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Safety Management Assignment Evaluating Chichittybang Construction Hazard

Question

Task: Develop a report on safety management assignment discussing the Chichittybang Construction hazard incident in detail.

Answer

Introduction
Occupational health and safety play an important role in every workplace around the world. The matter is always being a topic of concern for the wellbeing of human labor. In the advanced world, the industrialization and service providing sectors have been increased tremendously (Moyce&Schenker, 2018, pp- 351-365). It has been seen that the accelerating industrialization is also increasing workplace health and safety problems. The incident rate of occupational hazards has increased rapidly with emerging sectors (Badri, Boudreau-Trudel&Souissi, 2018, pp- 403-411). Recent data published by World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that the increased widespread occupational risk factors are injuries (40% of the occupational burden of disease), noise (22%), carcinogens (18%) airborne particulate matter (17%), and ergonomic hazards (3%) (Gul&Ak, 2018, pp-653-664). This statistical data represents how much of these factors are contributing to causing occupational health and safety. The workplace safety and health hazards at present are considered as the provoking force that leads the manufacturing units to face the negative consequences (Mohammadfam et al,2017, pp-156-161). In the last few years, the health, quality, knowledge, and safety of the employee at the workplace have become one of the major factors around the world. Some of the previous evidence has reflected that workplace safety has become a matter of concern due to the pressure of the community (Salguero-Caparrós, et al, 2020, pp-111-118). Hence, one of the commonest places of hazard occurrence is construction sites. These sites commonly face occupational hazards, making it difficult for the employee to work under unsafe conditions.

The report below includes a discussion highlighting the risk of occupational hazards present in one of the construction companies known as Chichittybang construction located in Australia. The Chichittybang construction is a division of Unicorn incorporated, which has hired me as a safety manager to evaluate the lacking area and take the initiative to provide the business on a safe journey. One major factor for the construction companies is employee safety, this is what leads the business to reach a higher level. The more employees will feel safe working under the company, the more the company can sustain their employees and reduce the incident rates at the sites (Darabont, Antonov&Bejinariu, 2017, p- 11007). Hence, the report aims to apply the safety management's knowledge and approach the new safety manager at the Chichittybang construction. Keeping the aim of the report in mind, the discussion includes credible risks at the sites, incident history, and also the review of the industry that has faced similar risks. Apart from that the discussion also considers the safety culture program that will be undertaken and the key performance indicator list representing the target and measured that would be considered.

Credible risks at the sites
The construction sites are the area that includes the construction and repair of the buildings and factory, as in the case of Chichittybang construction. The safety measures help to prevent the occurrence of the hazard at the workplace (Maronati&Petrovic, 2020, pp- 1-18). There are several types of credible risks at the sites of the construction such as

Working at height: The employee at the construction sites needs to work at the tall buildings in a hanging position, hence a single lack of safety measure can let the individual fall from a great height (Chen, Huang & Cheng, 2020, p-11).

Noise: As the construction sites include the utilization of big equipment, the shifting, and pulling off of these equipment leads to heavy noise production. Apart from that, continuous hammering at the construction site is also a quite common cause of noise production that might disturb the listening power (Tong et al, 2018, pp- 598-608).

Slips and trips: The construction sites always remain messed up, as several things are needed at a time like the cement, water, tiles, and more things., so these materials remain at the constructed sites in a messed up way. Hence, this messed up areas at the construction sites had led the employees to face slips and trips several times.

Electricity: To provide proper power connection to the construction sites and factory installation, site preparation like earthmoving and civil work needs to be done. Some of the electrical work is needed under the ground while some needs to be done above the ground (Leiss&Krewski, 2019, pp-234-253). Hence, the lack of precautionary measured has led to face shock and electrification.

Erection of prefabricated buildings: At the construction site several things need to be constructed at different places and need to be carried to the original sites. The process of carrying and fixing the material might lead to face challenges.

Apart from the above-mentioned hazardous situations, a number of the situation are faced by the employee at the working sites, but the above-mentioned hazards are the most common among the construction sites (Sanders et al., 2019, pp-535-552). The risks are necessary to be assessed and prioritized, as these are the common mishaps of the construction sites. Hence, the process of assessing the risks and priorities will be conducted by collecting information about the existing workplace hazard. This will help to align the hazard as per the most dangerous and susceptible hazard. The information will help in taking further steps for ensuring safety management at the workplace (Amiri, Ardeshir&Zarandi, 2017, pp- 16-28).

The processes and technologies that would be undertaken to assess the construction sites hazard are by collecting existing information about the workplace hazard, inspecting the place for a safety hazard, identifying the hazard, conducting the incident investigations, identifying hazards associated with the emergency, and finally characterization the nature of the identified hazard (Yan et al., 2017, pp-152-163).

