regulations. The legal factors are concerned with the security litigation related to the financial statements of the SolarCity's guidance. It also includes security litigation related to the acquisition of SolarCity and settlement with SEC for the potential transaction for going private. It is involved with the regulations of worker’s safety and the retaliation of whistleblowers.
The business model of the company
The Tesla organizational structure bets on the agility than the hierarchical corporate structure of Tesla organizational structure for gaining an advantage over its huge market competitors. It operates with a style of management eliminating communication barriers providing free access of its employees to the executive team for shared ideas and the possibility of beneficial incorporations of strategy. The company gives importance to problem-solving and its dependency on the efficacy of communication. It deals with potential hierarchies for preventing the proper flow of knowledge (Uraev, et al., 2016). The efficiency of the Tesla organizational structure immensely lies within the adoption of a corporatized structure in which there is lesser hierarchical friction. The employees of the companies are provided with encouragement for creating flexibility in culture by supporting flexible communication. Such Tesla organizational structure brings into solutions for forwarding in the business market through quicker integration.
The company of Tesla is best known for its CEO Elon Musk and his charismatic vision for producing high-quality and affordable electric vehicles (Taha, 2017). The vehicles of Tesla are massively popular although the company faces a lot of difficulty for cracking the nut for its analysts and investors. It is because of the distinctive business model of Tesla integrates various perspectives for automated making of hardware suppliers and a technology-based company.
Instead of manufacturing mass-produced affordable car market, it emphasized on the creation of a compelling car (Välikangas, 2018). According to the CEO of the company, if the company targeted mass-marketed production it would be impossible for them for achieving a startup business with one iteration of technology and no sales of the economy. They targeted manufacture sports cars with alternatives to gasoline. The first high-performance sports car having electric luxury along with 2500 roadsters were sold in the year 2012 by the company. after the establishment of its brand, the company of Tesla delivered and produced concept cars to the industrial market for reinforcing its business model.
The Tesla organizational structure introduces three approaches like direct sales, service, and supercharging network (Röth, et al., 2018). The company uses direct sales for creating international networking of its galleries and showrooms in the most prominent centers of urbanized countries. The company owns the channel of sales for gaining advantageous speeding in its product developmental factors. It enhances the purchase experiences of its customers portraying zero conflict of interest. The company owns 429 locations all over the world involving its combined services and retailing facilities. It also introduced digital marketing through which the opportunity costs are maximized to a higher extent.
The services of the Tesla organizational structure are combined with several centers of sales. The service centers are associated with increased correspondence towards its customer preferences. Also, technological incorporation and digital marketing schemes had brought into several aspects of customer satisfaction leading to the overall improvement of the company in economic terms (Prudskiy, et al., 2017). The model S introduced by the company can upload data wirelessly so that the technicians can have a view on the ways through which a problem can be fixed. It introduced Tesla rangers or the employees of the company who can repair or fix any problem from the house without even touching the actual car.
The Tesla organizational structure created its networking of stations enhancing supercharging places. The stations are places where the drivers can charge their vehicles at a full extent in nearly 30 minutes, and that too without a single fee (Ohotina, et al., 2018). The buildings behind the premises of the particular charging stations are intended to speed up the production rating of the electric cars. The company cannot charge while the cars are on a drive already. They acquire gasoline for that purpose. Electric cars are faced with a large crisis for getting adopted by the mass (Teece, 2018). The company continues to plan in adding supercharging stations in the countries of Europe, Asia, and the United States.
3. Impact of the legal framework and political factors
3.1 Influence of political factors in the growth of the economy and development of the organization
The Tesla organizational structure has to deal with a series of political factors in its growth and development of the economy. It leads to the political engagement of the organization as government intervention plays an important role. The government decides certain rules and regulations which the organization is expected to follow to achieve development. Also, the political factors influence the organization's capability for establishing a well-connected relationship with its suppliers and investors (Mbagwu, 2018). They are associated with the economic conditions and proper maintenance of the principles of the professional firm of Tesla is associated with the laws related to the increase of opportunity in the production processes. The analysis of strategic management within the company determines the impacts of the macro-economic environments of the industry in dealing with political aspects.
The analysis of strategic management within the company identifies the impacts of government on the business processes of the remote or macro-economic environment of the Tesla organizational structure (Guesmi & Gil, 2018). The entities of government within the major forces of society affect the industrial sectors of the company of Tesla along with their international establishment of marketing. As to cite an example, it can be said that the company's trade policies can limit the overall performances of the internal industry of the company's economic extension. It brings into a large effect on the annual revenue of the company along with several changes within its managerial department. In the external analysis of the macro-environmental case of the company, certain political factors are significant to the company's industrial operations regarding energy and automobile solutions.
