Directions: Below are twelve situations in which you might need to communicate. Peoples' abilities to communicate effectively vary a lot, and sometimes the same person is more competent to communicate in one situation than in another. Please indicate how competent you believe you are to communicate in each of the situations described below. Indicate in the space provided at the left of each item your estimate of your competence.
Introduction: A reflective report work has been taken into consideration providing prime focus on assessing the communicating skills prevalent on my part following the results obtained on utilising five of the major diagnostic tools. Such analysis is likely to be of great help in analysing the issues faced on their part in communicating effectively. Addressing the issues might contribute to depiction of action plan.
Diagnosis and Reflection: For sole purpose of understanding my communication skill in an effective manner, I have used five of the major communication based diagnostic tools namely tolerance for disagreement, personal intercultural communication apprehension report, talkaholic scale, non-verbal immediacy report scale and self-perceived communication scale for competence. These tools have played a major role in relation my ability to involve into communication with others.
It is Self-Perceived Communication Competence Scale (SPCC) that is observed to be of great help in judging the competency of individuals concerned when exposed to receivers or communication contexts of varied types (Aesaert et al. 2014). At time of assessing my communication skill via this tool, I have been put forward to a total of around 12 situations at which communicate is required. Based on the response provided by me, it could be seen that I feel highly comfortable to communicate with my friends and feel least competent to talk to strangers. In case of group discussion or in front of public and during meetings, I discovered myself to be moderately competent. In addition, at times of acquaintance or Dyad also, I am moderately competent. This enabled me obtain a reflection of the fact that I bear a tendency to feel hesitate in front of people with whom I do not have much acquaintance from beforehand. Thereby, the tool enabled me to judge my communication competence effectively. In this, it could be seen that I obtained a score of around 73.76 which thereby provide a reflection of the fact that I am more or less communicative enough. However, it is person centric to some extent for me.
Diagnosis and Reflection For sole purpose of understanding my communication skill in an effective manner, I have used five of the major communication based diagnostic tools namely tolerance for disagreement, personal intercultural communication apprehension report, talkaholic scale, non-verbal immediacy report scale and self-perceived communication scale for competence. These tools have played a major role in relation my ability to involve into communication with others. It is Self-Perceived Communication Competence Scale (SPCC) that is observed to be of great help in judging the competency of individuals concerned when exposed to receivers or communication contexts of varied types (Aesaert et al. 2014). At time of assessing my communication skill via this tool, I have been put forward to a total of around 12 situations at which communicate is required. Based on the response provided by me, it could be seen that I feel highly comfortable to communicate with my friends and feel least competent to talk to strangers. In case of group discussion or in front of public and during meetings, I discovered myself to be moderately competent. In addition, at times of acquaintance or Dyad also, I am moderately competent. This enabled me obtain a reflection of the fact that I bear a tendency to feel hesitate in front of people with whom I do not have much acquaintance from beforehand. Thereby, the tool enabled me to judge my communication competence effectively. In this, it could be seen that I obtained a score of around 73.76 which thereby provide a reflection of the fact that I am more or less communicative enough. However, it is person centric to some extent for me.
Following this, Nonverbal Immediacy Scale Self Report (NIS-S) is a tool that provides prime focus on immediacy of individuals to certain situations. The result obtained highlighted the fact that I bear a tendency to get involved into situations instantaneously which gets highly noticeable on my behaviour. The fact that my vocal expression changes quite often depending on situations or the fact that I stand closer to them in order to listen to them keenly and at times make use of gestures while communicating might have made me attain a score 109 which signifies higher nonverbal immediacy on my part. As cited by Frisby et al. (2014), making use of gestures often tends to act as a reflection of involvement into the communication that is taking place in real terms.
