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Sociology Essay: An Article Review on ProsocialBehaviour


Task: This sociology essayaims to test and develop your critical thinking. It involves writing a critical evaluation of an empirical article of your choice.

Select an article on “ProsocialBehaviour” and prepare a critical evaluation essay. In this essay you can critique different points (e.g., theory, hypotheses, method, data analyses, interpretation, conceptualization, operationalization, etc.). You decide with part/point you want to focus on. You may identify and want to address multiple points. However, remember quality over quantity! If you choose a multiple-study article, you could focus your critical evaluation on one or a couple of studies instead of all of them.


A review on the article as presented herein sociology essay is a very critical task as it involves a coherent reading of the entire paper along with critical thinking attitude. The use of logical understanding and a systematic evaluation of thoughts are needed. The understanding of methods used in the article and the effective contribution of selected methods on the findings are outlined with the critical review of the selected article. In this study, the article on "ProsocialBehavior" is taken into consideration. The article entitled "Having less, giving more: the influence of social class on prosocialbehaviour" has been critically reviewed for the development of a better idea about conducting research and how each of the selected research methods is productive and contributed to shaping the findings and outcomes in a coherent manner.

Research summary, Hypotheses and Results Summary
The article points out the fact that the lower social class are associated with poor resources and are at the same time exposed to the wider threat. There is areduction in the sense of the personal threat. The article expresses that in provided circumstances, it is expected that one belonging to the lower class are engaged in less prosaicalbehaviour.The article critically outlines that they seem to priories their self-interest over welfare. The study has executed the fact that the people belonging to the lower class are more generous in nature. When compared with the upper-class people and the findings were very different to what is generally known. The lower class people were more charitable, trusting and helpful when compared to the upper-class individuals (Piff et al. 2010). The authors have reflected the findings with the help of the moderators as well as the mediator data that has been effective in developing the argument that the individuals belonging to the lower class are acting in a more prosocial manner as they are stronger connected to their commitment to the comments and the values as well as the feeling of the comparison. The authors in the article pointed out various concepts that support the thinking outlook of the lowers class people and thus are effective in reflecting their values (Piff et al. 2010). Contrasting the views, the articleeffectivepoint out that wealth and access to resources are not contributing to the development of prosocialbehaviour. The social class and the prosocialare described using the survey using the computer terminals. Theseries of demographic questions have been effectively used in the survey to understand the income and the socialclass of the surveyed individuals. It is thus allowing the researcher to get a proper idea about the prosocialapproaches that they have. The testing of thehypothesis has been effective in outlying the fact that the people from the lower class have more prosocial trust. The use of the correlation between the social class, trust game as well as social values waseffectively conducted. Both Non-European American and European American participates were used as the respondents (Piff et al. 2010). The study has been helpful in fetching light to the fact the people who belong to the lowers class are more trustworthy and are contributing towards the betterment of the social surroundingdespite having limited resources.

The use of both null and alternative hypothesis isdemonstrated in this study in a well-connected manner. Thestudy uses multiplehypotheses to understand the correlation among the selected variables. The first hypothesis test is done between family income and charitable donations. Thenext test of the hypothesis is done between social class and prosocialbehaviour (Piff et al. 2010). The correlation betweensocial class and donation are also adopted to develop a better understanding of the relationship as well as the impact of one variable on the other. Ogden (2018) mentioned that the hypothesis is an integral part of the research as it ishelpful in understanding the correlation of each of the selected articles and thus fetch light on the dependent and the independentvariables. The study has been helpful in portraying that the people belonging to the lower-income group are having stronger correction to the dominationandwelfare procedures. Theprosocialnature of the people is showed with the help of the hypothesis test. Model one, as presented in the article, highlights the significant association of social classes with prosocial trust within individuals.

The core result of the research has been focused on the fact that companions play a vital role in moderating the association between the two essential variables the social class and prosocialbehaviour. The use of the linear regression is used in the researchpaper to test the correlationabout the variable the linear regression has been productive in outlying the prosocialbehaviours and its manipulation with the execution of compassion among the individuals (Piff et al. 2010). The results are also critically associated with the ethnicity as the differentracialgroup was used as the core participants in the research work. The results have been very clear that the lower social grouppeople are more helpful as companies to the upper-class people in the process of testing the hypothesis. It has been thus effective in reflecting the fact that the neutral prime condition, lower-class participants, has been effective in showcasing a clear tendency in helping their partner more related to that of the partner more than that of the upper-class participants (Piff et al. 2010). On the other contradiction, the authors have pointed out that in the compassion-induction condition; the participants belonging to the upper class are more of helpful nature, similar to that of the lower class counterparts. The results are effective in outlining the fact that the analysis that compassion moderates and the tendency for the lower class individual in the process of express to be more prosocialbehaviour than that of the upper-class individual (Piff et al. 2010). The effectiveness of result outcomes is helpful in portraying the fact that the compassion feeling is determined to be rooted in the concern of welfare for others. It has been evident that the upper class industrial reacted in a similar prosocial manner with their partner as the lower class people does with their counter partners (Piff et al. 2010). Thus at the end, the author reflected the findings by mentioning that compassion is productive ineffective in reducing class differences.