The political factors influencing Tesla organizational structure in terms of expanding the business processes are new agreements of international trade and a stable political majority in industrial markets. it also includes the incentives provided by the government for the improvement of the electric vehicles (Gubanova & Kleshch, 2017). The factors act as an opportunity that must be nourished and nurtured by the Tesla organizational structure to achieve its desired targets and expand its economic growth factor within the business processes.
The Tesla organizational structure possesses an opportunity for strengthening its performance in financial terms. It can achieve such orientation through the gaining of appropriate incentives from the government. The external factors are directly linked with the minimization of the emission of carbon particles formed due to the production processes of the company. The operations and products of the company are analyzed to determine the expansion of free trading agreements for opening up opportunities for the organization. It supports an expansion of the international operations of the Tesla organizational structure. On the other hand, the company of Tesla is intended to engage in the political way of attaining stability of the essential industrial markets for making the remote or macro-economic environmental factors that are favorable to support the generic strategically approaches (Baiyegunhi, et al., 2016). It introduces the company’s strategically competitiveness in intensive strategically growth factors. It also includes the penetration of markets at an international level. The political factors affecting the external macroeconomic conditions of the Tesla organizational structure present various opportunities for the company's growth for improving their business related to automotive processes.
The Tesla organizational structure also includes direct marketing to enthusiastic customers along with lacking reliable dealers for watering down the high opportunities for energy (Thomas & Maine, 2019). It helps to keep the business motivation of the company to a high extent. It deals with the effects of the political environment, and its impact on the economy for gaining risk mitigation through political stability and anti-trust laws (Chauhan, et al., 2019). The political environment within a country affects the organization's business processes by introducing risk factors leading to a vital loss. The political environment can change as an outcome of the policies and actions of the governmental levels, starting from the local to the federal levels. The company of Tesla must get ready for dealing with the international and local outcomes of the macro-economic environmental aspects of politics.
The government has a huge impact on the political environment of the Tesla organizational structure. It may take part in increasing the taxes for several companies and lower for some. The governmental decisions possess a directly invested impact on the business processes of the Tesla organizational structure. The company must always ensure updated political knowledge about the interventions of the governmental policies like shifting of the rate of interest having an influence on the patterns of demand within the company's operationalization. The political factors also influence the socio-cultural aspects of the organization (BURKALTSEVA, et al., 2017). It can affect the emerging rate of new technological innovations. A cyclical environment of politics develops as the governmental democracy pursues re-elective processes at an interval of a few years. The external element of the company’s operationalization involves the influences caused by the pressure groups. They are intended to change the policies of the government. The government also determines the establishment of well-connected relationships with other countries, investors, and suppliers.
The political risks involved within the business processes of the Tesla organizational structure are tariffs, exchange rates, and its control, quotas, requirements of license in export and import, and other barriers of trade. Also, it includes the risk factors related to the governmental policies of the economy (Perkins & Murmann, 2018). It deals with confiscation, expropriation, paper works and regulation, nationalization, and domestication. It also includes risks related to terrorism and groups of labor and action. It deals with health and safety laws, regulations about the competitive market, and policies of tax (Arslan & Roudaki, 2017). The government also initiates to look after the import restrictions and protection of intellectual property rights.
3.2 Long-term implications for the sector
Tesla is a disruptive brand. It has taken the use of technology quite far and became successful in their product and services. It has been one of the most successful electronic manufacturers across the globe. It has gained incredible profit throughout these years. They have further started vehicle manufacturing by sending them into space. They have an effective Tesla organizational structure to work with anything. They also have the infrastructure of doing so (AMT, 2020). There are still the question remains that whether they are at all making money and still being successful. This part of the assignment discusses the long-term implications that the company might need. The other researches and studies have said that Tesla has always delivered its products and services the way they have promised. But there remained some lack of proper planning. During 2006, the company had started t invest on making more useful electric cars. They have been successful in this venture. During 2016, they had further invested in developing those electric cars and implemented the concept of self-driving. They have developed the solar roofs and battery storage which helped to strengthen their portfolio.
For the long-term purpose, the CEO of the company Elon Musk has been targeting the market share instead of direct profit (Bilbeisi & Kesse, 2017). He aimed to get hold of the 1% share of the global sales but did not mention the duration by which he wants to meet the objective. According the company, they are aiming to develop cars starting from $25000 within the coming years, approximately by 2022. They are hoping that the configuration and features of the car might reach its demand up to 1.1 million by 2028. They have been thinking of incorporating and implementing more and more necessary features and facilities within the cars (Chacar, et al., 2018). The company has not mentioned the size or the looks of the model so far. The researches and the observations are assuming that the looks will vary from country to country. In USA it may look like a compact car whereas, in Europe and China the size will be medium. The researchers further stated their logic that a smaller size will not be suitable in USA.