The next tool namely Personal Report of Intercultural Communication Apprehension (PRICA) signifies ability on part of the individuals concerned to carry on communication in intercultural context. As stated by Frei & Beebe (2017), the tool particularly focuses on obtaining a measure of fearfulness of individuals at time of interacting with people belonging to different cultural backgrounds. The anxiety generated as a result of intercultural communication is largely considered as a subcategory to communication apprehension in general terms (Sidelinger & Bolen, 2016). The tool, in particular, thereby, tested my ability to involve in communication with people originating from different cultural backgrounds. In this, I obtained a score of around 26 which signifies the fact that I fail to excel myself into intercultural communication although I have a strong desire to communicate with them effectively. As suggested by Tokunaga & Quick (2018), this can be a result of prevalence of lack of topic on part of the individual concerned to communicate with.
On other hand, it is a talkaholic scale that tends to play a major role to measure the extent of compulsive communication undertaken on part of individuals concerned. As cited by Wright, Cullum & Grandjean (2014), an individual can be designated as talkative by nature in case the person concerned show a tendency to speak upo things that person on the other side is unwilling to listen to. This might essentially be regarded as qualitative reference (Straßer, Šešelja & Wieland, 2015). It could be seen that implementation of this particular tool upon me made me attain a score of 22 which thereby reflects the fact that I am not at all talkaholic by nature. This might have been owing to the sole fact that I show a desire to communicate only when it is required and I always prefer to provide to the point replies. In addition, many of my friends too are of the opinion that I do not talk too much. Besides the fact, I fail to undertake the initiative to defend myself even if it is advantageous to talk in that situation prevents me to be termed as a talkaholic person.
In words of Linvill, Mazer & Boatwright (2016), the tool namely Tolerance for Disagreement has been designed for purpose of measuring the level to which it might be possible for the individual concerned to tolerate disagreement of other individuals. As stated by Klebig et al. (2016), this, in turn usually tend to obtain a measure of argument level of individuals. In general terms, the more the argumentative nature inbuilt within a person, the more tend to be their capability to deal with disagreements and vice versa (Witt et al. 2014). Implementation of this particular tool upon myself has made me obtain a score of around 49. Such a score provided a reflection of the fact that I am highly tolerant to disagreement. Such a score might be a result of the fact that I tend to show utter desire to involve in communication with people in possession of different point of view than that of mine. I often get interested to open myself in such situations as a result of the fact that this enables me to get access to idea or facts with which I am not much acquainted with. This can largely be supported by the fact that I am in possession of the opinion that it is utter disagreement that enables me to become more communicative by nature. As opined by Hosek, Houser & Richmond (2017), it is good communication skill that tends to be highly essential in relation to obtaining greater amount of knowledge in turn. Access to adequate knowledge tends to be highly essential in order to achieve the goals perceived in a highly efficient manner (Cayanus & Martin, 2016).
Taking into consideration the outcome generated as a result of implementation of such communication tools into practice, it could be seen that involvement in verbal communication with people belonging to different cultures or to those of strangers. This, thereby, tends to provide a reflection of the fact that it I bear utter inability on my part to get involved into active communication in cases at which the topic of discussion is not specified. This could be supported by the fact that I am not much competent enough to carry on conversation with strangers. I am more of a passive listener. This could be seen from the fact that I tend to show acute desire to get involved in communication with people belonging to different culture however my performance was not observed to be impressive enough. In words of Miller et al. (2014), inability to communicate effectively with lead to generation of the wrong impression that the person concerned is not socialise by nature and thereby require immediate amendments.
On other hand, another major issue observed on my part include the fact that I fail to involve in active communication with people who are not my close friend but know a bit lesser in comparison to me. As stated by Frisby et al. (2014), ability to help people understand or discover new facts often tends to be a reflection of the fact that the knowledge gathered previously could be utilised effectively in a highly skilfull manner. I believe that failure to do so tends to highlight the prevalent level of inefficiency. Utter inability to interact with people who knows lesser than me, thereby, tends to reflect lack of ability on my part to enable people discover new facts or ideas through involvement in communication. The fact that I am not much talkaholic by nature might have duly contributed to this. Inability to take proper care of this particular issue is likely to hamper my willingness of learns new things in an adverse manner. As opined by Dixson et al. (2017), this can be guided by the fact that it is through sharing of information greater amount of knowledge can be accessed.
