Free sample   Statistics assignment examining government policies of new zealand india canada and south africa related to older adults

## (HLTH7003) Statistics assignment examining the government policies of the New Zealand, India, Canada, and South Africa related to older adults

Question

Task: Can you analyze the government policies related to older adults in New Zealand, India, Canada, and South Africa in your statistics assignment

2. Introduction to the statistics assignment
2a. Outline of chosen Countries

The three chosen countries in the statistics assignmentare South Africa, India and Canada with New Zealand. South Africa is situated towards the southern tip of the continent of Africa. It is marked by numerous distinct ecosystems. The population of the country as of the year 2020 was recorded as 2.93 crores (gov.za, 2022). Presently, the population of the country stands at 69,281,690 as per the statistics assignment. It is around .87% of the entire population of the world. The population of older people in the year increased to 5.7 million. About 5.6% of the whole population is above the age of 65 (statista.com, 2022). The country has one of the fastest ageing populations with a specific enhancement in the age category of 64-73. Chronic poverty's distribution adheres to the profile of national poverty (files.ethz.ch, 2022). India is situated in the northern hemisphere of the continent of Asia (india.gov.in, 2022). Its population in the year 2022 was recorded to be 138 crores and it is considered the second most populous country in the world (worldometers.info, 2022). The older people population of the country is around 104 million and it accounts for nearly 8.6% of the entire population as per the statistics assignment. In this total population of old age in India, females were more in proportion than males (macrotrends.net, 2022).

Canada is situated in the upper segment of the continent of North America and is surrounded by oceans on all sides (educanada.ca, 2022). The present population of Canada is 38,419,880 and this is equal to 0.48% of the entire population of the world. Around 6,835,866 are seniors of the age 65 and more than that. This accounts for bout 18% of the entire population in comparison to the population of 6,038,647 children between 0 to 14 (statcan.gc.ca, 2022). About 1.1 million of the entire senior population of Canada are found to be employed as of the year 2015 as per the statistics assignment. Employment income is the chief source of income for around 43.8% of the senior population (statcan.gc.ca, 2022). New Zealand is situated in the Pacific Ocean and is an island country. There are two chief islands known as South Island and North Island. New Zealand has an approximate population of around 49 lacs (worldometers.info, 2022). Out of the entire population mentioned in the statistics assignment, around .79 million in the year 2020 and an estimated that by the year 2048, the population of the senior people will be between 1.36 to 1.51 million (Dalziel, 2022).

2b. Outline the policies and strategies of the government in the statistics assignment
The older population in South Africa have very less participation in the work or labour force at an immensely low rate largely because of the delivery of a pension of non-contributory nature. Since the initial years of 1900, the old age grant that has been serving as the nation's only scheme of public pension is available for the senior population. The country has five main grants for providing social assistance to the elderly namely the State Old Age Pensions, The Foster Care Grant, The Child Support Grant, The Disability Grant and The Care Dependency Grant (social.un.org, 2022). The government of the country as per the statistics assignmentneeds to prioritize investing and preventing unwanted expenditures on the vulnerable segment of its population. It needs to decrease the cabinet and contract the service of civil servants (westerncape.gov.za, 2022). Privatize the SOEs and apply the money for bailing out those companies to the advantage of the disabled and the unemployed of the old-aged population. According to the statistics assignmentthe social grants provided by the government of South Africa are managed by SASSA and are subsidized by the national taxes nonetheless are means-tested; it only makes the payment if the concerned senior falls below a certain threshold of income and has no dependence on the amount of payment made by SASSA.

