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Barriers of Sustainable Tourism Development

Question

Task:Based on your Assessment 2 Annotated Bibliography and also utilising other research, you are required to prepare an extended literature review addressing how contemporary issues are affecting the nature of sustainable tourism development and subsequently how this impacts on different stakeholders and management approaches.

Answer

Abstract
The rationale of this assignment is to analyze the issue that is affecting the comprehensiveness of sustainable tourism development critically and thereby delivering a heavy impact on its stakeholders and the approaches of management. In order to achieve the objectives concerned, the articles were searched electronically via Google Scholar. The articles of the search engine ranged from previous publications to new ones but the authentic recent journals were reviewed. The articles were examined by critically analyzing the topics of the researches made. The reviews portrayed the different perspectives of different authors in accordance to the concept of overcoming the barriers of sustainable tourism and development, thereby stating the method of implementation too.

Introduction
The purpose of this assignment is to address the issues that are emerging as barriers to sustainable tourism development thereby, analyzing the major impacts that are being delivered on the approaches of management and its stakeholders. Most of the tourism businesses bear dependence on the leadership skills of professional entrepreneurs or concerned business owners, as most of them are either small-scale or medium-sized organizations. Without proper vision and ideas of the entrepreneurs, the achievement of success for the company will be non-existent or probably rare, thus bearing certain impacts on its stakeholders and thereby gradually disrupting the approaches of management. Thus, this assignment portrays the need for understanding the emerging barriers thereby understanding the loopholes in the pathway to success for the Tourism Businesses. Sustainable tourism, a word often used in literature, depicts steady, continual development for a tourism company, portraying respect for nature, culture and prevailing social conditions. The origination of tourism was the aftermath of various demographic transitions across the world (Sharpley, 2015). Some of them being, curbing biodiversity, forced discrimination for densely populated areas, etc., thus the idea of sustainable tourism developed as a response to the growing problems across the concept of tourism. It meets the needs of the tourists concerned and their hosts, thereby enhancing the chances of development for the future of the company. Sustainable Tourism mainly focuses on three dimensions; they are Environmental, Social and Economic Dimensions. For understanding the dimension it covers, a structural presentation has been given in support of the concept. It is as follows:

Sustainable tourism development

Fig 1: Dimensions of Sustainable tourism development
(Source: Stylidis, 2016)

The transformation of the simple concept of tourism to a tourism-led economy, there has been an active dependence of several public policies. There have been several anticipations and researches made to identify the approaches for concealing the emerging barriers. The commonly proposed strategies mainly focus on various factors, for example, visitor management, diversification of various products, partnerships, cooperation, and other similar factors as well (Muresan, 2016). Thus, these are the dire needs for sustainable tourism development.

Research Strategy
The articles relating to the concerned topic was researched electronically thereby going through the abstract of several other articles as well. Of the several articles that were researched, very few journals or articles attempted to evaluate the respective topic. Thus to some extent, it is evident that the industry of tourism is still far away from attaining sustainability. The electronic search for journals was done in anticipation of acknowledging the emerging issues that acted as a barrier for sustainable tourism development. After the research, four articles were very relevant to the topic. The articles that were researched are “Over tourism: residents’ perceptions of tourism impact as an indicator of resident social carrying capacity - case study of a Spanish heritage town”, “Is Trekking tourism sustainable? Examples from Nepal”, “Assessing the Responsible Tourism Practices for Sustainable Development - An Empirical Inquiry of Yelagiri, Tamil Nadu”, and “Diffusion of innovation: The case of ethical tourism behavior”. The main research database for this assignment was Google scholar. It helped in systematically analyzing the scholarly articles, by going through the abstract, searching for the relevant keywords relating to the topic and thereby critically relating the assignment with the articles researched.

Literature Review: Gonzalez, Coromina and Galf examined (2007) the influence of carrying capacity of people in the town of Besalu ?, in Spain which is considered as a heritage town. They referred to the impact of the same as a pointer in their study “Overtourism: residents’ perceptions of tourism impact as an indicator of resident social carrying capacity - case study of a Spanish heritage town”.

The abstract of the mentioned study is very informative and precise as it comments on the purpose of the study i.e. social exchange theory and the impact of the perception in regard to carrying capacity. The abstract also throws light upon the method of approach and result of the study. The method is basically a survey and the result assesses the relationship between the socio-demographic and the understandings.

The introduction of the mentioned study provides a good knowledge of the background and acknowledges the work of two scholars but the introduction focuses much on the term ‘residents’. The introduction clearly justifies the research material and includes information of the medieval times. This study explains the aims of the research as within the introduction only there are several paragraphs that start with elaborating the aims and approaches.

