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Systematic literature review on the impact of working remotely on Health and Social Care staff post Covid-19


Task: Write a critical literature search and review based on the bodies of knowledge linked to the research question, what is the impact of working remotely on Health and Social Care staff post Covid-19.


A review of the literature and the expansion of earlier discoveries are important research outputs that contribute to the slow but steady progress of understanding. The health sciences have been creating systematic LR as a distinct methodology. To make the literature review process more transparent, reproducible, and less prone to bias, SRs approach it as a scientific process and include notions from empirical research. This contrasts with conventional literature summaries, which usually rely heavily on the writers' subject-matter expertise. The method is not included in the typical design study toolbox, and there needs to be guidance on carrying out these assessments. The researcher will be analysis a systematic review as per the research question ‘What is the impact of working remotely on Health and Social Care staff post Covid-19?’. All the secondary source will be collected from the online database that will be utilised for systematic review.

The COVID-19 outbreak, ravaging the world, has compelled people to reconsider various practices. These routines include going to work, playing, performing daily chores, and even basic travel. This severely affected the people involved and the economies of entire nations, completely shutting down a number of economic sectors (Xiao et al., 2021). The challenge continued as a substantial transition needing planning, training, and facilitation despite high hopes and several cautions, notably from those working in the field of public health. Even if society had mentally prepared itself, the scale and solution remained incomprehensible and caused a serious issue.

The COVID-19 pandemic's comprehensive instructions to work full-time modified the conventional understanding of WFH, which was previously only typical for particular employment types under particular employee conditions. Even though many businesses expect that WFH may become more common after the epidemic, employers have already spent the fixed cost to set up remote work solutions for their employees (Peters et al., 2022). Businesses are already analysing if using less office space reduces operational costs. Businesses and individuals alike are aware of the benefits of WFH. The WFH's most notable benefits are shorter daily commutes and more flexibility for employees to care for their families.

Systematic Literature Review




Type of Source

Summary of Points

(Xiao et al., 2021)

An online, anonymous survey made available through Qualtrics from April 24, 2020, to June 11, 2020, was used to gather data. More frequently than male employees and employees with higher incomes were female employees and employees whose yearly pay was less than $100,000. 

Snowball sampling was employed to extend the recruitment process, while One used social media platforms, emails, and newsletters to solicit participants. A preliminary screening question helped to determine which individuals were eligible. Additionally, lifestyle elements, including physical activity and dietary habits, as well as social features of WFH, such as who lives in the home, work-related diversions, and Communication with co-workers, were the main predictors of both statuses.

The researcher used a 5-point Likert-type scale with a score of 3, indicating the same as before WFH, to evaluate various lifestyle characteristics. Lifestyle factors included ratings of general physical activity, such as step count and standing time. The researcher noticed many animals wandering in and out of appointments.Their data suggest that after the switch to WFH, overall physical and mental well-being status and physical and mental health issues increased. Reduced mental and physical well-being were moderately correlated and directly influenced by gender and money.

Employees with work-life balance options may take time away from their jobs to develop a special strategy for their work-life balance. This may promote a healthy lifestyle and be good for both physical and mental health. Additionally, WFH helps employees stay focused and minimise distractions, especially in corporate environments (Shimura et al., 2021). Finally, under WFH, employees can have more influence over their environment. WFH provides benefits, but there are also disadvantages to performing it frequently. Working from home may result in less social connections with co-workers and less physical activity, such as long commutes to and from appointments. Due to the database's significant skewness, all counts were categorised as zero or at least one. People who relocated to WFH as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak's mental health.

(Peters et al.,2022)

The COVID-19 outbreak has shown how important occupation is in shaping the health and well-being of a population. This Viewpoint uses a multilevel systems paradigm to understand better the intricate interplay between the numerous elements affecting employee health and well-being and how the pandemic has sped up previously observed trends in changes in employment and working conditions. The researcher must monitor, evaluate, and respond to these trends, and the company must improve government organisations' capacity to deal with the population's health, well-being, and wealth generation.