The government of Canada has permanently enhanced the pension namely Old Age Security by 10% for the senior population. It is a pension that is paid monthly to people falling in the age group of 65 and more. In certain situations, Service Canada will have the ability to routinely enrol the people of that age group for receiving the OAS pension (Tarasuket al., 2019). Further it can be said in the statistics assignment, the CPP (Canadian Pension Plan) makes payments to the survivor, dead, disabled and benefits of the children to the ones who are qualified for receiving the pension. Numerous territorial and provincial programmes offer additional assistance to the people in receipt of the allowance or GIS. These programmes include property tax relief, rental subsidy and property tax deferment. In India, the government policies for the older population are the National Pension System, Atal Pension Yojana and Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme. The National Programme's concern for the adults is one of the strategies of the country for the elderly (socialjustice.gov.in, 2022). New Zealand Government has developed policies such as Veteran’s Pension and New Zealand Superannuation (WrightSt Clair et al., 2017). Certain other advantages that the country offers to the old are Residential Care Loan and Super Gold Card as per the statistics assignment.

2c. Outline of statistics assignment
In this statistics assignmentfour places namely Canada, South Africa, India and New Zealand are considered for evaluating the lifestyle of their older population. This has fundamental data in concern to the geographical location and sources of income of the older population. The statistics assignment discusses the essential policies and strategies that these places have adopted for offering financial assistance to the elderly population. Further, information in concern the differences in life expectancy in these places has been discussed in the statistics assignment. A certain recommendation has been made to better New Zealand's life expectancy.

2d. Brief overview of the findings of the statistics assignment
Out of the chosen countries in the statistics assignment, New Zealand has the lowest population and India has the highest. All four countries have distinct policies of pension and strategies for the older segment of the population. As per the statistics assignment, Canada has the most appropriate policies of pension and strategies for the older population. The government of Canada has permanently enhanced the pension namely Old Age Security by 10% for the senior population. As per the statistics assignmentit is a pension that is paid monthly to people falling in the age group of 65 and more. In certain situations, Service Canada will have the ability to routinely enrol the people of that age group for receiving the OAS pension. Further, the CPP makes payments to the survivor, dead, and disabled and benefits of the children to the ones who are qualified for receiving the pension. Numerous territorial and provincial programmes offer additional assistance to the people in receipt of the allowance or GIS.

3. Analysis
3a. Analysis of the government policies in the statistics assignment

New Zealand
New Zealand Superannuation is a flat-rate public pension available to all citizens of New Zealand who are 65 years old and have resided in the nation for at least 10 years, starting at age 20, or for at least five years, starting at age 50 (SSA 2007). The amounts of NZS benefits are taxable as income and are based on marital status and living conditions (Bell, 2021). Prominently it is found in the statistics assignmentthat there are three pillar pension systems available in New Zealand within the New Zealand Superannuation scheme. These include- Public Pensions: The New Zealand Superannuation (NZS) public pension system in New Zealand is unique compared to those in many other nations. Its main objective is to provide social safety, not to replace income. All inhabitants mentioned in the statistics assignmentwho meet the residency criteria get the non-contributory flat-rate pension when they reach 65 (St John& Dale, 2019). The recipient must have spent at least 10 years of their life in New Zealand since turning 20—at least five of those years must have been spent in the nation after turning 50. The general tax earnings are used to pay for the pension. The deadline for discussing the residence requirements is 2017–18. Occupational Pensions: The KiwiSaverprogrammeas per the statistics assignmentwas put into place in July 2007 to supplement the pension vehicles available for second pillar pension provision in addition to the current private-sector superannuation systems (Pensionfundsonline. co, 2022). KiwiSaver scheme: A voluntary work-based savings programme called KiwiSaveraccording to the statistics assignmentwas created to supplement the NZS and aid in the growth of overall retirement savings (Ssa.gov, 2022). New hires are registered automatically and have eight weeks to determine whether they want to opt-out. Employees already employed may choose to participate. The employee must decide which KiwiSaver scheme provider and how much to contribute, as well as where the savings should be allocated. Depending on the gross wage, the contribution rate is either 4% or 8%. Employer contributions are optional as per the statistics assignmentand are subject to a scale of vesting; if the employer and employee divide the 4% or 8% mandatory contribution rate, the entire money vests right away.