The study gives a short but adequate view of the determining factors. The study, before performing the actual survey, provides an explanation and reviewable various articles and studies of the period of 1980-2014 on the topic ‘Residents’ tourism impacts perceptions’. The survey is focused on a questionnaire and the residents of the town were asked the questions to evaluate the results. The study includes a good and elaborate explanation of the methods and tools used in the study but it does not include any comments of the response of the concerned study and neither has it assessed the unwillingness of the non-participants.

The authors in this study carried out the survey among 412 inhabitants with a 5 per cent error margin. The study refers that ‘A total of 76.7 per cent of respondents neither worked in tourism nor did they have any relatives working in the tourism industry, while 23.3 per cent did’ and the study indicates that persons who have someone in the family who is presently in the tourism industry want more tourism growth in the town. This contemporary matter affects the development of sustainable tourism and exhibits a positive impact of the concerned families on the mentioned development. Surveys are performed based on the determinants and those taken as determinants in this study are used very cautiously and in an appropriate manner. Hence, the same method is considered to be the appropriate one by me.

The results were obtained in a very clear manner as explained in the study. The results are a form of a questionnaire, which includes some easily understandable questions like ‘Because of tourism there is more crime in the town center’ which may easily be presented. The limitations and suggestions for further research are not clear.

The study is well concluded by the authors as the same is based on the results of the findings. The major conclusion may be summed up as an investigation of the preferences of willingness that helps to allow more tourism and at the same time provides the limitation of capacity intake approximately (Muler Gonzalez, 2018).

The mentioned study is a detailed survey and convincing and is carried out in a very cautious manner with precise determinants and measurements. The article includes very few portions covering the issues and impacts on different stakeholders and hence should not be recommended to any persons of the concerned profession, nor is it recommended for the villagers and neither to the government and strategy makers.

‘Is Trekking tourism sustainable? Examples from Nepal’ is the concerned study here and the author Böhmer-Bauer in this study evaluated the limit of sustainability of the trekking tours by examining the feedback forms of the customers and self-assessment forms of the different Nepalese agencies.

The abstract of the study is a to-the-point one and it clearly states the purpose, the method and the obtained results of the concerned study.

The introduction fails to provide a strong background without any acknowledgement of works of others in the matter of sustainable tourism. The introduction does clearly justifies the research study and also states the aims of the study clearly.

Methods used in the study are well explained and the relatable area in between is much more elaborately explained. Böhmer-Bauer explained the method of study in the research as a customer feedback form for about 31 customers with a 22% return rate. One of the drawbacks regarding the customer feedback form is that the informative value is limited to only 31 forms. Again the agency evaluation form has a comparatively larger base and consists of the question-answer pattern that includes questions like “Does the agency actively prevents exploitative child labour within its immediate infrastructure”. This study covers the problems regarding the nature of sustainable tourism in a very low capacity as the area of this study is limited to one type of tourism only. The author provides the response rate of the concerned study but says nothing on the topic that why there is a non-participant. The aim to discuss the issues of sustainable tourism and its impact on shareholders and management process is not well served so I would not recommend the concerned method as the appropriate one. If the study could be carried out in a survey form then the limitations of the same could be pushed away a little further and increase the base information.

The results include discussion of the economic, social, ecological impacts of Trekking Tourism in Nepal and the way of the deduction is clear yet descriptive and not to-the-point. The author indicates trekking allowed a steady flow of capital into the country and increases the employment opportunities in the area. More than 50,000 persons are employed in this business. In addition to the increasing opportunities, the social conditions of the concerned areas are also intensified. The limitations are already before mentioned and in addition to that, the study is only limited to the economic and social factors of Nepal only (Böhmer-Bauer, 2012). The study does not provide any suggestive measures for future researches.

The conclusion as provided by Böhmer-Bauer serves sufficiently but the conclusions are not obtained from the findings as the area of the findings is much limited. The major conclusions include different discussions on the growth of economic, social and ecological developments of Nepal; prohibition of child labours and results affecting the local employment.

The study can serve as a good material for information for the trekkers and also for the peoples who take interest in the concerned industry for employment and the agencies as well but do not cover much in regard to the arising problems and its impacts on the shareholders and management processes of sustainable tourism. I consider the study’s approaches toward solving issues as meaningful and mature but it is very descriptive with more words and less knowledge. The concerned article can benefit a person with a similar industry or sharing similar geographical conditions. Villagers, government and strategy makers will definitely find the article as a beneficial one.