Employment and labour patterns have been impacted by the pandemic, which has hastened the redistribution of jobs across industries. By 2030, 25% of employees globally are expected to choose or be forced to change their professions. Emerging technologies are being quickly implemented in the workplace due to this innovation. Workplaces can potentially be significant drivers of wellness in the communities they serve. However, many organisations usually prioritise strategies targeting certain employees' behaviour.

Job or work redesign,72 improvements to the physical and psychological conditions of the workplace, and ensuring that employees with non-standard work arrangements have access to the same benefits as employees with conventional arrangements are a few examples of these changes.The COVID-19 epidemic has highlighted the significance of the profession in determining a population's health and well-being. In order to comprehend the complex interactions among the many factors impacting employees' health and welfare and the way the pandemic has accelerated previously noticed trends in changes to employment and working circumstances, this Viewpoint uses a multilevel systems paradigm. The capability of government organisations dealing with the population's health and wealth development has to be increased to monitor, assess, and adapt to these changes.

These perspectives should consider the interactions among these multi-dimensional motorists. Additionally, navigating the ongoing integrated business and workplace-based methods will assist in developing organisational and worker resilience by addressing work and worker protection, wellness, and welfare changes in a post-pandemic environment.

(Shimuraet al., 2021)

Multivariate analysis was used to examine the impact of remote work on presenteeism, psychological and physiological stress reactions, overtime work, occupational stressors, psychological benefits, and sleep quality.

A two-wave panel survey was conducted before and during the pandemic to find out how remote work affected these factors among office employees. Three thousand one hundred twenty-three office employees, representing 23 tertiary sectors, replied to the survey. Participants who had not done remote work as of 2019 were included in the study, and they were asked to complete surveys on their working stress circumstances and sleeping habits in 2019 and 2020.

Due to the COVID-19 epidemic, remote work was strongly encouraged in 2020. Uncertainty persists on how remote work affects employees' physiological and psychological reactions to stress and their presenteeism.

This study intends to offer empirical proof of the ramifications of this new work-from-home scenario for individuals and companies. Independent of changes in occupational stressors, the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a relationship between remote work and a reduction in psychological and physical stress reactions.

(Vyasand Butakhieo, 2021)

Due to the COVID-19 epidemic, remote work was strongly encouraged in 2020. Uncertainty persists on how remote work affects employees' physiological and psychological reactions to stress and their presenteeism. WFH protocol needs to be better defined. For instance, there was debate and uncertainty on whether bad weather would force employees to work from home or if they would be entitled to time off, as in the case of the conventional work arrangement.

. This study aims to offer factual proof of the impacts of this new work-from-home scenario on individuals and enterprises. The multivariate logistic regression study demonstrated a connection between remote work and decreased psychological and physical stress reactivity, independent of changes in occupational stressors. The once-prized, highly beneficial WFH has yet to consistently show to be one of the best options for the majority of Hong Kong employees, according to studies. WFH is still interested, but to a different degree than it is presently.

WFH has advantages for both enterprises and employees. A few advantages are better productivity, more motivation, enhanced gender diversity, and healthier workforces. Even total turnover, stronger talent retention, and improved satisfaction of employees. Other advantages include shorter commutes, avoiding workplace politics, utilising less office space, and conserving energy. The government must implement better laws and regulations to regulate and make WFH feasible successfully. One area of policy where planning and execution are crucial is the provision of guidance on how to adapt to remote online work. Because of workplace policies, people could use WFH to reduce the epidemic in Hong Kong.

Employees who work from home may be distracted by the presence of young children and family members (the blending of work and personal life may lead to overwork). It was shown that WFH staff in Hong Kong had similar stress, anxiety over job security, loneliness, and burnout increases as in Singapore and India. Since no maids were available to assist with cleaning and everyone had to perform all domestic responsibilities in addition to their employment, the WFH led to sleep quality in 66.99% of the population, especially during the shutdown.