Incident history
At the Chichittybang construction, it has been seen that the history of occurring hazards has led to death at a noticeable rate. It has been noticed; that working at the heights has led to 5 deaths, mobile equipment interactions have led to 3 deaths within a year (Bhandari et al, 2020, p-146). The occurrence of the incidents due to working at a height are more commonly seen in the Chichittybang construction Australia. The worker working at the scaffolding has collapsed 3 times while 2 falls from height occurs due to lack of harness (Hardison& Hallowell, 2018, pp- 517-526). Apart from these 5 fatalities, 3 of the deaths occurred due to mobile equipment interactions. The mobile interaction leads to cause hazards like electric shocks and many more.

Apart from these fatalities due to the above incident, a number of the report related to the hazard have not been informed by the worker (Mihi?, Ceri?&Završki, 2018, pp- 1761-1769). The hazard such as slips and trips during the construction or carrying of the material, injury due to erection of prefabricated buildings, and injury to ears due to excessive noise. The workers avoid expressing about the other incident as they are scared to report. Hence, only those incidents of the previous years have been highlighted that had led to death, apart from that all the other incidents causing serious harm and injuries to the employees (Park & Cox, 2019, p- 153).

Discussion about a similar incident in the food manufacturing industry
The food industry is also one most common places for occupational hazards. A similar occupational hazard like Chichittybang construction is also commonly observed in food manufacturing industry (Ortiz, Itard & Bluyssen, 2020, p- 110). In general, the food manufacturing companies consist of larger machinery due to which number of times the workers get injured while cleaning and doing maintenances of the machines (Jeelani, Albert & Gambatese, 2017, p- 143). It has been commonly observed that the workers had a fall from a height while cleaning or looking after the manufacturing process (Loosemore, Sunindijo &Zhang, 2020, p- 146). In common, the food manufacturing industries uses a large amount of water or liquid materials to prepare food that makes the tiles slippery and watery (Albert, Pandit & Patil, 2020, p- 128). An incident was being noticed in 2018 in Australia in food industry, where 500 workers of the food manufacturing industry were injured by slips, falls, and trips in a year while 200 workers were killed due to due to the same (Davidson et al., 2018, pp- 75-85). The incidents became a remarkable incident in the food manufacturing industry that year (Gul & Ak, 2018, pp- 653-664). Hence, from the above discussion it is stated that apart from the construction industries the food industry also faces a similar type of occupational incident (Ellaban et al., 2018, pp-9-18).

Safety culture program
The most important factor for the retention of the workers in these organizations is based on how the company is taking care of their workers. The more company will take the initiatives to ensure that the workers who are working are in a safe environment and away from getting injuries; the more the employee will contribute to enhancing the business (Al-Bayati, Albert & Ford, 2019, p- 24). Hence, it is necessary to look after the safety of the employees. The safety culture program is an alternative that helps to encourage the competition to reach the next level of business (Zhao et al., 2016, pp-800-807). The construction industries must have a safety culture to reduce the occurrence of the incidents, deaths, and horrifying injuries that have been impacting the workers and properties. Hence, to incorporate the health and safety system at the construction sites of the Chichittybang construction is necessary to assess the workplace. This will help to evaluate the method that is underlying the hazardous areas at the construction sites (Kim et al, 2018, pp-267-277).

Process for conducting the initial assessment
The initial process of the assessment that will be undertaken is the collection of the existing information about workplace hazards. The information of the workplace hazards will be collected from the workers, who are the ground level workers directly facing the hazards. Apart from that, the information will be collected from the employer; this will provide both the internal and external information about the incidents at the construction sites of Chichittybang (Varghese (a) et al., 2020, p-178). The information will be collected, organized, and reviewed with the workers to understand other corresponding hazards related to the already occurred incidents. The information that might be collected from the sites such as machinery and equipment available at the operating system, whether there are any safety data sheets (SDS) provided or not while using the chemical at the manufacturing units (Varghese (b) et al., 2020, p-126). Besides that whether the workers and the employer are maintaining any records of the previous illness or injuries, such as (Occupational safety and health administration) OSHA 300 and 301 logs. Apart from that the information like whether there are any safety compensation records for the workers or not (Rout &Sikdar, 2017, p-56).

Identifying the commonest incident that has been undertaken at the construction sites, whether any of the safety measures taken on behalf of that or not. Identifying whether the Chichittybang construction is taking the industrial hygiene assessment and medical records of the workers or not. Initiatives are taken by the worker for their safety, along with that whether the workers are being trained properly before the allocation of the work or not also an important part of the health and safety system. Collecting these data will help to provide an overall condition of the construction sites, and the company's previous initiatives to reduce the occurrence of the incidence (Fauziah et al., 2020, pp-380-385).