India
Except for individuals who work for the armed forces, all Indian employees from the public, private, and even unorganised sectors are eligible for the National Pension Scheme, also known as the National Pension System. As per the statistics assignmentin order to participate in the NPS plan, users must contribute a minimum of Rs. 6,000 per fiscal year, which can be made in a single payment or as minimum monthly instalments of Rs. 500 (Policybazaar.com, 2022). The IGNOAPS or Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme is a pension system wherein BPL individuals 60 years of age or older are eligible for a monthly pension of Rs. 200 up to 79 years of age and Rs. 500 after that (National Social Assistance Programme, 2022). A non-contribution pension is the IGNOAPS Scheme. The statistics assignment indicates that no financial contribution is required from the beneficiary in order to get the pension. Employers and the government each contribute 8.33% and 1.16% of salaries to the Employees' Pension Scheme, a defined-benefit plan. The maximum assessment is €112 (INR 6,500). The retirement age under this plan is 58, but early retirement with diminished benefits is permitted starting at age 50 (Pensionfundsonline. co, 2022). A lump payment of one-third of the capital may be withdrawn. There are 32 million participants in the Employees' Pension Scheme, which employs the EET taxation premise.

South Africa
The South African Social Security Agency (SASSA) is a non-contributory pension grant as per the statistics assignmentthat is offered to most pensioners based on the different insurance-based employee and company pensions and provident funds (Pensionfundsonline. co, 2022). It involves private pensions and insurance arrangements collectively. The SASSA Grant for Older Persons is what a state pension is known in South Africa. Approximately 75% of the senior population receives these handouts. According to the statistics assignmentthe grant is funded by tax contributions (South African Government, 2022). The means-tested pension is given to people whose income and assets fall below a particular cutoff. The Sovereign’s occupational pension and saving schemes is an effective vehicle that enables the MNC and local employers to meet their obligations and expectations of the current and future employees by enabling the employees to achieve their retirement and savings objectives (Sovereign Pensions - International Pension Services & Offshore Pensions, 2022). The statistics assignmenthas allowed the organisations to set up an individual occupational pension plan for the employees who are working in different countries and allow globally mobile employees or workers in locations wherein such provisions do not exist.

Canada Pension Plan: The Canada Pension Plan or CPP is a retirement pension plan which is a monthly, taxable benefit which has replaced the part of the income when the employee retires. As per the statistics assignmentin order to qualify for the CPP retirement pension, one needs to be at least 60 years of age and have made at least one valid contribution to the CPP (Canada.ca, 2022). The monthly payment is determined by the employee’s average earnings over the course of his working career, his CPP contributions, and the age at which he began receiving his CPP retirement income. Therefore, the CPP contributions are determined by own income (MacDonald, 2019). Old Age Security (OAS) program: As per the statistics assignmentMost Canadians 65 and older receive a means-tested flat-rate pension through the Old Age Security (OAS) programme, which is funded by government taxes. The amount of the pension is decreased for those who have resided in Canada for less time (Pensionfundsonline. co, 2022). Residents who have lived in Canada for 40 years or more receive a full pension.

3b. Comparison of selected countries with New Zealand in the statistics assignment

New Zealand and India
• When examined in terms of non-contributory scheme characteristics in the statistics assignment, IGOANPS of India and superannuation of New Zealand are comparable. The IGOANPS in India, however, exclusively accepts older adults who are below the poverty level; however, superannuation in New Zealand is open to everyone who is 65 years or older (Unnikrishnan& Imai, 2020).
• As per the statistics assignmentthe National Pension Scheme for Senior Citizens in India is comparable to Kiwisaver in New Zealand because both are contributory programmes. However, there is one key distinction between the two: NPS is voluntary for everyone else and mandatory for federal servants.

New Zealand and South Africa
• According to the statistics assignmentthe superannuation scheme in New Zealand and The South African Social Security Agency both are similar in nature as they are non-contributory. However, the eligibility criteria, minimum age and amount are different for both countries.
• However, the occupational pension scheme for both countries is different. For New Zealand, the KiwiSaver scheme is available to second pillar pension groups and private sector employees. On the other hand, it can be said in the statistics assignmentthat the Sovereign's occupational pension and saving schemes of South Africa are available to the MNC and local employees working within the country (Thovoethin&Ewalefoh, 2018).

