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System Analysis And Design Assignment On Dams

Question

Objectives: This assessment requires you critically analyse the system design process of a project using the theory and principles studied during the course. This assessment item relates to the course learning outcomes 1 to 5.

Details: Your group has already analysed the conceptual design of a project in Assignment 1. In this assignment, you are required to write a report which critically analyses the preliminary design and detailed design phases of the project discussed in Assignment 1. Particular attention is to be paid to the system test, evaluation and validation processes employed and any optimisation that was required. In the Introduction, you will need to briefly summarise the content covered in Assignment 1.

To demonstrate your research skills and understanding, the report must draw upon relevant sources like journals, books or reputable trade publications in analysing the project. You must also present the case study in terms of the above two lifecycle phases and evaluate the detailed design against the identified needs / requirements. Must include 20 references.

Assessment Criteria

  1. Introduction
  2. Preliminary design
  3. Detailed design and development
  4. System test, evaluation & validation and optimisation
  5. Evaluation
  6. Research skills
  7. Grammar and spelling

Answer

Executive Summary: An earth filling can provide a cost-effective way to store large amounts of water for livestock or irrigation. Compared to a dugout, the construction cost for the dam can be very low per gallon of water. As a result of this system analysis and design assignment, dams in both dams and poor water quality are both high vapor loss. Planning successful dams, proper site evaluation, design, construction, and maintenance are required. In detail without this attention, the dam is in danger. There is no "doable" type of dam construction project. This system analysis and design assignment includes critical analyses of the preliminary design and detailed design phases of the project. Particular attention is to be paid to the system test, evaluation and validation processes employed and any optimization that was required.

Introduction: Early embankments of rock-fill, as well as earth-fill, are regularly constructed as simple homogenization systems using the same materials. In the beginning, there was no attempt to subdivide the dam into separate areas, each with a finely applied fabric. The weight of the dam causes the horizontal thrust of the water pressure to bend down to the foundation. The resulting pressure on the Muse should not cause excessive deformation, as this can mostly lead to the project failure which is discussed in this system analysis and design assignment. The dam must be stable and its slope must not slide or slide. In addition, liquefaction of the soil should not occur now, and soil erosion due to water overflowing the top should be avoided, waves on the upstream surface or finer fabrics oozing through the rougher fabric. As with concrete dams, water seepage through the reservoir below the Muse and the actual embankment should also provide some protection.

Preliminary design
Design Requirements

Preliminary design assignment

Most dams have a much larger surface area than shallow sheds and are shallower. Therefore, the dam's evaporation loss is higher than that of the refuge, and the water quality is poor (Acosta et al., 2018).

Functional Criteria
Site characteristics and background data: The general conditions of the dam site are discussed in a number of public documents relating to the mining, operation, expansion, and closure of mines (Ahmad, 2018). Therefore, this part of the report focuses on topics that are directly related to the preliminary design of the main dam. This includes the following: bedrock characterization and local defects;

  • Overlay characterization and permafrost;
  • Hydrogeology;
  • History of the unstable ground; and
  • Tailings properties

Design engineering activities

Design engineering assignment

Image Source: aboutcivil.org

Selection of Design Cross Section The selection of the design section completes the integrated dam replacement assessment to determine the optimum design cross section for preliminary engineering. The selection process involves compiling a list of possible dam alternatives, evaluating each alternative and then selecting a preferred option (Aniskin and Antonov, 2018). The initial screening is based on a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of each dam concept and assigns a low, medium or high preference level to each dam. The option to be rated as a low preference rating is considered unsuitable for further consideration. A medium or high priority dam substitute was assigned for further evaluation. These include geosynthetic linings and fine-grained core dams, as well as combinations of these features. Liners are effective in reducing leakage, but their success requires a high level of confidence in the integrity of the liner. Likewise, the penetration of the fine core depends on the permeability and integrity of the core. Although both are acceptable design methods, the combination liner and fine core dam are preferred as they provide redundancy (Djarwadi et al., 2014). The preferred dam section is shown in SRK-MD-06. Infiltration containment will be provided by a liner upstream of the fine core running in the rock. Proper filtration and mating will ensure adequate protection of the liner and core. Due to the potential deformation calculated by thawing settling and consolidation the LLDPE liner has been selected as the preferred liner because it has a higher strain capacity than other geosynthetics.

design Cross Section in system design assignment

Detailed design
Once the preliminary system analysis and design assignment has been completed and the right site is found, the very next step is to conduct a detailed survey of site and reservoir area to accurately estimate the quantity and provide the essential data for the design work (Jing and Yongbiao, 2012). The purpose of this system analysis and design assignment is to display the contour map of the reservoir on paper until the maximum flood level is reached and exceeded, and provide detailed information on the location of an embankment, spillway, and spout. The capacity of the reservoir can be accessed from the contour map to accommodate different dam heights. The depth-capacity of the curve can then be plotted to provide dam designers with a quick moreover easy way to select the best full supply level on very large sites, contour maps can be drawn - at appropriate design intervals (usually 0.5 m is acceptable for the small dams) - aerial photography and satellites using particular stereo mapping as well as digitization techniques Images, although expensive, can be paid on their own to save time (Lach and Opyrcha?, 2017). However, if this is not possible (usually in a smaller location), one of the following three ground survey methods is required:

  1. Grid survey: It's a simple, straightforward however time-consuming technique. If an area is lush as well as physically inaccessible, it may not be possible.
  2. Cross section: A cross-sectional survey was conducted along different lines within the valley based on previously established baselines.
  3. Point height: This is especially suitable for larger areas. Establish a reference circuit and observe the azimuth, distance and height point height of each station (Luo et al., 2014).