Al-Habaibehet al., 2021

In 2020–21, the Covid-19 epidemic significantly increased demand for virtual remote working from home. Strong bonds have been compelled to fast embrace online working practises and educate staff to retain the same level of productivity as working in an office.

People who work from home were surveyed to determine the advantages and disadvantages of this shift in working habits. Many employees first found it difficult to get used to utilising online tools and planning their workdays around personal and family obligations.

The findings demonstrate that the respondents could swiftly pick up the skills and knowledge required for digital working by using communication frameworks like collaboration platforms and video conferencing, all ties to the family.

A substantial portion of respondents acknowledged the advantage of not having to travel when working remotely from home, and they also mentioned that this had a positive impact on the environment and Greenhouse gas. However, several drawbacks have been identified, including the absence of in-person conversations and chance contacts during working hours.

(Bertoni et al., 2021)

They evaluate the causal effect of remote working, even during the COVID-19 epidemic, on senior Europeans' mental health using longitudinal data from the SHARE survey. Endogeneity issues arise for everyone when choosing between various employment ties that depend on employment and the likelihood of finding work during the epidemic.

Their study strategy tackles these issues by using disparities in the technical feasibility of remote work among professions and the legal restrictions on labour between sectors.

They calculate the diverse consequences of remote labour on mental health and discover negative effects for respondents with children at home and those who reside in nations with lax regulations or low pandemic-related excess mortality rates.For males and respondents who worked remotely and did not have co-residing children, mental health improved over the first wave of Covid-19. It did not change for the pool of all working women questioned because this worsened for respondents who did have co-residing children and were employed at home.

They use survey data from the same employees questioned just before and after the pandemic's initial wave. To determine the causal impact of remote working on mental health, we take advantage of differences in Covid-19 exposure and control strategies among nations and sectors.

We discovered that working from home during the pandemic had various effects on employees' mental health.

Chung et al., 2020

Since our poll, there has been a noticeable rise in the number of employees who work flexibly, with virtually all of them (86%) doing so from home and 70% doing so during the lockdown. Additionally, researchers observed a decline in the stigma attached to flexible working throughout this period.

 The boss genuinely cares about the impact that job obligations have on my personal and family life" received a favourable response from 72.7% of respondents.

90% of respondents reported working from home and believed their bosses approved their schedule.

Since the COVID-19 lockdown and widespread homeworking, interviewees stated that managers are more knowledgeable of their obligations outside the office.

Only 15% of moms maintained distinct boundaries between work and family. Only 50% of mothers and 58% of dads could schedule a consistent work block during the lockdown, underscoring mothers' struggles to continue working. At the same time, schools and daycare facilities are closed. A major drawback of working from home was seen as missing out on interactions with co-workers, particularly among women who are not parents. This group was also far more likely to feel anxious and tense during the lockdown than their male counterparts were functioning.

De Haas et al.,2020

COVID-19 has significantly impacted people's lives on a global scale. This report offers the first details on how the virus is now affecting people's travel and activity patterns, as well as the Dutch government's "smart lockdown." The findings are supported by information from a sample of around 2500 Dutch respondents. Eighty percent of people reduce their outside activities, with seniors experiencing the biggest reductions.

More remote meetings are held by 30% of employees, and 44% of workers have started or increased the hours they spend working from home. Most of these workers say they are happy with their jobs; however, most pupils dislike obtaining their education at home. The apparent shortcomings in the ICT solutions that are now on the market and the digital divide issue, which might get worse as ICT usage rises, must be addressed by legislators. This will assist lifestyle modifications influenced by ICT.

COVID-19 has significantly impacted people's lives on a global scale. This report offers the first details on how the virus is now affecting people's travel and activity patterns, as well as the Dutch government's "intelligent lockdown." The results are based on data from around 2500 Dutch respondents. 80% of individuals cut back on their outside activities, with elderly persons seeing the greatest reductions. 30% of employees hold more remote meetings, and 44% of employees have begun or increased the number of hours they work from home. Most of these employees express satisfaction with their employment. However, most students and schoolchildren prefer to avoid receiving their education at home.

