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Critical Discussion On The Role Of Total Quality Management Assignment


Task: The purpose of this individual assignment is to provide the student with an opportunity to demonstrate his/her mastery of one or more related topics discussed during this module and apply them in the context of the topic of this assignment.
You have studied concepts, models and topics set out in the module guide.
If you wish to improve your learning before embarking on this assignment, you may want to conduct a systematic search of relevant scholarly literature material. This is strongly advised.

  1. Explain the concept of benchmarking the quality of a manufactured product. What problems do organisations encounter when benchmarking? Illustrate your answer with actual examples.
  2. What is “Total Quality Management” or TQM? Show how an organization you are familiar with could use this concept to improve customer service


Quality management is a significant aspect of an organisation and it plays a vital role in the growth and development of a firm. In this report of total quality management assignment the concept of benchmarking and TQM techniques have been evaluated. The benefits and challenges associated with these techniques and the way they influence business in order to improve its performance and competitive edge in the market will be discussed within this total quality management assignment in a detailed manner.

1. Explain the concept of benchmarking the quality of a manufactured product. What problems do organisations encounter when benchmarking in regards with the case scenario of total quality management assignment? Illustrate your answer with actual examples.
Benchmarking is considered as the practice of comparing different business performance metrics and processes to the industry best practices from that of other companies (Duanet al., 2016).The dimensions which are generally measured in this concept include time cost and quality. Benchmarking is generally used in order to measure performance with the help of specific indicators such as productivity per unit of measure, cost per unit measure, and more which results in a metric of practices and performance that is then compared to other firms. In the concept of best practice benchmarking managers identify the best organizations within the industry where similar processes exists and then compare the processes and resultof their business with them to understand their market position.

total quality management assignment

(Source: Ajelabi and Tang, 2010)

The research carried on the situation of total quality management assignment mentions that the benchmarking is gaining global recognition and is used by a lot of leading organisation such as Toyota, Wal-Mart, Marriott International and more (McMillan, 2018). Business organizations are inclined towards this strategy as it helps them in gaining an independent opinion and perspective regarding the performance of their business as compared to other organizations within the market. With the help of benchmarking the managers have the option of drilling own to performance gaps and are able to identify areas that need improvement. This in turn helps in improving the quality of a manufactured product. Benchmarking manufactured products help the management in understanding the trend and the way the product will live up to the expectations of the consumers. Benchmarking is significant as it helps in understanding the ways companies can improve their processes as well as their products in order to be more desire n the market. This is a major aspect that helps in increasing the sales of an organization.

What are the benefits of benchmarking in this context of total quality management assignment?
In order to understand and the benchmarking process let us consider the case of Xerox machines within this total quality management assignment. Photocopier was invented by the company in the year 1959 and this organisation maintained a virtual monopoly for nearly a decade (Riva and Pilotti, 2019). However, by the year 1981 the markets of the copies started shrinking as Kodak and IBM developed high-end machines and Richo, Canon and Savin started dominating the low end segments of the market. In order to sustain in the market the company focused on quality improvement plan which proved beneficial for the progress and the survival of the company. This plan of quality improvement was later termed as benchmarking program. Xerox’s approaches started focusing on key processes rather than their finished products and they highlighted certain elements of those processes that accounted for enhancing product superiority. The strategy of benchmarking used by Xerox’s helped in understanding that many processes might not be unique to a particular industry and the comparisons must not be confined to the competitors. As per the readings used to prepare this total quality management assignment, Wal-Mart is one of the most popular retailers of UK which makes use of benching in order to measure their process and the performance of their products. This is one of the reasons due to which the company is able to provide its consumers with superior services and is one of the most desire retailers of UK. The management of the firm develops reports and matrices regarding the performance of their product and the satisfaction rate generated by their services. These metrics are measured on queerly base which helps the company in understanding their situation and performance. Reducing in consumer satisfaction or sales of a product helps them in modifying their process so that they are able to improve and remain competitive in the market. Similarly, many companies such as Motorola a popular mobile manufacturer make use of this technique in order to enhance their delivery process. The company observed and was inspired by the delivery practices of Dominos and used it as a benchmark in order to improve their own delivery services. Enhancing consumer satisfaction and service is one of the best ways to gain their loyalty. It is important to benchmark performance and products compared that benchmark the performance of their employees are able to analyses when the employees fail to perform and they can encourage and motivate them to enhance their performance so that productivity of the firm can be maintained (Raval et al., 2018).

