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System Science And Engineering Assignment Questions With Answers

Question

Task:
Prepare a well-written engineering assignment addressing the following questions:

Question 1

  1. Explain what is meant by the term “system”. How do subsystems, systems and systems of systems differ?
  2. Had the Australian government adopted a system engineering approach in its management of COVID-19? Explain.

Question 2

  1. Consider the conceptual design case study (Moggill Rd./ Coonan St. intersection upgrade). What additional information would you expect to be included in the actual project documents generated by the project team?
  2. Safety critical recalls on cars being particularly newsworthy. Such recall of products due to safety concerns are costly to the organisation responsible and may damage reputation and consumer confidence. In terms of the Acquisition phase activities and artifacts, what caused such errors to occur? What strategies do you think that they could have taken to prevent these sorts of errors?

Question 3

  1. Explain the difference between agile development and agility.
  2. Explain how agility can be incorporated into engineered products/systems.

Question 4

  1. Explain how a Requirements Breakdown Structure (RBS) is typically constructed. What information does it contain?
  2. Discuss the process whereby requirements in the RBS are allocated to the physical architecture.

Question 5

  1. Explain, using an example of your choosing, how TPMs constrain the evolving design process as we progress from conceptual design through to preliminary design and detailed design and development.
  2. Discuss the relationship between project management and systems engineering.

Answer

Question 1 (10 Marks)
a. Definition of System and its differences with subsystems, and systems of systems
The information used to prepare this engineering assignment signifies that a system is mainly a collection of components or elements which will be prearranged for any purpose. Sometimes, this word depicts the planning of the organization and it at times it denotes various parts inside the system. Like, a computer system is consisting of several hardware components that are going to be chosen carefully so as a result, they can be work smoothly with altogether. Software programs are also able to run in the system. The main software element is the operating system which will be providing and managing all services put together and helps other programs to run smoothly in the computer system.

The system is the combination of all elements while interacting and they will be organized for achieving other purposes which will be stated. On the other hand, subsystems are subordinate system or secondary system inside a bigger system. It mostly is responsible for all types of services in the bigger system and they will be implemented in the software, hardware. System of systems (SOS) is the viewpoint of independent, multiple, dispersed systems from the context and they are the type of complex system. The main aim of this SoS considered herein engineering assignment is to gain the maximum amount of bigger systems by knowing every of the system how they will be work.

b. System engineering approach for COVID-19?
Australia has adopted a systematic approach for dealing with the Covid-19 crisis. Policymakers are presenting a linear view of world and pull the right levers for getting society and economy back on the right track. The researchers have argued about an approach that is ignoring how a system is interacting and how the systemic properties are dealing with the interaction and lead to an over-emphasis on some particular set of characteristics by focusing on the notable efficiency. The efficiency in operation, outcomes, management, and various social systems is not a collective choice although it is a response of the entire system. This is leading Australia towards relying on a nested, complex and interconnected system for delivering goods and services to other parts of the world. The approach is having too many advantages where the crisis of Covid-19 is reducing for the resilience of key systems and allowing failures in cascading from one system to the other. System approach basically relies on resilience proposed for preparing socioeconomic systems against future shock.

Question 2 (10 Marks)
a. Indooroopilly roundabout upgrade project
The additional information needed for project are how the project is working, how it is gaining community feedback, several benefits of the project, various features of the project, investigation works and more. As per the information, it is found that intersection is catering high traffic volumes and is experiencing a significant congestion. The project must construct an overpass that connects Coonan Street and Moggill Road and allows traffic on Moggil road. It should upgrade the existing service road for connecting the Coonan Street Overpass. An access at Keating Street is needed for improving safety by removing the right turn. Similarly an access at Payne Street and Nelson parade is needed for improving safety and traffic flow as well as merges vehicles with existing road constraints. Some additional sections are to be provided and a left turn access is to be retained.

b. Safety recalls on cars
The scale for each recall is growing. The average number of vehicles associated with recall before the major airbag recall has reached to a great extent. Issues related to airbags are leading to most automotive recalls. It is becoming more likely for affecting a number of vehicle platforms. The complexity as well as reach of quality issues being increased effect on consumer confidence and reputation.

Product recalls are increasing day by day. Recalls for established and new products both takes place too often, and these are capable of causing serious repercussions. They are destroying the company as well as brand’s name. In order to control these company need some strategies. The strategy which will help the company and will address the implications of a recall is needed for the business functions. The strategy will be cutting down the time and will deal with various stages of recall. The organization is delineating the functional areas for discussion purposes. The various functional areas are communications, logistics, and product development, planning and policy and information systems. The organization’s plan must be focusing on all these areas for several phases of recall, discovery of problem, follow-up actions and aftermath.