All such issues are required to be taken proper care of guided by the sole purpose of upgrading my communication skills to the fullest extent possible. The fact that I undertake initiative to listen to individuals keenly in a detailed manner is undoubtedly good on my part. However, acute ability is required to be developed to get involved in active communication with everyone. As per me, it is active communication that tends to be of great help in relation to making a person easily acceptable by nature and in turn get indulged in effective or healthy communication with the persons desired.
This part would focus on outlining the key models or defining the concepts that are required to be solely developed on my part in order to mitigate the major issues faced on my part in relation to communication ability in a highly effective manner.
Theories and models:
Shannon and weaver model: This particular model provides prime focus on dealing with concepts such as encoding, decoding, channelising, destination of information, Noise, transmitter, receiver, message and source of information.
The major workings of some of these concepts include the following:
Sender: It mainly relates to the person who originates the message in particular
Encoder: It is the transmitter that tends to play a prime role in converting the framed messages into signals (Petry, 2016).
Decoder: This is the inverse of encoding. It is mainly regarded as reception place of signal which in a way converts the signals received into message. As stated by Mazer & Graham (2015), this particular work of decoding is required to be carried out in a highly efficient manner owing to the fact that it is proper decoding that tends to play a prime role in case of comprehending the facts communicated effectively. In opinion of Alamaria, Rahim & Abdullah (2016), proper comprehension is highly essential to carry forward the communication.
Receiver: This is regarded as the person who receives the message ultimately
Noise: It is prevalence of unwanted situations that tend to manipulate the messages delivered at times. As stated by Arquero et al. (2017), this often show a tendency to hamper the communication structure.
The framework can be well-depicted with help of the diagram provided below:
This is one of the simplest model which can be applied in varied fields of communication. This tends to be highly effective in development of communication between persons rather than mass audience or group. As opined by Fallah (2014), an attainment of ability on part of the individual concerned to develop good communication terms with a single individual is likely to contribute largely to development of good communicating terms with a huge mass in long term. The model is observed to highlight the fact that communication cannot be regarded as a one way process. As mentioned by MacIntyre (2017), for development of an effective communication, both of the involved participants are required to be active enough in order to generate a fruitful outcome. Besides this, appropriate identification of noise has been observed to play an important role to enhance fruitfulness of the communication taken into consideration (Aesaert et al. 2014).
Taking the model into consideration, it can be stated that for developing good communication terms, acute focus is required to be provided on developing communication ability in a manner that it tends to make the completely unknown person present on the other hand feel comfortable to share their views and ideas. As suggested by Powers (2014), this, thereby, requires proper decoding of the ideas stated by them prior to arising further queries. Arisal of any kind of problem at time of decoding the things comprehended are required to be taken proper care of in order to avoid access to noise in an effective manner (Worthington & Bodie, 2017). This, in a way, can help prevent situations of miscommunication and thereby improve the quality of communication.
Besides this, in case any language issue is faced at time of dealing with people belonging to different cultural background, access to an efficient decoder might tend to be of great help. In words of McCroskey (2015), it is the decoder who can be of great help in relation to enabling the person concerned understand meaning of the message delivered and thereby make the communication move forward to the next level.
However, for getting indulged into an active communication, one must feel free to approach everyone. As cited by Gilchrist-Petty (2017), tendency to remain person centric might tend to act as a major barrier in relation to enhancement of knowledge level as per desired. For sole purpose of overcoming such disadvantages, it might be of great help in case the individual considers undertakes the initiative to communicate with people who knows lesser in comparison to the concerned individual. As suggested by Neuliep (2017), adoption of such type of communication might contribute to enhancement of vocabulary in turn and thereby enable the person become an active speaker in gradual terms.