Hence, the collection of information as part of the assessment of construction sites is very much important (HeidaryDahooie et al., 2020, p-17). This initial information provides a lot of potentials to build up knowledge about the site's safety measures. Carrying the information for the assessment provides a direction to initiate the process of the safety management incorporation at the sites. (Abbas, Mneymneh&Khoury, 2018, pp-138-196) This also evaluates the different gaps between the organizational management and steps that have already been undertaken (Navaratnam et al., 2019, p-38). The more transparent information about the company's health and safety management will be evaluated, the more precisely the new and innovative approaches can be incorporated to reduce the occurrence of the possible risks and everyone will be on the safer side (Howlader et al., 2016, pp-25-27).

Intervention strategies
Several steps are going to be incorporated; these strategies will help to reduce the occurrence of construction site hazards.This will decrease the possibility of the accident that causes the death of the workers and will lead to decrease the lost time injury frequency rate (Lucas et al, 2020, pp-165-174). The lost time injury frequency rate (LTIFR) is the amount or number of the lost time injuries within a given time period. The lost time injury frequency rate works as a proxy measurement for safety performance. Apart from that, the implementation of the strategies will be helping to retain the workers and help to increase the productivity of the business. Several strategies that will be incorporated at the Chichittybang construction are

Reduce the amount of night work: The dark and late working environment causes several accidents due to lack of sufficient light. If it is possible to reduce the amount of the night work or to provide sufficient source of light to work in the night will be the initial interventions (Forino et al., 2017, pp- 100-108).

Availability of the proper safety gear: As the construction sites are more prone to accidents, hence proper safety gear such as eye protection, hardhats, hearing protection, and most importantly harnesses are to be provided. The slip-resistant boots, masks, and heavy-duty gloves are also important intervention strategies for reducing the hazard at the construction sites.

This will be reducing the fatality rate as well as the lost time injury frequency rate (LTIFR).
Weekly meeting on safety: The weekly meeting on safety with workers will help to measure the safety issues at the construction site. This will help to reduce the possibility of hazards that will be highly dangerous (Winge, Albrechtsen&Mostue, 2019, pp- 130-141).

A clear sign to warn of danger: As in general there is always a lack of sign warn alerting. The occurrence of the danger in different places of the construction can be shown in the sign warnings. Such as standing below the scaffolding is one of the dangerous things, open electrical wires are also very commonly found to cause an accident at sites. Hence, there is a need to provide the correct signboard warning at the construction sites. This would reduce the unwanted visit of the people at the place that is dangerous for the workers or outsiders that ultimately reduce the possibility of occurrence of hazard at different places of the construction sites (Jeelani et al., 2017, p- 143).

Providing training for the people who are new to the work: The individual who is new to the work needs proper training in case of climbing the scaffolds or extensions at the heights. The more the workers would be trained for climbing height; the lower would be the chance of falling from the height (Okoye, Okolie&Ngwu, 2019, pp- 1-14)).

Providing breaks between the works: At the construction sites every individual undertakes heavy loads, hence there is a need to provide the proper break in between the work. This would reduce the excessive strength over the workers and will be providing some sort of relaxation in between their work. Hence, this will be increasing the potential of the worker to consider heavy work at the construction sites.

Medical checkup of the worker: a regular medical checkup of the workers will help to evaluate the strength of the workers to carry out various work such as working at height, ability to take the heavy noises and many more things. The healthier the workers will be, the better the workplace will seem (Webber et al., 2020, pp- 598-608).

These intervention strategies will be help to reduce the possibility of the hazard in the construction industry. It is quite common to notice those occupational hazards which lead to death any injury among the workers. Hence, the interventions will help to eliminate the fatalities and will also decrease the lost time injury frequency rate (LTIFR).

Key performance indicators (KPI) and targets
The key performance indicators are a valuable way of monitoring the lagging or leading performances of the organization. The process of tracking down the performance should be an important part of the work health and safety that need to be incorporated by the safety manager (Blaou et al., 2019, p- 012004). The lagging indicator of the key performance indicator (KPI) works to track down the incidents that have occurred in the past. This helps to source the root of the problems, which would be helping to take further steps of safety (Vranješ, Todi?&Golubovi?-Bugarski, 2020, pp- 744-750). The leading indicators are the indicators that will be helping to address the problem and provide preventive measures from occurring in the first place (Baierle et al., 2019, p- 48). It helps to alert the occurrence of the incidence in advance. When an organization is aiming to provide a good key performance indicator, it can achieve it through the SMART key performance indicators (Mahmoud et al., 2020, 371-401). Hence, it defined as

S- specific- the goals or target should be clear about what is being measured
M- measurable-It should be measurable against set standards.
A- Achievable- target should be a realistic approach.
R- Relevant- It should provide overall safety.
T- Timely- Key performance should follow a set of time frames.