Challenges of Benchmarking
Although there are a number of benefits of benchmarking and the concept is gaining worldwide popularity it cannot be neglected that there are certain problems associated with the implementation of benchmarking measures in an organisation. Some of the most common issues that a firm experiences are discussed in the following section of total quality management assignment:

Challenges with business process: The most basic challenge examined in the proposed report of total quality management assignment that an organisation experiences with benchmarking is around the business process that required benchmarking (Bowen et al., 2018). Often the area that needs benchmarking is too general which creates difficulty for the management regarding steps they should take for improvement. For instance, in many engineering plants in benchmarking operational excellence the management needs to consider many things of many different organisations and it becomes difficult to implement steps for enhancement when organisations are benchmarking such topics. Business also experience challenges if they plan on benchmarking a very specific business process. It is evident in for benchmarking process to be successful it is vital to understand how the results of the process influences the goals of the business. The quest for data in such specific situation is challenging and difficult. In order for benchmarking to work it is important that the process which is being benchmarked should be same at multiple units. For instance, it is beneficial to compare the same widget by taking the same type of customer, or by processing the same kind of pay check across different companies. But benchmarking is not effective or beneficial when it is used in order to compare fundamentally different products or process. For instance it is evident that the cost of serving a consumer who purchases clothes from Wal-Mart is likely to be far one as compared to the cost of an Armani store. Therefore, Armani will not benefit by studying selling process of Wal-Mart. the value proposition which is offered by the two retailers are different and one cannot lean much by comparing the aggregated servicing costs for customers at the two outlets.

Availability of data: Another significant challenge in benchmarking is availability of data. Easy availability of data in a central location is easy however obtaining information is often difficult. The best source of data is usual at the trade groups that support the specific industry in which the business is operating. After obtaining data it must be segmented in a proper manner so that it is relevant to the business. In benchmarking performance or quality often the issue of personal biasness is observed. This biasness can influence the rut in a significant so it’s important to ensure that the data must be properly followed. It should be kept in mind that benchmarking is the process that helps in recognising the situations or performance or quality of a product or performance it is not a solution that can boost up the output.

Generating value from the results: It is analysed in this aspect of total quality management assignment that if benchmarking is successful and the company has gathered significant data regarding the process and practices it is important that initiatives of improving the process should be taken so that outcome can be enhanced. If initiatives of improving the process are not taken then the entre process of benchmarking is a waste for a business. The primary challenge after gathering the information is selecting the right actions from the outcomes of the process. In order to implement the change or improvement process it is essential that all the members of the company must cooperate and they should have the right culture to accept the new changes as a result of the new actions. Another issue with this process is that often businesses consider benchmarking as a onetime process and this is inaccurate. The key to a successful benchmarking process is that firms need to set up a culture and follow the process of continuous improvement. The actual value of this process is achieved when the business learns from the results of the entire program. Tracking success and taking actions for continuous improvement on a regular basis is important.

2. What is “Total Quality Management” or TQM? Show how an organization you are familiar with could use this concept to improve customer service.
The total quality management assignment is focused on the concept of Total quality management (TQM) which is considered as a continual process of recognizing and reducing errors within the manufacturing process, for streamlining supply chain management, ensuring theta the workforce is up with the training process and for enhancing customer experience (Honarpour et al., 2018). TQM is aimed at holding all the parties or members involved within the production process accountable for the quality the final service or a product. This method of enhancing quality explained thoroughly in the sections of total quality management assignment was developed by William Deming a popular management consultant who helped in influencing the Japanese manufacturers (, 2020). It is evident that the steps of TQM are similar to that of Six Sigma; however, TQM is focused on ensuring that all the internal guidelines as well as the process standards reduce error while in Six Sigma the focus is at reducing the defects. So it can be observed that both the processes are sued for improvement however, the outcome is generally different due to the focus of the models on the different aspects of the process and products.