• The KiwiSaverprogramme in New Zealand, which began in June 2007 as per the statistics assignment, is non-contributory in nature, whereas the CPP in Canada is contributory. A person who wants to derive the benefits of CPP must have contributed once to the CPP (Williams, 2020).
• The Public Pension Scheme operated in New Zealand, and Old Age Security (OAS) programme is similar in nature to providing financial aid to people who are above 65 years of age, and both are flat rates.

StatisticalDataonLifeExpectancy:
a) Tableorbargraph to showthecountrylifeexpectancy of theolder population:

New Zealand Life Expectancy (Macrotrends, 2020)IndiaLifeExpectancy(Macrotrends,2020)South Africa Life Expectancy (Macrotrends, 2020)CanadaLife Expectancy (Macrotrends, 2020)

LifeExpectancyofselectedcountriesaveragedata

From the above graph in the statistics assignment, it is pretty much clear that the rate of life expectancy is seen to be risinginNewZealandandCanada.Thisshowsthatthereisanunendingandratherhealthyenvironmentandsettingsforthe olderpopulationinthecountry.Therewasalsoariseby85%inlifeexpectancywhichimpliesthatthereisaneffectivepolicyofincomeandhealththathaveagoodimpactontheoverall health for the older population in the country. However it can be noted in the statistics assignment, South Africa has the lowest lifeexpectancy than the other country because of the poverty is the big issue impact on the countryeconomy in which the people suffer from the financial problems and not having good holisticdevelopment. The statistical data is provided here indicates that there is a consistent growth

intermsoflifeexpectancywiththeelderlypopulationinthecountriesthathadbeenselectedfortheassessment. This is in statistics assignment, a positive suggestion since there is overall betterment of physical andmental health and status of the people and also a significant growth of the health sectors in theselectedcountries.

b) Reasonsthatwhatarethedifferencesinlifeexpectancyoftheselectedcountriesare:

The major reasons for the difference in the life expectancy is not very huge for Canada as per the statistics assignment, when wecomparetheresultstoNewZealand.Theprimaryreasonforthisisthehighleveloftechnologicaladvancementtha tispresentinthesecountries.Thesecountrieshavesharedastrongfinancepower

aswellandtheirgovernmentalstructurehasinspiredthemtomaintainbetterhealthandwellbeingfor the older population. When looking into the other aspects in the present statistics assignment, these countries also have properinvestments for research and development which includes health care, technology, and businessfunctions. When analysing them in that manner, these countries are able to achieve better in termsof life expectancy in the past years. This also indicated that there is constant growth of lifeexpectancyin the pastfew years (Trainor, 2019). When we look into the case of South Africa in this statistics assignment, the life expectancy rate is comparatively lower.
Thecountrydoesnothaveproperdevelopmentintermsofhealthcareandtechnology.Apartfromthis,the average life expectancy of the females in the country is more than that of males. This may bejustified due to the fact that that there is acute shortage of provisions for health care and alsomedical facilities (Ministry of Health , 2021). Leaving that aside, the country also does not haveproperinvestmentinthesectorsincetheoverallincomeoftheaveragepopulationisverylow.Thecountryhasalsobeenf acingalotofissuesandstrugglesintermsofmaintenanceofsupportfromthe community for the older population in the long term, which has led to a rise in the mortalityratein the country (Trainor, 2019).

The data in the statistics assignmentalso shows or indicates that there is a constant growth in the rates of expectancy that isneeded for the older population in the countries that are stated above. This is a highly positivesince it allows for better mental and physical conditions that can lead to the promotion of betterhealth status of the population and also it indicates the growth of the population at whole. Whenconsidering both the population this statistics assignment, it aims to show that the fluctuations in the rates can help tounderstand the underlying needs and differences that are present in the population (Beckman,2016).