Critical evaluation
The reading of the article has conducted with critical evaluation skills. It has been identified that the approach of executing the research was very logical. The lack of well-defined researchaim was evident and objectives are a bit confusing. Mathiassen (2017) mentioned that the framing of the research aims and the objective is essential for a researcher to build transparency about the research motives. This research work is however not outlining any critical objectives.

However, the use of the hypothesis is not to ensure that the relationship among the identifiedindicators such as income class, social class, prosocialcharacter as well as trust was to be conducted. For each relationship, a distinct class has been taken into consideration. This has been the best approach that the research has used in the entire article (Piff et al., 2010). The different classes and the sample size for testing the hypothesishave played an essential role in fetching success to the research paper. The execution of different sections for method and procedures are helpful in creating a better understanding among the readers. The proper steps for hypothesis tests are executed and areportraying the authenticity of the study. Nayak& Singh (2021) stated that the primary data are authentic in supporting the study and, at the same time, proves opportunities to develop a logical argument that is fetching success to the rest outcomes. In this study, the primary data were used for the execution of the study.

The evaluation of the prosocialbehaviouramong the different social groups was identified the best with the help of the primary data collected during the survey using the online methods of data collection.Eachstudy has a different section of results and discussion. This has been helpful in buildingcoherentmatures and the logicalunderstanding of each of the outlines relationships (Piff et al. 2010). The distinctsections haveallowed the research to put equal importance to each of the identified areas and at the same time limiting the confusion in both portraying the relation and understanding among the readers. The article has also included a distinct section for the criticalimplicationand concluded the entire findings at the end. This logical presentation of the study has been effective in enriching the ideas among the readers, and they were able to understand the concepts of prosocialbehaviourand itsconnection to social class better. The sample size for each of the studies remained different and different questions were used. Thus the researchsurveyed the particles as per the studycriteriaso that the proper data can be extracted that are valid in nature. Herschel&Miori (2017) stated that ethical measures need to be followed by collecting and storing the data. As evident from the findings, the participants below the age of 18years were not taken into consideration in this study. Although the research did not mention any particular ethical considerations that they have used in the study, all the sources are acknowledged in the reference list.

Strength of the selected article
The article is well written and systemically presented. Each study area and its procedure are differently presented and then compiled in the end. Thelogicalpreparation and testing of the hypothesishave allowed in developing argumentativeapproaches in presenting the research paper. The use of graphs has been done throughout the study. The execution of the graphs has developed the efficiency of the result executives. Theportrayal of the outcomes of a hypothesis test is done in an effective manner. The study also included the empirical models that were expressed the relationship between each of the indicators in an effective manner (Piff et al. 2010). The main strength of these articles lies in their evidence presentation. The use of standardproduced is adopted so that the presentation of facts is done in a well-organized manner. The use of the instruments such as the DispositionalPositive Emotions Scale has been implicated to ensure that the study is productive in developing a better understating of the selected research topic (Piff et al. 2010).

Weaknessof the selected article
The use of strategic measures isdone to complete the study, but it has several drawbacks. The use of complicated words isdonewhich is making the study difficult to be accessed by commonreader.The study seeks to be very scientificand uses numerouscalculations, but the perception of the human in this study was not evaluated on personalgrounds. The use of scales for measuring the emotions is not 100% accurate, so the chance of data distortion remained very high. It has also been evaluated that the researcherdidn’tpropose any recommendation after concluding the finds. The use of numeroushypotheses makes the study loss its core motive. The different studyareas are fetching light to each of the comments and their relations but at the same make the study very complex to be analyzed and reviewed. The study even failed to outline the research gap. Ryan, 2018) mentioned that the structure of the research is essential to logicallypresentation the facts. The selected articles did not follow the standardresearchwritingpromotedand thus has been neglecting various essential section which could have increased the level of the efficiency in the selected research paper.

The article “Having less, giving more: the influence of social class on prosocialbehaviour” has been a huge source of learning as it portrayed the valuableidea of executing a successful research work. It has not only enriched the critical evaluation idea but, at the same time, took the initiative of building the argumentative pointof view by comparing the research to the standard research writing format. It was very interesting to outlines the different methods used in the research. Thearticles have used the primary quantitative data and thus have been productive in ensuring success to the researcher in investing the topic effectively.

Reference List
Herschel, R., &Miori, V. M. (2017).Ethics & big data. Technology in Society, 49, 31-36.

Mathiassen, L. (2017). Designing engaged scholarship: From real-world problems to research publications. Engaged Management Review, 1(1), 2.

Nayak, J. K., & Singh, P. (2021). Fundamentals of Research Methodology Problems and Prospects.Sociology essay SSDN Publishers & Distributors.

Ogden, J. (2018). Thinking Critically about Research: A Step by Step Approach.Routledge.

Piff, P. K., Kraus, M. W., Côté, S., Cheng, B. H., &Keltner, D. (2010). Having less, giving more: the influence of social class on prosocialbehaviour.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(5), 771.

Ryan, G. (2018). Introduction to positivism, interpretivism and critical theory. Nurse researcher, 25(4), 41-49.


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