Question 3 (10 Marks)
a. Difference between agile development and agility.
Agility is the ability to respond while changing. It is known that organizations, individuals, and teams will be not able to react always to the changing in their surroundings and they so struggle a lot to performing, competing, and also to succeed in their purposes. If any company will be gone out of their business, then the lost magnificent market will be sharing reliability to its consumers. Then, the probability of ability will begin. Agile development consists of various tools and some techniques which will be helping them to achieve agility. Agile development is the framework for featuring the development in extreme programming. Agile development needs more practices for test-driven development, Pair programming, planning sessions, stand-ups, and many more. It is based on principles and values for approaching software development in a specific manner. It will separate Agile from other approaches by focusing on the people how they will be working together. The agile development team needs to ore focusing their self-organizing team and also on the collaboration. On the other hand, agile will be dealing with uncertain and unsettled environment and they will respond according to their approaches.

b. Agility into engineered products / systems.
Recently, agile development processes are marked as the key to the development of dome physical products. These procedures will be pursuing the ultimate target of all resources which are available in the market and help for the realization of products in the current market. By incorporating the engineered products, agility will assure a ramp-up phase for creating more stability. The main goal of this ability is to identify all agile product development and physical products. The success factor of various manufacturing companies will be helping to sum up all life cycles of products and also to increase all needs of consumers. Agility is a learning-oriented methodology which will be characterized by the realization of all increments of software. From the studies which are conducted for explaining agility into engineering denotes that all products has documented on the time of using agile processes. Software development association have found the decrement in various markets and they also notices some increment in the productivity. From individuals studies it has been found that, productivity, cost benefit, and the quality will be increased from 14 percent to 93 percent. The approximate averages getting from this study will be differed by quality, cost, and productivity.

Question 4 (10 Marks)
a. Construction of Requirements Breakdown Structure (RBS)
Requirement breakdown structure is the hierarchical framework that mainly all activities and tasks for the needs of the project and they will deliver and conducted for achieving all expected goals. This Requirement breakdown structure differs from other breakdown structures by verifying specific problem and also for those products which are yet to be developed. Requirement breakdown structure helps in requirement management by collecting, communicating, and working through the stakeholders of the project. It will provide a basic understanding of the workstation and all their needs for achieving their ultimate goal. In this type of graph, a tree will always get created by all needs of these hierarchical structures. Project managers of various organizations are using this breakdown structure to establish all requirements. It always stood by placing the main goal of the project and all sub-requirements will be a branch off from them. The main need is to create the project goal, create columns that the project needs. It is the main step of the positive flow of any project. It will be allowing various needs for understanding and achieving all deadlines of important tasks. Requirement breakdown structure all information regarding all tasks of the project by and helps to establish them for the organization to achieve their ultimate goals in the current market.

b. Discuss the process whereby requirements in the RBS are allocated to the physical architecture.
With the help of a preliminary OpsCon as well as other PLCD, the requirement engineers are developing or allocating RBS to physical architecture. They follow a structured process for eliciting stakeholder’s needs as well. This is presented in the form of a refined OpsCon document and completion of LCD and then transforming these to formal set of stakeholder requirements. Business management initiates with a guidance included in ConOps later on from which PLCD and other business needs are being defined. The requirements for allocation are transformed to System requirements included in SyRS.

Question 5 (10 Marks) 400
a. Explain, using an example of your choosing, how TPMs constrain the evolving design process as we progress from conceptual design through to preliminary design and detailed design & development.
Technical performance measures or TPMs are considered to be those tools that helps the system to satisfy all the requirements or achieve all the goals. It provides insight as to the parameters of the specific design elements of the system. TPM is utilised by project management for defining the measures of performance as well as some acceptable variables at the time of project implementation. It helps the organization in monitoring the significant aspects of its programs, systems, and care processes. Data are being collected for reflecting how the processes work and what information is utilised for driving the organization's decisions over time.

b. Relationship between project management and systems engineering.
Project management is mainly liable for all aspects regarding the project and it will include all usage of funds, their sources, schedule, delivery time, and people. Whereas, system engineering will be work as the project manager and it will be the reason for all technical aspects of that system. They will be including agreements of all requirements, allocation of the technical aspects, the process, resulting product, and all specification of materials which are incorporated with the solution, different verification methods, and all other supporting subsystems. Despite the development of project management, the majority of projects will depend on time, cost, and performance. There is an overlapping among system engineering and project management. Both are key documents that can be used for defining all methods and procedures which is highly needed for the project and it will help to deliver better services. Depend upon the organization and environment, it has shown that both system engineering and project management are intersecting partially and one is a subset of the other. This project management and system engineering encompassing managerial and technical leadership of the project which needs to enterprise system engineer and project manager working out on the specific details in this context.

Bibliography
Debbiche, F., Wrang, M. and Sinkala, K., 2019. Accelerating Software Delivery in the context of Requirements Analysis and Breakdown for DevOps: A multiple-case study.

Dick, J., Hull, E. and Jackson, K., 2017. Requirements engineering. Springer.

Jha, M.M., Vilardell, R.M.F. and Narayan, J., 2016, August. Scaling agile scrum software development: providing agility and quality to platform development by reducing time to market. In 2016 IEEE 11th international conference on global software engineering (ICGSE) (pp. 84-88). IEEE.

MacEwan, S.R. and Chilkoti, A., 2017. From composition to cure: a systems engineering approach to anticancer drug carriers. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 56(24), pp.6712-6733.

Petersen, L., Lundin, E., Sjöström, J., Lange, D. and Teixeira, R., 2018. Creating comparable public tolerance and technical performance measures for critical infrastructure resilience evaluation. In 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 17 June 2018 through 21 June 2018 (pp. 1231-1240).

Schuh, G., Gartzen, T., Soucy-Bouchard, S. and Basse, F., 2017. Enabling agility in product development through an adaptive engineering change management. Procedia CIRP, 63, pp.342-347.

Zlokazov, D.V., 2020. Project Management vs Systems Engineering Approach to Project Risks Management. KnE Engineering, pp.208-212.

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