When compared to these nations in the statistics assignment, New Zealand has got a much stabler life expectancy rate that issimilar to Canada. The higher rate here in life expectancy is justified mainly due to the fact thatthere is a stable economy and also that there is proper advancement in health care and alsocommunitydevelopmentandsupportinthenation.As per the statistics assignmentthecountryisalsoaleadingadvocateintermsofdeliveringpropercareplanfortheelderlypopulation.Thisleadst otheoveralldevelopmentandwellbeing for the older population, both mentally and physically. The rate of life expectancy ofmales and the female counterparts is quite similar to one another and this points at a progressivesocio-culturalgrowthandasustainabledistributionoftheeconomy(OECD, 2011).

Hence it can be said in this statistics assignment, there are number of factors that are responsible for the upliftment of the population in anycountry, and they can reflect in the health and the overall wellbeing of the older population in thecountry.Thereasonsorthefactorsmayberelatedtothecommunity,politics,individualfactors significant impact on the life expectancy of the old population in the world. This means that therewill be irregularity when it comes to the distribution of income of the people. It is stated in the statistics assignmentthat when there issocioeconomicequalityinacountry,thentherewillbegreateraccesstohealthcare,andthiscan

metinaneffectivemanner (OfficeforNational Statistics,2017).

Recommendations in statistics assignment

upwiththechangingneedsoftheolderpopulation.

In the coming years it can be said in this statistics assignment, there are high chances that there will be a rise in the population of the olderpopulation when compared to that of younger generation in major cities and so there will be
arisingdemandforskilledhealthcareworkersandphysicians.Thegovernmentshouldbeableto courses affordable and also less stressful so that there will be no scarcity for health care workers.There are also number of remote areas in the statistics assignmentwhere the aged people are facing issues for their needs forassistanceandsotheremustbepoliciesandstrategiesthatshouldbecreatedwhichleadstoa rise

nothavetosufferintheterminalstages(Tiberian,2018).

Also, most of the older population as per the statistics assignmenthas their own houses but there are the others who do not havethe means to buy one. Even though the policies like Superannuation funds and Kiwi Saver
arepractical,thegovernmentshouldfocusonmorepoliciesthatcanaidtheminloweringtheinsurancecostsand the rates sothatthey can availtheservicesandbuyahome.

Whenitcomestosafetyandsecurity,thereshouldbeprogramsthatarearrangedinordertomakesurethatthereisnodiscrimin ationofanysortsthatarefacedbytheolderpopulation.Thereshouldalso be adoption of inclusion and diversity policies so that there will be better participation andhealthier life for the people. This is especially beneficial for the elderly population who are stillgoing for work and seeking employment. The life expectancy of the country is also seen to beincreasingwhichindicatesthatpeoplearelivinglongerandhealthierandsoactivitiesandpoliciestokeep them active is alsoimportant (Harvard MedicalSchool, 2011).

Conclusion
Inconclusion of the statistics
assignment,eachandeverypersongrowsoldandalsothattheirneedsanddemandskeep

inaneffectivemannerforboththeurbanandruralareas.Properandeffectivehealthcarepoliciesmakesure that the needs of the older population are metin an effective manner.

Inthisstatistics
assignment,thefirstsectiondealswiththeintroductionofthefourcountries.Thethreecountriesthat had been chosen in comparison with New Zealand are India, Canada, and South Africa.Thenextsectiondealswiththeanalysisofthestrategiesandpoliciesofdifferentcountriesfortheolderor the ageing population. In comparison, New Zealand has got a better and far-reaching policiesandprogramsfortheoldergeneration.Thesocialandculturalprogramsgiveapositiveattitudetolife and makes their life better. In the next section, factors and comparison of the countries werementioned.Finally,thestatistics assignmenttalksaboutdifferentrecommendationstomakethelivesoftheolderpopulation better.