The current research also demonstrated that encounters with these ICT solutions have only sometimes been favourable. Social interactions, just as many people believe that digital social interactions may completely replace in-person interactions. Home workers are in the same boat. While most employees claim to have a strong digital infrastructure, a smaller subset lacks enough infrastructure to work remotely.

Benoand Hvorecky, 2021

The study offers current information on the scope of this change, its effects on productivity, workplace development, and the projected dominance of the face-to-display workplace when the lockdown is eased.

They changed our intended research objectives and chose to examine their perspectives across various Covid-19 phases. As a result, not all of the academic requirements are met by our findings. Because of the particular coincidence, they are almost hard to duplicate.

It uses information from 154 service staff members of an Austrian sports and leisure goods firm that the researcher gathered through online employee questionnaires on their perceptions of e-working. Also, they did the first of them before the outbreak.Many would rather go back to their old jobs because the transition was an inescapable necessity for them. According to the findings, more than one-fifth of respondents wish to work from home permanently.

Significant variations exist between the percentage of employees working in offices and at home throughout the various lockdown times. Following its conclusion, there was a sharp rise in the number of people who began working from home. They are more accepting of their work from home than before the shutdown and think their output may stay the same.

Tønnessenet al., 2021

The results of widespread, mandated work-from-home (WFH) practices need to be studied more. By examining employee creative performance (CP) and external and internal digital knowledge sharing (DKS) in these unusual conditions, this study seeks to fill this research vacuum.

During the pandemic lockdown, a cross-sectional online survey of knowledge workers in Norway was conducted. According to the study, internal and external DKS are highly effective predictors of CP in the WFH setting, even during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The social capital theory was used as the theoretical framework to analyse the relationships between DKS and CP and demographic, individual, and organisational characteristics. The results imply that greater usage of digital platforms contributes to the pandemic-related rise in CP in the WFH environment. There are discussions of several theoretical and practical consequences.

Employees who are older and more female are more likely than their counterparts to participate in external DKS. Additionally, it has been discovered that CP, external DKS, and internal DKS are all favourably correlated with individual motivation.

Heineke et al., 2020

Tons of individuals have been impacted globally by the COVID-19 epidemic, which has also caused company failures and a crisis in the international economy. Lockdowns and instructions to stay at home are helping to limit the coronavirus, but they have also caused great financial hardship.

The use of private vehicles is another trend. As individuals adopt physical separation to stop the spread of COVID-19, this mode of transportation may become more prevalent in cities in the coming normal.Finally, customers may be more conscious of their worth after using sustainable and noise-reducing means of transportation during lockdowns. Thus, micro-mobility may become popular for riders who wish to save the ecosystem.

A new reality of working from home, delaying trips, and even missing visits to supermarkets and restaurants is devastatingly impacting the micro-mobility industry encompassing various lightweight vehicles, including bicycles and mopeds.

The worldwide epidemic has altered peoples' perspectives on travel, particularly micro-mobility.

Significant short-term effects include a decline in micro-mobility as people re-evaluate their transportation alternatives. However, we anticipate that the sector will come out of this crisis stronger, given the present state of consumer mood, legislative developments, and potential upside.

Karatunaet al., 2022

Semi-structured interviews with 26 academics from different Swedish universities were utilised to collect the data. A content analysis of the interview transcripts identified the primary subjects. The research revealed that the pandemic was challenging for academics because of a lack of face-to-face connection, a lack of an academic environment, job overload, and work-home conflicts.

Online communication possibilities, suitable working environment, organisational-social support, and individual variables were considered significant in terms of resources.

The majority of respondents thought that working conditions were bad for wellness. However, academics with the necessary means were less susceptible to the demands of their jobs.This study contributes to the body of knowledge by shedding light on the richness and variety of academics' experiences and preferences, which are important considerations for institutions to make when organising and managing future academic tasks.