Interpersonal Communication Course: This course, in particular, is likely to be great help on part of the person concerned facing any kind of communication issues. As stated by Aesaert et al. (2014), this might be owing to the sole fact that the professionals associated with this course work is likely to be of great help in relation to taking adequate care of this problem by working effectively on the communication style. As opined by Alamaria, Rahim & Abdullah (2016), it is communication style that often tends to play a vital role in relation to improving effectiveness of level of communication which tends to be highly beneficial for further enhancement of communication level.
Public Speaking Course: Along with interpersonal communication course, adoption of public speaking course also tends to be of great help in case of taking care of communication issues often tend to be faced on part of individuals in an effective manner. As suggested by Dixson et al. (2017), adoption of such a course can be of great help in relation to giving up the person centric behaviour prevalent on part of individuals concerned efficiently in long-term and make the individual highly confident in turn.
Action Plan: This section, in particular, tends to provide a reflection of the ways or means that can be adopted on my part to get rid of the issues faced on my part in relation to communication. Following adoption of the five major communication based diagnostic tools taken into consideration , it could be seen that I show a tendency to face a great deal of problem in relation to developing appropriate communication terms with cross cultural groups. This also includes acute incapability on my part to avoid being person centric by nature.
I believe that such issues duly faced on my part can be taken proper care of in case I undertake the initiative to attend interpersonal communication courses. Access to such a course might be of great help on my part to get assistance of highly efficient professionals who can help develop my communication style as per requirement in a highly efficient manner. This might follow involvement into another important course namely Public Speaking Course. Following this course in anh efficient manner might be of great help in relation to giving up my person centric nature. Giving up such a nature is highly essential on my part in order to get indulged in communication terms with others in a highly efficient manner.
On other hand, adoption of Shannon and weaver model might be highly helpful on my part to identify the noises faced on my part effectively. I believe proper identification of noises is essential to enhance the quality of communication. This is likely to include focus on development of decoding factor on my part. I believe that it is decoding that is bound to play a vital role in comprehending the things conveyed by the person I am communicating with. Inability on my part to comprehend the facts in an effective manner might tend to land me up in troublesome situation and thereby hamper the quality of communication in an adverse manner.
It can be concluded that it is communication skill that tends to play a prime role in relation to building up an effective level of commmunication. This is owing to the fact that this helps in building up good relationship term with individuals and gets access to or discovers new facts and ideas. The courses are likely to play a vital role in relation to getti8ng rid of gap in communication and enhancce level of knowledge in turn. Any kind of language issue faced at time of dealing with people belonging to different cultural background, access to an efficient decoder might tend to be of great help owing to the fact that this might result in creation of noises. Noises tend to hamper the effectiveness of communication adversely. For sole purpose of overcoming person centric issues, it might be of great help in case the individual considers undertakes the initiative to communicate with people who knows lesser in comparison to the concerned individual effectively.
Gilchrist-Petty, E. (Ed.). (2017). Deviant Communication in Teacher-Student Interactions: Emerging Research and Opportunities: Emerging Research and Opportunities. IGI Global.
McCroskey, J. C. (2015). Introduction to rhetorical communication. Routledge.
Neuliep, J. W. (2017). Intercultural communication: A contextual approach. Sage Publications.
Powers, W. A. (2014). Credible leadership: Exploring differences in perception of the credibility of the senior student affairs officer among CIC college presidents and their senior leadership teams. The University of North Carolina at Greensboro.
Worthington, D. L., & Bodie, G. D. (Eds.). (2017). The sourcebook of listening research: Methodology and measures. John Wiley & Sons.
Aesaert, K., Van Nijlen, D., Vanderlinde, R., & van Braak, J. (2014). Direct measures of digital information processing and communication skills in primary education: using item response theory for the development and validation of an ICT competence scale. Computers & Education, 76, 168-181.