References
%20happen.
%20heavy%20smoking.
(2022). Retrieved 21 July 2022, from https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/128046/WP25_May.pdf (2022). Retrieved 22 July 2022, from https://social.un.org/ageing-working-group/documents/sixth/SouthAfrica.pdf

(2022). Retrieved 22 July 2022, from https://www.westerncape.gov.za/assets/departments/social-development/south_african_policy_for_older_persons_2005.pdf

AFRICA.TheBorgenProject.Retrievedfromhttps://borgenproject.org/elderly-care-in-south-africa/ Aggarwal, S. (2020). Government Schemes for the Benefit of Senior Citizen in India. (GirnarInsurance Brokers Private Limited) Retrieved fromhttps://www.insurancedekho.com/health-insurance/articles/government-schemes-for-the- benefits-with-senior-citizen-in-india-673#popup Bawa, R. (nd.). National Varistha Mediclaim Health Insurance. (Girnar Insurance BrokersPrivate Limited) Retrieved from https://www.insurancedekho.com/health-insurance/national/varistha-mediclaim-policy#popup

Beckman, K. (2016, May 27). 9 Factors That Affect Longevity in statistics assignment. Retrieved fromhttps://www.thinkadvisor.com/2016/05/27/9-factors-that-affect-longevity/ Beckman, K. (2016, May 27). 9 Factors That Affect Longevity. Retrieved fromhttps://www.thinkadvisor.com/2016/05/27/9-factors-that-affect-longevity/ Bell, M. (2021). Golden Years–Understanding the New Zealand Superannuation Fund. http://researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz/handle/10063/9470

Census in Brief: Working seniors in Canada. (2019). Retrieved 22 July 2022, from https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/as-sa/98-200-x/2016027/98-200-x2016027-eng.cfm

Geography and climate | South African Government. (2022). Retrieved 21 July 2022, from https://www.gov.za/about-sa/geography-and-climate

HarvardMedicalSchool.(2011,February).InBrief:SocialRelationshipsandLongevity. HarvardMedicalSchool.(2011,February).InBrief:SocialRelationshipsandLongevity. Health Insurance Organization. (2022). Varistha Mediclaim Policy for Senior Citizens. Retrievedfrom https://www.bankbazaar.com/insurance/national-health-insurance/varistha-mediclaim-policy.html https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/healthandlifeexpectancies/articles/ whataffectsanareashealthylifeexpectancy/2017-06-28

India Population (2022) - Worldometer. (2022). Retrieved 22 July 2022, from https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/india-population/ India Population 1950-2022. (2022). Retrieved 22 July 2022, from https://www.macrotrends.net/countries/IND/india/population

Kanwal,S.(2022). Sourceofincomeamongelderlypopulationin Indiain2021, byarea. MacDonald, B. J. (2019). New Canada Pension Plan enhancements in statistics assignment: What will they mean for Canadian seniors. Canadian Public Policy, 45(4), 403-427.https://www.utpjournals.press/doi/abs/10.3138/cpp.2018-049
Maphumulo, W. T.,&Bhengu,B.R.(2019).Challengesofqualityimprovementinthehealthcare of South Africa post-apartheid: A critical review in statistics assignment. Curationis., 42(1). Retrievedfromhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6556866/ Maphumulo, W. T., & Bhengu, B. R. (2019). Challenges of quality improvement in thehealthcareofSouthAfricapost-apartheid:Acriticalreview.Curationis.,42(1).Retrievedfromhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6556866/

Ministry of Health . (2020, October 14). Health of older people. Retrieved fromhttps://www.health.govt.nz: https://www.health.govt.nz/our-work/life-stages/health-older-people Ministry of Health . (2021, September 5). Healthy Ageing Strategy: update. Retrieved fromhttps://www.health.govt.nz: https://www.health.govt.nz/our-work/life-stages/health-older-people/healthy-ageing-strategy-update#:~:text=New%20Zealand's%20Healthy%20Ageing%20Strategy,and%20throughout%20their%20later% 20years.&text=Prevention%2C%20healthy%20ageing%20and%20resilience,wit Ministry of Health . (2021, September 5). Healthy Ageing Strategy: update. Retrieved
fromhttps://www.health.govt.nz: https://www.health.govt.nz/our-work/life-stages/health-older-people/healthy-ageing-strategy-update#:~:text=New%20Zealand's%20Healthy%20Ageing%20Strategy,and%20throughout%20their%20later% 20years.&text=Prevention%2C%20healthy%20ageing%20and%20resilience,wit Ministry of Health. (2016, December 13). Healthy Ageing Strategy. Retrieved
New Zealand Population (2022) - Worldometer. (2022). Retrieved 22 July 2022, from https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/new-zealand-population/ OECD. (2011). Income and Wealth. II. Material living Condtions, 7. Retrieved fromhttps://www.oecd.org/sdd/47918045.pdf