According to academics, future academic work is expected to continue online, offer a variety of workplace options, and improve digital capabilities. Their worries were about a lack of in-person engagement, management decisions and their financial effects, and purely digital schooling.

Caniatoet al.,2021

Our urban areas have seen tremendous change as a result of COVID-19. Outdoor noise, a result of human activity in general and transportation in particular, was one of the characteristics most significantly impacted during the spring of 2020. Both inside and outside the house, there was unquestionably less noise as a result.

Additionally, it was shown through an international survey that individuals responded favourably to the reduced noise. This desire was often not tied to location in the city but rather to a generic wish to live in a calmer urban environment.

This study examines how individuals responded to this novel, unwelcome, and unforeseen event. Field measurements made it feasible to show how noticeably lower the outside sound pressure level was. Even if we already have a lot of answers, more would be helpful to address additional scientific queries that are not included in this work. A third drawback was the inability to survey a group that had not experienced the lockdown because it was a global phenomenon.

Investigated are the people's preferences for the acoustic environment indoors and outside. Many fresh results were listed and debated. As with all scientific endeavours, some restrictions must be stated. The main drawback is that sound pressure measurements cannot be made in the desired locations. The process was unable to leave our houses amid a global lockdown. For this reason, the researcher may have expanded quantifiable results by employing literary sources. The sample is a further restriction.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Health and Social care staff working remotely post Covid-19. Before the epidemic, most knowledge workers did some of their work from home, usually for a short period each day. The phrase "knowledge work" in this study refers to labour involving non-material inputs and outputs, with people serving as the main knowledge carriers. The major negatives were missing co-workers, missing stepping out of the home and bad physical labour conditions in the main office(Vyasand Butakhieo, 2021). WFH is generally an unpleasant experience. Being in the middle of an international catastrophe and considering the pandemic's potential for inflicting mental strain, we hypothesised that the respondents would have perceived the situation of WFH during the national shutdowns as more unfavourable.

Many positive experiences on which to build, so as organisations engage in talks about how to move post-COVID-19 and are asked to use WFH more frequently than they did before, they should be aware of the potential presented by WFH. However, one must keep in mind to make accommodations for individuals most frequently challenged by WFH and try to understand the many causes of this(Al-Habaibeh et al., 2021). The possibility of mental health services being disrupted by the pandemic in several nations has been addressed in recent COVID-19 investigations. Due to the duality of human experience, organisations must consider how individuals view WFH.In order to accommodate the growing demand for flexibility, more organisations are likely to provide employees with the option to continue WFH beyond COVID-19.

It is believed that it will be possible to maintain outstanding quality, improve well-being, and lower coworking space. Public and non-profit enterprises worldwide have already started moving in this direction. Working from home increases organisational flexibility and versatility (International Labour Organization, 2020). Working from home makes employees happier and more upbeat, reducing the risk of burnout and weakening their immune systems. Additionally, since workers work alone, there is a lower risk of disease transmission than in an office setting (Bertoni et al., 2021). Only some likely possess the temperament or interpersonal abilities necessary for distant employment. The regularity and organisation that come with working in an office setting may appeal to certain individuals. Some employees might like in-person contact with co-workers and believe that clear instructions from a supervisor will help them complete tasks and reach their objectives (Chung et al., 2020). Furthermore, think about employing those with disabilities.People could be more equipped and eager to work reasonable schedules, even earlier or longer on the weekends, if they are no longer tied to an office. This might support organisations in meeting certain business expectations when, for example, clinical social workers are located in different time zones.

People who work from home can feel just as isolated from their co-workers and the company as a whole as those who work in an office. Employers could make sure that Communication happens more regularly to address this problem. Consequently, employees have more opportunities to feel involved and a part of the company by scheduling frequent team meetings over the phone or through other technologies like Skype (De Haas et al., 2020). More casual and sociable gatherings might also aid in reducing feelings of loneliness. In addition, different personalities may react differently to surveillance. When attempting to identify and address any underperformance, employers should think about setting goals and objectives for their staff that are simple to monitor.