Rajamanicam, Mohanty & Chandran, in their journal, “Assessing the Responsible Tourism Practices for Sustainable Development - An Empirical Inquiry of Yelagiri, Tamil Nadu”, critically analyzed the qualitative and quantitative data for understanding the possible extents responsible for tourism practices, followed by different stakeholders, thereby highlighting the sustainability of the destination, Yelagiri.

The abstract is quite informative in relevance to the topic. It gives a clear idea of the impact posed on the stakeholders as an aftermath of the emerging barriers of sustainable tourism development. The findings of the study, emphasizes the positive impact in accordance with the economic benefits enjoyed by the host community thereby admitting the negative social impacts on the destination, which inclines towards the unsustainability in development. The introduction of the article portrays the positive impact posed on the stakeholders and also portrays the negative social impacts. It is an analysis based on the qualitative and quantitative data that has been collected through various questionnaires, observations, and notes collected on the field (Hemachandran, 2018). It clearly aims for the impacts of the research thereby providing proper justification for the topic by emphasizing on the aftermaths of the situation. The research is ‘applied’ in nature as it clearly tends to the development of an overall understanding of the prevailing dynamics in the area of the study. It aims to contribute the share of knowledge possessed by the study, to the existing theory.

The collection of data was performed in two distinct phases, which individually carried out different ways of collecting data. The first phase consisted of unstructured views and participant observations, which were implemented for collecting data from the internal members of the company and government officials. The second phase of collecting data was done based on tourist views, through a designed survey questionnaire. The Participatory Research approach was implemented for the collection of data. It enables on-spot, face-to-face, and appropriately timed data from the local community. Adding on to it, was the proposal of collecting data from the shareholders, which was done by two distinctive groups, one internal and one being external. The internal group comprised of fifteen local community members and five officials of the government, whereas the external groups comprised of almost eighty tourists. The first phase data was an aftermath of the quantitative research whereas the second phase data was qualitative in nature, as it was delivered by undergoing the pros and cons of sustainable tourism. Various data was also collected from books and journals which helped the study to implement a theoretical background for the article (Carr, 2016).

The results of the research were very clear and crisp. It portrayed the destination of Yelagiri to be void in accordance with tourism, as there are no places of disposal and collection of wastes. The questionnaires provided to the tourists portrayed that, almost seventy percent supported the concept, which portrays lack of cleanliness of the tourist location. In comparison to the negative impact of social lack of cleanliness, it also exhibited the role of the destination in attracting tourists. The natural beauty of the tourist spot is the main attraction. Thus the adulteration of the beauty of nature by the emerging lack of cleanliness of the locals, calls for effective management for maintenance. The ground of natural resource protection, received a mixed response from the tourists. There was no proper response to establish the concreteness of the argument.

The results of the research were very clear and crisp. It portrayed the destination of Yelagiri to be void in accordance with tourism, as there are no places of disposal and collection of wastes. The questionnaires provided to the tourists portrayed that, almost seventy percent supported the concept, which portrays lack of cleanliness of the tourist location. In comparison to the negative impact of social lack of cleanliness, it also exhibited the role of the destination in attracting tourists. The natural beauty of the tourist spot is the main attraction. Thus the adulteration of the beauty of nature by the emerging lack of cleanliness of the locals, calls for effective management for maintenance. The ground of natural resource protection, received a mixed response from the tourists. There was no proper response to establish the concreteness of the argument.

The above-explained study has been very comprehensive in nature thereby portraying the weaknesses to work on and systematically analyzing the strengths, which in a way helped the tourist spot to hold its firmness thereby not being considered, or for not being expelled from the list of tourist attractions.

Ganglmair-Wooliscroft & Wooliscroft, in their journal, “Diffusion of innovation: The case of ethical tourism behavior”, critically analyzed the increasing importance of ethical consumption in relevance to various governments, researchers, and customers. The purpose of this research is to prove that consumer innovation is extremely in invoking ethical behaviors within tourists.

The abstract of the research is not in proper accordance with the purpose of the study. The research investigates and triggers the innovativeness of behaviors by implementing a hierarchy coined as Ethical Tourist Behavior (ETB). The implementation will somewhat help in developing the nature of sustainable tourism by relating to the Rasch Model for providing a link between the static innovativeness within different individuals and Dynamic diffusion of Innovation Model. By implementing the Rasch model and the Dynamic diffusion of Innovation Model, companies gain ideas regarding the insights of potentials for triggering future innovations and thereby overcoming the cooperative barriers for sustainable tourism development, which is the only relevance of this article with the topic.

The background of the research has been clearly portrayed by the authors but is not in proper accordance with the topic of the assignment. This research develops a hierarchy of ETB to explore whether it can create or provide a link between the individual innovativeness and diffusion of innovation. This research is not in relevance to the topic but some way or the other solves a basic issue for overcoming a barrier of sustainable tourism development, i.e., by invoking consumer ethics in tourism, which is indeed very necessary for tourism to be recognized as an industry.