Alamaria, A., Rahim, A., & Abdullah, T. B. (2016). Oral Communication Apprehension in EFL Learners: An Overview. Advanced Science Letters, 22(12), 4440-4443.
Arquero, J. L., Fernández-Polvillo, C., Hassall, T., & Joyce, J. (2017). Relationships between communication apprehension, ambiguity tolerance and learning styles in accounting students. Revista de Contabilidad, 20(1), 13-24.
Cayanus, J., & Martin, M. M. (2016). 10 Teacher Self-Disclosure. Communication and Learning, 16, 241.
Dixson, M. D., Greenwell, M. R., Rogers-Stacy, C., Weister, T., & Lauer, S. (2017). Nonverbal immediacy behaviors and online student engagement: bringing past instructional research into the present virtual classroom. Communication Education, 66(1), 37-53.
Fallah, N. (2014). Willingness to communicate in English, communication self-confidence, motivation, shyness and teacher immediacy among Iranian English-major undergraduates: A structural equation modeling approach. Learning and Individual Differences, 30, 140-147.
Frei, S. S., & Beebe, S. A. (2017). Student Orientations Toward Communicating in the Classroom. In Handbook of Instructional Communication (pp. 98-112). Routledge.
Frisby, B. N., Berger, E., Burchett, M., Herovic, E., & Strawser, M. G. (2014). Participation apprehensive students: The influence of face support and instructor–student rapport on classroom participation. Communication Education, 63(2), 105-123.
Hosek, A. M., Houser, M. L., & Richmond, V. P. (2017). Immediacy and the Teacher-Student Relationship. In Handbook of Instructional Communication, 12(6), 115-129.
Klebig, B., Goldonowicz, J., Mendes, E., Miller, A. N., & Katt, J. (2016). The combined effects of instructor communicative behaviors, instructor credibility, and student personality traits on incivility in the college classroom. Communication Research Reports, 33(2), 152-158.
Linvill, D. L., Mazer, J. P., & Boatwright, B. C. (2016). Need for cognition as a mediating variable between aggressive communication traits and tolerance for disagreement. Communication Research Reports, 33(4), 363-369.
MacIntyre, P. D. (2017). An overview of language anxiety research and trends in its development. New insights into language anxiety: Theory, research and educational implications, 11-30.
Mazer, J. P., & Graham, E. E. (2015). Measurement in instructional communication research: A decade in review. Communication Education, 64(2), 208-240.
Miller, A. N., Katt, J. A., Brown, T., & Sivo, S. A. (2014). The relationship of instructor self-disclosure, nonverbal immediacy, and credibility to student incivility in the college classroom. Communication Education, 63(1), 1-16.
Petry, A. C. (2016). Communication apprehension affects performance. Intellectual Communication, 54(6), 99-108.
Sidelinger, R. J., & Bolen, D. M. (2016). Instructor Credibility as a Mediator of Instructors’ Compulsive Communication and Student Communication Satisfaction in the College Classroom. Communication Research Reports, 33(1), 24-31.
Straßer, C., Šešelja, D., & Wieland, J. W. (2015). Withstanding tensions: Scientific disagreement and epistemic tolerance. In Heuristic reasoning (pp. 113-146). Springer, Cham.
Tokunaga, R. S., & Quick, J. D. (2018). Impressions on Social Networking Sites: Examining the Influence of Frequency of Status Updates and Likes on Judgments of Observers. Media Psychology, 21(2), 157-181.
Witt, P. L., Schrodt, P., Wheeless, V. E., & Bryand, M. C. (2014). Students' intent to persist in college: Moderating the negative effects of receiver apprehension with instructor credibility and nonverbal immediacy. Communication Studies, 65(3), 330-352.
Wright, J., Cullum, J., & Grandjean, P. (2014). The Cognitive Mechanisms of Intolerance. Oxford studies in experimental philosophy, 1.