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Sociology Assignment: Article Review on Cultural & Religion Conflicts


Task: Select five articles/books related to culture and religion conflicts and present critical article review on sociology assignment for the selected articles.


Article 1
Argument issues

The volume chosen in the current sociology assignment byAppleby (2000) argued that terrorists and peacemakers can grow and adhere to the same community and religious tradition. In addition, religion’s ability to inspire violence and conflicts around the world in terms of power as a force for peace. The reconciliation fostered by peacemakers and killing carried out by terrorists indicates the contradictory and dramatic responses to human suffering under the shed of religion.

Summary of the arguments
This book highlights the differences and similarities between religious peacemakers and terrorists in fighting injustice. In addition, the arguments raised by the scholarly in terms of religious extremism and causes behind terrorist and religious peacemakers taking different paths in fighting injustice indicates the distinct response in terms of human suffering. This volume particularly provides an in-depth study of the interaction of religion in terms of political life in the global world.

Assessment of these arguments
Based on the arguments of this article, I believe that Appleby’s work seeks to explore the paradoxical and painful relationship between peace, religion, and destructive conflict in the present world. In addition, the major aspect that intrigued my knowledge and understanding is this work lies in the exploration of different roles performed by religious individuals, institutions, and communities in conflict transformation.

Article 2
Argument issues

In this article, Bercovitch and Kadayifci-Orellana (2009) argued that religion plays a crucial role in creating conflicts specifically at an internal level. Additionally, it has been further indicated that the role of religion in the overall peace process has been overlooked in terms of conflict. This article focuses on the significance of religious actors and religion in the process of mediation.

Summary of the arguments
It has beencomprehended that religion is portrayed as having a negative impact on peace-makingand conflict processes. In addition, the major argument raised in the article is that religion is comprehended as the major driver of conflict in terms of hatred and bigotry. Both the religious mediators and faith-based actors initiate legitimacy and trust into the process which is admired and can be leveraged over certain parties in conflict.

Assessment of these arguments
After analysing the paper, I comprehended that religion is an important tool to promote peace and also conflicts in the whole world. Its role in peacemaking and medication is significant despite the fact that religion is also considered to be the main source of conflict. Hence, I believe that both faith-based mediators and religious mediators play a significant role in peacemaking.

Article 3
Argument issues

This article raises important political and ethical challenges in terms of post-war intervention practice in the global south. On the contrary, Sabaratnam (2013) further suggests that the so-called liberal peace reproduces intellectual Eurocentrism by underpinning the conceptual and analytical approaches rather than challenging it. Also, the Eurocentric features of the critiques develop a ‘paradox of liberalism’ that considers liberal peace as oppressive and a source of emancipation.

Summary of the arguments
This article suggests that the politicization of colonial difference provides an alternative decolonising framework for critical analysis by repositioning the analytic gaze. Other than that, it has been further illustrated intellectual eurocentrism as the hard habit to unpack and recognise. In addition, the potential gains of the intellectual move against Eurocentrism in terms of international relations are well ignored by scholarly.

Assessment of these arguments
After analysing the arguments, I believe myself to be struggling and not completely or successfully against the tendency to comprehend the world as the ontological distinctiveness of the West. Additionally, I analysed that the ontological distinctiveness of the West can be deeply sedimented in different common sense about the world while considering both objective and scholarly international relations theory. Hence, I suggest that the old crude versions of Eurocentrism and its new manifestations must be dismissed.

Article 4

Argument issues

In this article, Shore, (2008) argued that international conflict resolution theorists have considered religion as a driver or instigator of violence. This in turn affected the significance and applicability of religion to be considered as a force of peacebuilding. On the contrary, it has been further indicated that religion can contribute to the theory of conflict resolution.

Summary of the arguments
Based on the article, it has been analysed that in case religion plays a significant role in the lives of people and part in fuelling the conflict, it can be stated that during resolving the conflict, the aspects of religion should not be considered explicitly. For instance, Christianity played a significant role in the conflict resolution process for influencing the concept of justice in South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

Assessment of these arguments
After analysing the article, I comprehended that the focus and role of religion in international conflict resolution was eliminated as it was considered a driver of violence. In addition, I believe that the applicability of religion in transitional justice must be framed in terms of mechanism as well as an ongoing pursuit for peace, social justice, and peace for democracy.

Article 5
Argument issues

This study put forward by Isak (2006) indicates the conditions for negotiated settlements. In addition, the author further argues that the belligerents' demands are anchored in a religious tradition only when they perceive the conflicting issues as inseparable. This means that in such cases, the conflict is less likely to be managed through negotiations.

Summary of the arguments
This article primarily focuses on international conflict, however, explores different kinds of interpersonal, national, and intergroup conflicts. After efficiently analysing primary and secondary data, it has been well argued by scholarly that if rebelgroups or governments have made religious claims, the conflict-dyads becomes less significant in terms of terminating through a negotiated settlement. Additionally, different religious traditions of primary parties do not impact the chances of a negotiated settlement.

Assessment of these arguments
After analysing the article, I comprehended that those religious aspects of armed conflicts are essential to device the conditions for peace and multi-faith dialogue might not be considered as an essential priority in order to reduce armed conflicts. In addition, I believe that the religious realm must be developed to prevent conflict actors from increasing their demands.

Reference list
Appleby, R.S., 2000. Introduction: Powerful Medicine. The Ambivalence of the Sacred: Religion, Violence, and Reconciliation, pp.1-19.
Bercovitch, J. and Kadayifci-Orellana, A., 2009. Religion and mediation: The role of faith-based actors in international conflict resolution. International Negotiation, 14(1), pp.175-204.
Isak, S., 2006. Fighting with Faith: Religion and Conflict Resolution in Civil Wars. Sociology assignmentWorking paper,, Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.
Sabaratnam, M., 2013. Avatars of Eurocentrism in the Critique of the Liberal Peace. Security Dialogue, 44(3), pp.259-278.
Shore, M., 2008. Christianity and justice in the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission: A case study in religious conflict resolution. Political Theology, 9(2), pp.161-178.


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