For the long-term development and improvement, the company has been planning for a grand role of implementing more advanced features to its products. The advanced features will be better than the other existing competitors in the market. Tesla is an electric goods and products company. It has not been very long that it started its automobile venture (Cornell, 2016). There might be many issues regarding lack of experience in this particular sector. Moreover, they have planned for an automotive facility in their products. The lack of experience may cause delays and quality issues and these are quite likely to happen in this case. The age-old customers have overlooked these drawbacks and still stayed back with Tesla organizational structure, but the company assumes that the new customers may not be as forgiving. Hence, there needs to be some special monitoring and consideration while manufacturing and launching the new products (Crane & Hester, 2016). The company has hence decided to launch its new product in the U.S initially. The have further decided that, once the other branches of the company are fully functional, they will spread the product in the different parts of the globe.
The company has always believed that repairing the short-term issues results in a positive way for the longer time for them to exist in the market. They have always concentrated on finding the actual problem within the organization. They have found out the most fundamental truth and reasoned it with their logic. They have focused on the customers and the problems they are facing with the products. The company has always tried to address the issues with unique techniques (Cyndecka, 2018). They have performed thorough research to identify and address the issues of the customers. Being motivated every time is a positive side of them. They never give up on any issue but face it and overcome it with the workforce. The next step they have always followed and continuing to do is breaking down the problems into small parts and solving them one by one. This process is easier and more effective. The company’s team-work is very strong and up to the mark. The managerial body and the administrative body have always motivated he team-members to deliver the works as accurately (Frenz, 2016). The regular monitoring and checking out the work-progress is a part of their activities under Tesla organizational structure. The CEO of the company has a vision of developing the company into various sustainable sectors. He has an opinion that the homes and the businesses of the recent times have a great need for products which are run by the solar energy. Hence, they have further started to develop the solar mechanism and did not stick at only vehicle manufacturing. The company had started this new venture from 2016 and took over the charge of Solar city. The company aimed to make a sustainable solar ecosystem for its customers.
Other than just making electric goods and vehicles, the company has further focused on developing a green and clean environment. Thus, it started to use renewable and sustainable methods to the transportation industry. The company has extremely good management team along with efficient employees. It has always hired its employees based on their ability and work quality (Fridman, et al., 2019). The managing body is very effective and has a clear vision of the objectives of the company. The managing team has been successful to train the employees and made all the goals and objectives clear to them. They have always worked with advanced technology system and made sustainable electronic products.
Tesla organizational structure has a major positive side. They have always analyzed the strategies and works of the existing competitors before thinking of any new product. The long-term implementations have been done by breaking down the short-term problems and solving them primarily (Long, et al., 2019). The company has further planning of developing the electric cars and the sustainable ecosystems. Working hard on solar energy and implementing it in all the sectors is one of the primary objectives. Apart from that, the development of the automotive technology is also an important goal to be achieved by the company.
3.3 Formal and informal legal systems and anti-trust laws having an influence on the industry of the organization
It is a proven fact that anti-trust issues cause harm to both the manufacturers and the consumers. The legislative standpoint states that it involves the “Sherman Act of 1890, Clayton Act 1924 and Federal Trade commission Act 1914.” Both the right wing and left-wing politicians have enforced the laws in the United States and European Union (Morris, et al., 2019). The current president of America has singled out several business forums as antitrust targets. There are threats of legal penalties which have greater impact on the business owners and the entrepreneurs trying to run a business or innovate. These opportunities are highly costly. There some antitrust cases that have come into the surface and the activities became slower than before. The antitrust laws involve restraint of monopolization and trade, horizontal mergers, collusion, price discrimination, manufacturer price restraints, predatory pricing, tying or bundling, exclusive dealing and etcetera. It is better to repeal antitrust regulations for both the consumers and competitors within an industry. It should be better repealed regarding price fixing, market division, predatory pricing and all the other variables mentioned above (Orozco, 2016). The uncertainty may cause economic corruption and issues within the organization. By doing so, the products and the people both will be affected.