If a worker cannot establish a pattern that works for them, is attempting to separate work and home life, or feels alienated, the move to work from home may have a detrimental impact on their mental health (Beno and Hvorecky, 2021). Users can designate a specific area for work, encourage employees to develop routines, and create guidelines with other family members to assist. Holding frequent meetings and team captures may increase the likelihood that your staff will keep in contact. A rigorous routine, a healthy diet, and frequent exercise help with emotional stability. Ways remote working has increased productivity in health and social care.

Employee anxiety and fear are at an all-time high in a society whereby hyper-productivity and a hustling culture are kings. Burnout can result from the continual need to move, lengthy workdays, regular commutes, office politics, and other pressures at the job(Tønnessenet al.,2021). Families lose valuable time that could be spent together more often due to daily commuting. Teleworking allows for a better work-life balance, allowing people to spend more time with their families and relationships. Engagement should be seen as a strategy that can enhance KPIs because it will provide better business results, not only as a feel-good activity or incentive for executives. Currently, participating employees are more enthused, feel better about their jobs, and are in better physical condition.
The workplace environment changed throughout the epidemic and has demonstrated that working from 9 to 5 daily in a cubicle only sometimes translates into greater productivity. Sometimes all a worker needs to complete more work in less time is a quiet, distraction-free workspace. The number of hours a worker puts in at work might affect how well they do (Heinekeet al.,2020). After all, some people work better at night, while others do more efficiently in the morning. Then some employees may find it challenging to adhere to a rigid work schedule because of personal commitments, health issues, or familial obligations. The work-from-home will offer flexible remote working choices. Employers may help workers create the best work schedules possible(Karatunaet al., 2022).One can avoid long commutes by working remotely. The typical one-way commute in the nation's urban regions took around 27.6 minutes in 2019k. Employees may already be exhausted before the workday even starts due to the time spent driving and the stress that comes with it. This impacts engagement and effectiveness.

Working from home keeps employees focused during work hours and allows them to focus on completing their responsibilities quickly because the arduous drive is avoided.By working from home, ones can solve this issue. One may concentrate on their job while still taking care of their responsibilities from home when oneswill not have to commute or deal with distractions that one’s would often encounter in an office environment(Caniatoet al., 2021). When working from the office, their only real eating alternatives are fast food, vending machines, and snacks. Bringing in packed meals might be a nuisance.

One being able to cook healthy produce daily makes it simple for WFH staff to prepare and eat nutritious meals since they have immediate access to their pantry and kitchen. Employees who work remotely save significant time they would otherwise spend getting ready for work and travelling(Alettaet al., 2020).Remote work has become increasingly popular since COVID-19, despite pandemic-related limitations gradually being relaxed. According to recent research, most workers prefer to work from home at least three days per week after the epidemic, indicating that most of the workforce does not want to return to 100% office labour.

Employees working from home are happier, healthier, and more productive, and businesses reap benefits. Since employees use the time they would have spent travelling and commuting for productive work instead of utilising it. Several businesses have noticed improved worker productivity(Kaiseret al.,2022). Savings on office leasing fees, equipment purchases, maintenance charges, and other overhead expenditures are also made possible by it.

Conceptual Framework
However, the original conceptual model is constrained by its deliberate neglect of the larger environment in which labour is placed in favour of an exclusive concentration on the workplace. Social and economic developments, such as the increasing use of technology and globalisation, directly impact how employees perceive their jobs daily. Workers may experience stress-related health effects and increased injury risk due to increasing job expectations and extended work hours(Nguyen, 2021). An expanding body of scientific and popular press research speculates and documents how these changes may affect employment and unemployment patterns, work environments, and employees' health outcomes. Most individuals manage many jobs at once and regularly change companies due to stagnating pay(Hennekamet al., 2021). Few people have a single employer for the entirety of their working lives.