Dam design: For stability, the upstream slope should be at least 3: 1. To protect the dam from the waves requires corrosion protection. This protection can be obtained by combining small and large rocks (or other appropriate materials) and can be achieved by floating log boom for small projects. Downstream slopes require a slope of at least 2: 1 and natural grass is sown to prevent surface erosion. To adjust the road traffic and reduce the chance of corrosion, the top or top of the dam should be at least 10 feet wide (preferably 15 feet). Peak height should be at least 3 feet higher than the reservoir's full water supply (FSL). Dams should be bound to prevent livestock traffic because such a traffic slope and slope can be the main reason for the decline (Sainov and Anisimov, 2017).

Dam design assignment

Image Source: smalldamsguidelines.water.go.ke

Spillway design spillways are a major part of the dam construction. A poorly designed spillway will cause the stove to flow during extreme runoff or severe spillway erosion. In addition to the cost of repairing the dam, these conditions may result in severe water damage, potential flood, and downstream damage. In small irrigation dams, the inlet spillway structure is very expensive. Cutting or natural spillway is the most common. Spillway must be designed as a broad foundation and gentle slope that will reduce the flow of water as well as spillway soil. The foundation and the edges of the spillway should also be sown on the grass. To prevent spillway erosion, if the spillway's foundation slopes are standing, then it may be necessary to use a reprint (a set of loose stones) or in combination with geotextile material. The cutting spillway slope should not be less than 2: 1 (preferably 4: 1 slope). Spillway must be kept away from the packing of the dam, not by packing or directly near the packing (Song, Song and Kwon, 2005). Culverts are often used in spline designs, and if they are too small, they limit spillway flow and cause engineering failure.

Completed building dam should be made of indigestion (clay) material. A simple field test is to determine whether a material is suitable for the content, adding a little quantity of moisture in a small amount and then adding it to the stability of the band is essential. After this, try rolling the material between the palms (Wang, 2014). If the material can be rotated in about 6 inches of pencil diameter in diameter and then can be rotated in the loop without separating the material, then the material has good compaction features.

Dam construction cost estimate: The cost of the dam can now be calculated based on the cost of the dam built in the same area or the rate provided by the local contractor and/or government agency. A list of quantities following the guidance given in Table 3 can then be developed. If a dam (or dam) design and cost plan are to be signed or signed with the private sector, it is important that the costing details in Table 3 and any engineer's estimates are kept confidential and used as a guide or contractor for evaluating any bids. Potential other suggestions to build a dam Annex 1 have more details (Yang, 2013).

The dam is the main part of the dam and some design and construction guidelines must be followed: the slope should not be steeper than the upstream 1:2, and the downstream side should be 1:1.75. If the dam is made of poor materials or may be attacked by bulls or waves, the slope should be flatter to accommodate the situation involved.

Filters and drain filters are expensive and usually, do not require small dams. All "filter" drains are designed to reduce the surface of the embankment to prevent water from flowing out of the downstream slope (Zhang et al., 2016). Corrosion and absorption can cause the material to collapse and endanger the entire structure.

System test, evaluation, validation, and optimization processes
In the field and in the laboratory processes, outline the material suitable for the construction of earth and concrete dams. Standard test methods have been described to determine soil properties and strength. They are used for architectural purposes to determine the suitability of the soil and specify the optimum moisture content for adaptation for maximum density and shear strength. The unethical and quarterly shear power tests were done on compacted samples. Samples of sand and gravel were classified to determine the correct proportion of the concrete mixture. Porosity and permeability tests were conducted to determine the suitability of semi-fertilizer in the origin of the filled dam (Zhou et al., 2011). Rock and concrete strength measurements can also be determined by randomized crashing tests on the sample.

Testing and validation: In the field and in the laboratory processes, outline the material suitable for the construction of earth and concrete dams. Standard test methods have been described to determine soil properties and strength. They are used for architectural purposes to determine the suitability of the soil and specify the optimum moisture content for adaptation for maximum density and shear strength. The unethical and quarterly shear power tests were done on compacted samples. Samples of sand and gravel were classified to determine the correct proportion of the concrete mixture (Acosta et al., 2018). Porosity and permeability tests were conducted to determine the suitability of semi-fertilizer in the origin of the filled dam. Rock and concrete strength measurements can also be determined by randomized crashing tests on the sample.