The mentioned Tesla organizational structure has announced some surprising law regarding the company in the year 2014. The CEO of the company had declared that anyone can use the company’s patent. Anyone using their technology with good faith would not be charged against lawsuit. Tesla is considered to be one of the leading electronic goods and products companies across the globe and such decision has taken a twist in the whole nation. The main motif behind patents existing is the property rights protection provided by the government of the different states (Rengarajan, 2019). It excludes other parties to use the properties or products of the other companies. This law had been invented to preserve the creations of the companies or the business owners. According to the CEO of Tesla, the freedom of patent is to take the electric vehicle technology ahead. If they hold the property into themselves, there will be no progress of the particular project. If more than one company starts manufacturing this same, the concept of electric transport system would be expanded. Tesla organizational structure aimed to lessen the carbon crisis on earth and started to think this alternative. Elon Musk has stated that, it is a fight for everyone with everyone (Stiglitz, 2018). There is no point to keep up with the “us versus them” mentality and fight for the carbon preservation together along with the other transport or electronic companies. It is true that, Tesla has many sectors and involved in many industries. Hence, it is not possible to produce electric cars very fast. So, it is better to let the other manufacturers join them and make a good progress of the product. By opening the patents of Tesla, the other transport companies will be able to cut off their gas engines and shift to making electric and battery powered cars and other vehicles. The market of electric vehicle is still very small across the globe. It has not started to be produced rapidly as of yet. So, expanding the availability and fighting the carbon crisis has been the main reason behind opening their patents. Tesla organizational structure produces pure electric cars and there is no gas engine involved in it (Teece, 2018). Elon Musk wants the majority of the transport manufacturers to start making electric vehicle and save the world from the crisis. It has also been proven that the recharging system of these electric vehicles are faster and more effective than refueling the gas engines in general.
In recent times, some legal protections have been announced regarding whoever is using their patents in making electric cars. The main reason is, the other manufacturers think that Tesla may take advantages of the expanded market for batteries and charging stations. They further assume that the other manufacturers may still be sued even after using Tesla’s patent while producing electric vehicles (Voigt, et al., 2017). Tesla organizational structure has been transparent enough to open their patents to every other manufacturer. But the company has recently sued a company for using trade secrets and confidential information. According to some critics and researchers, when the “U.S patents and Trademark” is granted a patent it is published in front of the whole world. Tesla has not given away their property just like that. There are some legal and contractual policies to be followed by the other manufacturers in order to have the access of the patent. But Tesla organizational structure has mentioned a post in its blog that “Good Faith” is the main motif. If any manufacturer uses their patent with any filthy intention, they will be sued and legal actions will be taken. The antitrust laws held by the government of the state will be charged to the very manufacturer. Hence, it is necessary for the other manufacturer to use the patent in a good manner and for a good cause. Any fraudulent activity will not be entertained by the inventor company.
It is necessary for Tesla organizational structure to improve upon supply chain across the globe. This will reduce the excessive cost of the electric cars and will be affordable for the common people. Although it has expanded its availability in Europe and China, it needs to expand furthermore to meet the actual goals of the company (Young & Crews, 2019). The plans of producing the highly demanding battery is a good plan and it should be executed as soonest. This will also help in the cost reduction of the vehicles. The SWOT analysis of the company suggests that the company need to maintain the profitability to keep up with the rising demands. The strategic effectiveness needs to be grown as there are many competitors in the market nowadays (Yueh, 2016). The porter’s five force analysis says that the international growth support is fine but the production growth has to be increased. There are lots of competitors like Toyota Motors, Ford Motor, Honda Motor and etcetera. These companies have also been enough popular in recent times. These companies have enough revenue and infrastructure to come up with better ideas and win over the global electric transport market (da Silva Jr, et al., 2018). Hence, Tesla organizational structure has to increase the company’s revenue from the foreign markets and address the international competitiveness to survive in the global industry.
The current assignment contains a detailed discussion on the socio-economic and legal factors of the Tesla organizational structure. It has mentioned the critical analysis of the company’s economy and the factors that have led to change the economic conditions within the company. The key drives that have influenced and impacted the factors have been mentioned and discussed thoroughly in the assignment. The research paper has mainly focused on the business management and how the economic changes have impacted the overall management system of the company. The current research paper went on mentioning the legal and political framework involved in the Tesla organizational structure and how it has been impacted through that. The impacts are mainly caused by the political factors in the business management sectors and facilitating the growth of economic growth and development of the company. The clear-understanding of the long-term implications have been discussed in detail in this assignment. The way it has planned its long-term implications and the way they have executed their plans are very important and been discussed in the current assignment. Then the current research paper proceeded with the discussion regarding the factors related to formal and informal aspects of law. The anti-trust laws have also been discussed along with the ethical dilemmas of the organization in legal and economic terms. The developments of the various socio-economic and legal aspects that need to be implemented have been further focused by the current research paper. The proper decision-making strategies and the other strategies are the essential factors of the current discussion. The paper aims to provide thorough knowledge ad approaches of a strategic organizational planning. The factors that attract the stakeholders and the other related persons are also very important in this research paper. In analyzing the business processes of the company, the Tesla organizational structure is molded by a traditional form along with the consideration of its managerial emphasis on the limited expansion of its operation within the international market of economy. The major principles of economics featuring the distinguishing growth of business within the organization cover the aspect of opportunity costs and their role in analyzing the choices of decision-making. It also includes maximization of the consequences in terms of profitability and productivity for bringing into changes in the activity levels of the company. The legal factors associated with the economic conditions and proper maintenance of the principles of the professional firm of Tesla is associated with the laws related to the increase of opportunity in the production processes.
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