These shifting and growth patterns in the way that workers are organised, managed, and experienced by workers must be considered in a research agenda that guides efforts to promote and safeguard worker safety, health, and welfare. Before the COVID-19 epidemic, there was a growing awareness of the possible effects of fast technology advancement, climatic change, globalisation, and shifting populations on how labour may be reorganised(Beckand Hensher, 2020). The pandemic has expedited these tendencies, making it more urgent to find original approaches to organise and carry out research responsive to the changing nature of work and the dissolving lines between work and other areas of life.

A framework that can adapt to changing working circumstances, worker demographics, and employment relationships are necessary due to the dynamic and sometimes unpredictable nature of these changes and the complexity of the systems in which labour is embedded. While work-related deaths and debilitating injuries continue to have a substantial impact on employees, the contribution of workplace exposures to the risk of non-communicable diseases like cancer and heart disease is just as significant(Masoodet al., 2021). The contributions of the work to behaviours linked to the risk of chronic diseases are highlighted by consistent evidence. The COVID-19 epidemic has brought to light the degree to which people of colour and immigrants hold a disproportionate share of higher-risk, less secure employment.

A growing body of research has also shown that bad working circumstances, such as job instability and heavy workloads, are linked to health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease and cognitive ageing, as well as disparities in longevity. The burden of work-related illness may impact economic performance, causing economic and political instability and possibly deterring investments in new positions(Zachresonet al.,2021). Governmental and company-specific regulations both have a big impact on working conditions, which in turn have an impact on employee health, safety, and welfare. Additionally, the public health infrastructure has consistently been underfunded, a problem that appears in the slow and frequently insufficient response to the COVID-19 outbreak.

Literature Gap
The study on stress at work has mostly focused on two crucial factors that explain how stress is created. The first subject discussed throughout the years is typical workplace stressors. The study examined how demanding behavioural workplace factors, such as increasing workloads, decision-making freedom, insufficient control, and a lack of social support, may cause stress at work and reduce performance (Bashir et al., 2021). A person-environment incompatibility might have detrimental psychological and physical effects. Thus it will be important to consider how an employee's abilities and physical elements impact their performance.

Uncertainty and potentially dangerous workplace circumstances are other significant factor that might increase employees' stress levels. As a result, external factors impair employees' performance or place unreasonable demands on them, which reduces job performance by raising stress levels (Ford et al., 2021). Only applications from other countries are accepted for practice. Future research should examine the topic in a broader sense and consider viewpoints from those other cultures that may yield a different result from this investigation. Since one made no comparison between workers who apply WFO and WFH, this study does have drawbacks. It has been shown that the concept of working from home has a significant impact on organisational culture and productivity. Future research on the WFH concept and its effects on other countries will focus on this finding (Adisa et al., 2022). Numerous businesses have learned vital information about how the coronavirus outbreak affects their business and employees, however, if they keep employees from working from home. Organisations may gain from more workers working from home in various ways. It may be considered a hassle to work from home as this is disputed.

For low- and middle-income nations, the stated economic, social, and political developments have similar and substantial ramifications. Although it is outside the purview of this study, one may utilise the model's research questions to produce a wide range of hypotheses applicable elsewhere(Downey et al., 2022). This paper needs to explore the unique settings of the forces influencing work in low- and middle-income nations. The provided enlarged conceptual model has captured many crossing layers of impacts on employee health, safety, and welfare, but the static nature of this depiction constrains it.

As workplaces, employment links, and technology improvements are created in the workforce, a systems-based conceptual model assists in framing and driving research that might help with a better knowledge of problem-solving (Rigotti et al., 2021). There have been many expected changes to the work landscape, but they are still being determined. Legislative initiatives, research-based solutions implemented, and an educated and empowered workforce may all affect the emerging future. A study methodology that anticipates and can adapt to changes in how work is structured, handled, and experienced by people can successfully inform such policies and practices.?

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