Optimization:The dam is one of the most important and expensive civil structures allocated to the main part of the national budget (Ahmad, 2018). The cost of building a dam is directly proportional to the size of the earthwork required to build the dam, which depends on the cross-section of the dam. Therefore, smaller dam sections are proportionally associated with fewer earthworks and fewer construction costs. On the one hand, by the traditional method of designing dams, it is very difficult and to some extent impossible to obtain the best dam section to meet stability and performance requirements and to minimize the size of earthwork. In this system analysis and design assignment, the main problem was to system analysis and design assignment the effect of using the bee colony algorithm to optimize the earthwork volume of the dam (Aniskin and Antonov, 2018). In this regard, we have built different platforms to develop unique cases when designing dam sections, thus greatly reducing the scale of earthworks. In addition, the collection of the results obtained and expressed as a linear graph will meet the design requirements of different types of dams while taking into account the main conditions of the problem. For example, you can refer to the relevant chart to observe the size of the earthwork required for different heights of the dam and determine the confidence level of different normal heights. People can also extract the necessary information according to the type of material used in the dam by referring to the relevant chart (Djarwadi et al., 2014).

Evaluation: During the planning phase, if the issue is not clear, the owner should seek the services of a suitably qualified and experienced professional. In the long run, this can save a lot of money and time. Read and understand the conditions of the dam project permit correctly after approval. If you don't understand, seek advice from a professional with the right qualifications and experience (Jing and Yongbiao, 2012). For reasons of dam safety, dams must be constructed in accordance with the conditions permitted by the dam project. According to the Water Management Act of 1999, the department has the authority to take various actions and impose fines when not complying with dam permit conditions. The dam project license holder must provide the contractor with relevant drawings and plans for the dam project proposal. The level of detail in these drawings and plans should correspond to the size, complexity and hazard categories of the dam, as described in the corresponding ANCOLD document, and prepared by appropriate and qualified personnel. This requirement is included in the license conditions (Lach and Opyrcha?, 2017).

Conclusion
Many attempts can be made to get proper humidity for the test. The building materials removed from surrounding hills or excavation in the reservoir area should be kept horizontally in a 6-inch filler layer and should be compiled. If the material is dry, the moisture should be added and the appropriate compaction device should be used to obtain the appropriate component. To evaluate the proper compaction, place the edges of the hard sole on simple test filler and press hard. If only one mark remains, the composition is satisfactory. If the heel is submerged then the compaction is bad. More than 6 inches in diameter should not be kept in filling rocks. Designing images are important to provide comprehensive and useful design images for implementation engineering and final tender and contract awards. It is important to standardize these pictures, provide enough data on the piece of paper to explain the design, and list the main quantities and provide detailed information about the location. System analysis and design assignments are being prepared by our engineering assignment help experts from top universities which let us to provide you a reliable help in assignment service.

References
Acosta, L., de Lacy, M., Ramos, M., Cano, J., Herrera, A., Avilés, M. and Gil, A. (2018). Displacements Study of an Earth Fill Dam Based on High Precision Geodetic Monitoring and Numerical Modeling. Sensors, 18(5), p.1369.

Ahmad, A. (2018). Which software used in Designing of small earthfill Dams?. [online] Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/post/Which_software_used_in_Designing_of_small_earthfill_Dams [Accessed 25 Sep. 2018].

Aniskin, N. and Antonov, A. (2018). Spatial seepage mathematical model of the earth-fill dam in complicated topographic and engineering-geological conditions. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 365, p.042084.

Aniskin, N. and Antonov, A. (2018). Spatial seepage mathematical model of the earth-fill dam in complicated topographic and engineering-geological conditions. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 365, p.042084.

Jing, T. and Yongbiao, L. (2012). Penalty Function Element Free Method to Solve Complex Seepage Field of Earth Fill Dam. IERI Procedia, 1, pp.117-123.

Lach, S. and Opyrcha?, L. (2017). Using the modified scalar product approach for testing the direction of seepage through the earth-fill dam in Pieczyska. Journal of Water and Land Development, 33(1), pp.89-98.

Luo, Y., Chen, L., Xu, M. and Huang, J. (2014). Breaking mode of the cohesive homogeneous earth-rock-fill dam by overtopping flow. Natural Hazards, 74(2), pp.527-540.

Sainov, M. and Anisimov, O. (2017). Stress-strain state of seepage-control wall constructed for repairs of earth rock-fill dam. Magazine of Civil Engineering, 68(08), pp.3-17.

Song, S., Song, Y. and Kwon, B. (2005). Application of hydrogeological and geophysical methods to delineate leakage pathways in an earth-fill dam. Exploration Geophysics, 36(1), p.92.

Wang, J. (2014). Hydraulic fracturing in earth-rock fill dams. Singapore: Wiley.

Yang, H. (2013). A New Approach to Quality Detecting and Measuring of Earth-Fill Dam. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 303-306, pp.421-425.

Zhang, X., Zhao, M., Wang, K., Liu, P. and Liu, H. (2016). Application of 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography for Diagnosing Leakage in Earth Rock-Fill Dam. Engineering, 08(05), pp.269-275.

Zhou, G., Zhao, J., Wen, Y. and Yang, Z. (2011). Study on Seismic Permanent Deformation of Earth Rock Fill Dam. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 105-107, pp.1452-1455.

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