List of the Work Health and safety KPI that are "SMART"
Like the other industry, there is a very little exception of the key performance indicator to track down the incident metrics in advance with the help of the performance. Still, causality in reporting the accident will be affecting the safe operation for the future. The past data of hazards are very important for work health and safety (Jensen & van der Voordt, 2016, pp – 122-135). The detailed information about the past provides the knowledge of the gaps that might again lead to face the complication in the future. The development of the appropriate health and safety metrics will be depended on the goals, hence efficient and effective key performance indicators targets to achieve a construction business that is free from workplace hazards (Lee & Aletta, 2019, pp- 207-220). The goals are to reduce the possibilities of workplace hazard, hence the SMART metrics that should be tracked down are

Reporting of accidents – This will help to provide a lagging indicator, as it will be providing information about the accidents that might occur in the future. The gaps that have to lead to the occurrence of this type of incident will help to take the necessary steps to prevent the repetition of the incident (Nzomkunda, Magd& Al Busaidi, 2020, pp- 342-356).

Reporting near misses: Reporting of near misses incidents will be helping to provide the alert of the incident that can take place due to small negligence. Hence, to reach the target of having a safer work environment it is necessary to provide the report of "near misses" (Marhavilas et al., 2018, pp- 3663).

Safety audits and inspection: Regular audit and inspections of the construction sites will help evaluate the area that is in danger. It will also help to processes the regular update related to the use of protective measures (Pickering, 2020, pp- 1-6).

Taking initiatives within the time- Only one week time will be provided to fix the raised issue after reporting of the issues. This will speed up the process of taking the initiative to provide the safety measures at the sites (Clarke, 2017, p- 22).

Employee training: Every employee will be provided with training as per their job profiles. The more they will be knowledgeable and skilled about their work, the less there will be causalities while working in that environment. This will increase the engagement level of the workers.

Weekly meeting with the workers: Weekly discussion about the different gaps at the workplace that might lead them to face the challenges or mishaps while working. The more they would be sharing the data, the fewer people working at the site will face the hazard.

Feedback system: The feedback providing system for the workers related to the safety measures will be quite helpful. This would provide the worker to share their views related to work health and safety (Mousavi, Cudney&Trucco, 2017, pp- 1-6).

Changes in the Key performance indicators in the next 5 years
It can be expected that the key performance indicators will be changed over the next 5 years. A hard number of factors can lead to changes in the key performance indicator of work health and safety (Wilkinson & King?Okumu, 2019, p- 43). With time, several advanced technology and equipment will be part of the construction; hence will be obvious that the new and innovative technology will provide the privilege to reduce the chance of the hazard (Hasanzadeh, Dao, Esmaeili& Dodd, 2019, p- 145). Well-developed machinery will be part of the construction business that will be reducing the workload as well as the risk-taking factors would be reduced. In the present world, advanced technology has made the availability of readymade things, one need to just take the material to the site and fit it as per the instruction (Achillopoulou et al., 2020, p- 141001). With time, the construction site will be more developed and equipped, which ultimately reduces the steps of taking some of the key performance indicators into the consideration.

The change will be happening as in the competitive world of the business as it is necessary to go with the flow of the market. Incorporation of the advanced technology by the other competitors will be quite challenging for the Chichittybang construction, hence the company needs to incorporate the new system at the construction (Roostaie, Nawari&Kibert, 2019, pp- 132-144).

The key performance indicator that might not be required in the future such as daily or weekly meetings with the workers for evaluating the gaps at the construction sites that might cause the hazard (Kashmiri et al., 2020, pp- 583-590). This will be reduced at the Chichittybang construction as the advanced technology and machinery will be more protective and less hazardous for the workers (Torabi, Dedekorkut-Howes&Howes, 2018, pp- 295-309). Hence, the daily or weekly meeting might not be needed over the next five years. The training of employees would also reduce the causalities at the workplace; this will again reduce the occurrence of the hazard (Asih, Purba&Sitorus, 2020, pp- 142-155).

Conclusion
From the above discussion, it can be concluded that occupational safety is one the important factor sustaining the business in the construction industries. In the competitive world, it is necessary to ensure that the people that are working under the company are feeling safe and comfortable while working. This is the only way that would be helping the company to improve its business in the future. The incident that occurred in the Chichittybang construction has impacted the business of the company. Hence, it necessary to evaluate the gaps that will lead to the occurrence of workplace hazards or safety issues, whether the issues are small or big there is always a need to ensure that none of the incidents should occur due to negligence. The more company will be incorporating the intervention strategies, the less they will be facing work health and safety issues. The above-mentioned intervention will not only help to reduce the occurrence of the incident that occurred at the construction sites of the Chichittybang, rather help to combat several incidents for the future. The regular following up of the key performance indicators will help to monitor the gaps of the construction sites and help to reduce the workplace safety issues or hazards. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the different areas of the construction sites of the company to reduce the complete possibility of the occurrence of the hazard.

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