OECD. (2011). Income and Wealth. II. Material living Condtions, 7. Retrieved fromhttps://www.oecd.org/sdd/47918045.pdf
Office for Disability Issues . (2022). New Zealand Disability Strategy. Retrieved fromhttps://www.odi.govt.nz: https://www.odi.govt.nz/nz-disability-strategy/#:~:text=The%20vision%20of%20the%20New,together%20to%20make%20this OfficeforNationalStatistics.(2017,June28).WhatAffectsanArea'sHealthyLifeExpectancy in statistics assignment.

OfficeforNationalStatistics.(2017,June28).WhatAffectsanArea'sHealthyLifeExpectancy.
OfficeforSeniorCitizens.(2015,April).2014ReportonthePositiveAgeingStrategy.
OfficeforSeniorCitizens.(2015,April).2014ReportonthePositiveAgeingStrategy.
Old age pension | South African Government. (2022). Retrieved 22 July 2022, from https://www.gov.za/services/social-benefits-retirement-and-old-age/old-age-pension

Pensionfundsonline.co., 2022. Pension funds in South Africa. (2022). Retrieved 22 July 2022, from https://www.expatica.com/za/finance/retirement/pensions-in-south-africa-1071359/#:~:text=The%20SASSA%20Grant%20for%20Older,assets%20below%20a%20certain%20threshold.
Pensionfundsonline.co., 2022. Pension System in Canada. Retrieved 22 July 2022, from https://www.pensionfundsonline.co.uk/content/country-profiles/canada
Pensionfundsonline.co., 2022. Pension System in India. Retrieved 22 July 2022, from https://www.pensionfundsonline.co.uk/content/country-profiles/india
Pensionfundsonline.co., 2022. Pension System in New Zealand. Retrieved from https://www.pensionfundsonline.co.uk/content/country-profiles/new-zealand [Retrieved on 22nd July 2022]

Policybazaar Insurance Brokers Private Limited . (2022). LIC Varishtha Pension BimaYojana.Retrieved from https://www.policybazaar.com/insurance-companies/lic-india-pension-plans/varishtha-pension-bima-yojana-plan/
Policybazaar.com., 2022. National Pension Scheme (NPS) – Govt Approved Pension Scheme. Retrieved from https://www.policybazaar.com/life-insurance/pension-plans/nps-national-pension-scheme/ [Retrieved on 22nd July 2022]
Profile| National Portal of India. (2022). Retrieved 22 July 2022, from https://www.india.gov.in/india-glance/profile
Raj, V. (2019). 5 Government Schemes for Senior Citizens That Can Help Create a SteadyIncome! (The Better Academy ) Retrieved
fromhttps://www.thebetterindia.com/192312/government-scheme-senior-citizen-pension- investment-income-india/ Retrievedfrom

Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/1302705/india-source-of-income-among-elderly-population/ South Africa - population 2014-2024 | Statista in statistics assignment. (2022). Retrieved 21 July 2022, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/578867/total-population-of-south-africa/#:~:text=In%202021%2C%20the%20total%20population,at%20approximately%2060.14%20million% 20inhabitants.
Sovereign Pensions - International Pension Services & Offshore Pensions. (2022). Retrieved 22 July 2022, from https://www.sovereigngroup.com/our-services/pensions/ Spindler,M.(2019).THEOLD-AGEPENSIONGRANTANDELDERLYCAREINSOUTH
Ssa.gov., 2022. KiwiSaver: New Zealand's New Subsidized Retirement Savings Plans. Retrieved from https://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/ssb/v67n4/67n4p113.html#:~:text=New%20Zealand%20Superannuation% 20is%20the,and%20are%20taxed%20as%20income. [Retrieved on 22nd July 2022]
St John, S., & Dale, M. C. (2019). Intergenerational impacts: the sustainability of New Zealand Superannuation. Auckland, New Zealand in statistics assignment: Retirement Policy and Research Centre, University of Auckland. https://cdn.auckland.ac.nz/assets/business/about/our-research/research-institutes-and-centres/RPRC/OtherPapers/ToR%206%20FINAL%20St%20John%20and%20Dale%204%20Oct%20revised.pdf

Suvidha Kendera. (nd.). How does Varishtha Pension Bima Yojana benefit senior citizens(Contributing to Indian Economcy ) Retrieved fromhttps://www.gstsuvidhakendra.org/how-does-varishtha-pension-bima-yojana-benefit- senior-citizens/ Tarasuk, V., Fafard St-Germain, A. A., & Mitchell, A. (2019). Geographic and socio-demographic predictors of household food insecurity in Canada, 2011–12. BMC public health, 19(1), 1-12. https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-018-6344-2
The Government of India . (2018, October). National Programme for Health Care of theElderly(NPHCE).Retrievedfromhttps://www.nhp.gov.in/national-programme-for-health-care-of-the-elderly(nphce)_pg The Government of India. (2015, June). National Programme for Health Care of the Elderly(NPHCE) in statistics assignment. (National Institute of Health and Family Welfare) Retrieved fromhttps://www.nhp.gov.in/national-program-of-health-care-for-the-elderly-n_pg#:~:text=The%20National%20Programme%20for%20Health%20Care%20of%20the

The Government of India. (2019, September).https://main.mohfw.gov.in/organisation/Departments-of-Health-and-Family-Welfare/national-programme-health-care-elderly-nphcehttps://main.mohfw.gov.in/organisation/Departments-of-Health-and-Family-Welfare/national-programme-health-care-elderly-nphce. (DepartmentofHealth&FamilyWelfare)Retrievedfromhttps://main.mohfw.gov.in/organisation/Departments-of-Health-and-Family-Welfare/national-programme-health-care-elderly-nphce The New Zealand Government . (2022). NZ Super. Retrieved fromhttps://retirement.govt.nz/policy-and-research/nz-super/

Verma,R.,&Khanna,P.(2013).NationalProgramofHealth-CarefortheElderlyinIndia:AHope for Healthy Ageingstatistics assignment. Int J Prev Med., 4(10), 1103-1107. Retrieved fromhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3843295/

WHO.(n.d.).Healthinequalities:unfair,measurableandremediableThecaseofNewZealand WHO.(n.d.).Healthinequalities:unfair,measurableandremediableThecaseofNewZealand Williams, C. (2020). ‘Troubling Incrementalism’: Is the Canadian Pension Plan Fund Doing Enough to Advance the Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy.https://digitalcommons.osgoode.yorku.ca/ccli_webinars/7/

https://www.worlddata.info:https://www.worlddata.info/life-expectancy.php
World Health Organization. (2016). A strategy for active, health ageing and old age care in theageing and old age care in thestatistics assignment. Retrieved from
https://applications.emro.who.int:https://applications.emro.who.int/dsaf/dsa542.pdfua=1 World Health Organization. (2016). A strategy for active, health ageing and old age care in theageing and old age care in the. Retrieved from
https://applications.emro.who.int:https://applications.emro.who.int/dsaf/dsa542.pdfua=1 WrightSt Clair, V. A., Neville, S., Forsyth, V., White, L., & Napier, S. (2017). An integrative review of older adult loneliness and social isolation in Aotearoa/New Zealand instatistics assignment. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 36(2), 114-123. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1111/ajag.12379

NEXT SAMPLE