The research uses a online sample for commercially analyzing 322 respondents, in New Zealand, who have been on a major holiday in the last three years. This research helped to possess an idea regarding the ETB of the tourists, which will help the tourism company to get an idea regarding the item selection process and suitably analyzing the probable characteristics. The ETB forms the main part of the questionnaire, followed by the selection process of ETB in accordance with the Rasch Model and the Diffusion of Innovation Model and lastly followed by the additional scales and variables within the questionnaire. ETB covers a wide behavioral range which will thereby help the study to be more concrete and comprehensive. This does not directly relate to the topic but in a way helps to understand the basic needs of the tourists for tourism development (Ganglmair-Wooliscroft, 2016). The relevance brought by the author was the basic ethical holiday behaviors portrayed by the tourists who will eventually help every tourism business to flourish and curb the excess expenses.

The results of the study were obtained using ECI, universalism and demographic variables. 49% percent of respondents last major holiday were a year ago and half of the holidays were domestic thereby not being in the category of major holidays. The major issues that arose out of the research were lack of sustainable transport, selection of holiday destination close to home and improvisation of business using locals. There were various other issues as well which included reusing towels, water bottles, and other re-usable aspects which triggered the tourism company to curb their expenses precisely (Tourism, 2017). This is the only relevance of the research to the journal reviewed. This also portrayed the change in ethics while on a holiday in comparison to regular-day ethics. It provided a clear idea for further research but provided an ambiguous concept of the limitation of the article.

The conclusion provides a clear view of portraying the overview of the ethics involved in tourist behaviors. The relevant conclusion to the topic of the assignment involves, identifying the issues that are acting as a barrier to the development of tourism. Thus it somehow enabled the customer and company point of view in accordance with the concept of tourism. Sustainable tourism development assignments are being prepared by our management assignment help experts from top universities which let us to provide you a reliable assignment help online service.

The above-explained article analyzes the basis importance of ethics in tourists which is only important to curb the unnecessary expenses in accordance with the topic of the assignment.

References
The reference style displayed in the paper is the APA style. Adequate references have been used. The variety of references used in the articles were found to be relevant to the topic concerned and are up to date which enables or portrays proper information and is used appropriately in the whole assignment. The wide assortment of articles chosen for the selected topic ensures that an unbiased study on “Sustainable Tourism Development” had been executed in every article.

Reference List
Benur, A. M., & Bramwell, B. (2015). Tourism product development and product diversification in destinations. Tourism Management, 50, 213-224.

Böhmer-Bauer, K. (2012). Is Trekking tourism sustainable? Examples from Nepal. Journal of Tourism, 13(2).

Carr, A., Ruhanen, L., & Whitford, M. (2016). Indigenous peoples and tourism: the challenges and opportunities for sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 24(8-9), 1067-1079.

Edgell Sr, D. L. (2016). Managing sustainable tourism: A legacy for the future. Routledge.

Ganglmair-Wooliscroft, A., & Wooliscroft, B. (2016). Diffusion of innovation: The case of ethical tourism behavior. Journal of Business Research, 69(8), 2711-2720.

Hemachandran, R., Priyakrushna, M., & Anu, C. (2018). Assessing the responsible tourism practices for sustainable development-an empirical inquiry of Yelagiri, Tamil Nadu. Journal of Hospitality Application & Research, 13(2), 1-29..

Kim, S., Whitford, M., & Arcodia, C. (2019). Development of intangible cultural heritage as a sustainable tourism resource: the intangible cultural heritage practitioners’ perspectives. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 1-14.

Muler Gonzalez, V., Coromina, L., & Galí, N. (2018). Overtourism: residents’ perceptions of tourism impact as an indicator of resident social carrying capacity-case study of a Spanish heritage town. Tourism Review, 73(3), 277-296.

Muresan, I., Oroian, C., Harun, R., Arion, F., Porutiu, A., Chiciudean, G., ... & Lile, R. (2016). Local residents’ attitude toward sustainable rural tourism development. Sustainability, 8(1), 100.

Poudel, S., Nyaupane, G. P., & Budruk, M. (2016). Stakeholders’ perspectives of sustainable tourism development: A new approach to measuring outcomes. Journal of Travel Research, 55(4), 465-480.

Sharpley, R., & Telfer, D. J. (2015). Tourism and development in the developing world. Routledge.

Stylidis, D. (2016). The role of place image dimensions in residents' support for tourism development. International Journal of Tourism Research, 18(2), 129-139.

Sustainable Tourism Development assignment


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