total quality management assignment

(Source: Luburi?, 2012)

The concept of TQM examined in the context of total quality management assignment is considered as a structured approach for overall management of an organization. The primary aim of this process is to improve the quality of products and outputs of organisation thorough continual improvements of various internal practices. The standards that are set as a party of TQM approach may be internal priorities or any industry standards that are presently in place. Industry standards are defined at multiple level and they often include adherence to various regulations and law governing the operation of a business. TQM is a customer-focused process that aims for a continual improvement of various business operations (Sivakumar and Dominic, 2016). It thrives in order to ensure that all the employees are working towards a common goal for improvising the services and product quality of a business. This process discussed in this segment of total quality management assignment helps in improving the procedures and process of a production place so that the products that are manufactured are of superior quality. Improving and maintaining service and product quality is important for the success of a business as quality is the factor which helps companies in attracting the interest of the consumers in a positive manner and they are able to gain their loyalty and the sale volume also improves. It was analyses that TQM technique originated from the manufacturing sector; however, its principles can be applied to many different industries. The concept is gaining worldwide popularity and among different industry sectors. The process focuses on long-term change as compared to short-term goals and it has need designed in a way to provide managers with cohesive vision for implementing systematic change. The techniques of TQM are applied to the entire department within a business organization (Alhazmiet al., 2017). This assists in ensuing that the entire workforce s working towards a similar goal set by the company, improving each of the functional area. The departments that include in the TQM technique can be marketing, administration, employee training and production.

TQM technique is gaining worldwide acceptance is it provides business organization with a number of advantages that helps the in improving their services and performance. Some of the most common advantages of TQM technique have been discussed below within this total quality management assignment:

  • TQM assists in evaluating the needs of the market. The application of TQM is universal and it assists companies to recognize and meet the requirements of the market in a better manner.
  • It is evident that non-participating behaviour of the employees are one of the biggest obstacle in the growth and success of a business. TQM focuses on brining positive attitudinal changes that helps in improving the performance of the employees by promoting a positive work culture and enhancing team work (Arunachalam and Palanichamy, 2017). It provides individual with an opportunity of self-development and increase the interest of the employees in their job.
  • Every business focuses on increasing its productivity and reducing its cost so that the profitability of the firm is enhanced. Under TQM the quality improvement teams are created who help in reducing inefficacy and waste of any kind by introducing a systematic approach. These initiatives help business achieving accost effective and safety work environment.
  • TQM assist companies in understanding the market competition and also helps in formulating a combating strategy. Due to increased competition survival of many business firm is becoming a rising issues. TQM assists in understanding the needs of the consumer’s as well as the requirements of the market.
  • Improper procedures along with faulty communication acts as a stumbling block in the way of a proper development and performance of an organisation. It results in reduced productivity, increased misunderstanding, poor quality, low morale and inefficient work system. TQM helps in binding the members of different department, levels and sections together for a better and effective interaction and communication.

This segment of total quality management assignment explores McDonalds as an evidence which is a popular fast food chain that is operating on worldwide basis, the firm has management and consumers through the globe. In order to improve the performance the company can make use of some TQM techniques that can help in enhancing customer satisfaction and improve the performance of the firm.

Food quality information
In order to improve consumer service the firm can improve its quality improvement information. For instance, it is evident that many individual have concerns regarding food allergies. The company can provide its consumers with additional allergen information into the ingredient statement in their menu so that consumers can read the ingredients and order as per their preferences. The nutritional information can be derived by conducting tests in laboratory and other public sources this way they can implement TQ to improve their food quality information for their consumers.

Training session
As McDonald is a customer oriented firm and it is important that excellent consumer service is provided s that the loyalty of the customer can be gained. By implementing the techniques of TQM thefirm can concentrate on its workforce development. The research on total quality management assignment signifies that the primary objective of training employees is to help them in understanding the role environment and improve their communication and team work. This will also help in creating a link between skills of employees and quality of products. Providing customers with quality food is important for food outlets so employees should be trained so that they are well aware regarding the food servings of the company. Employee training will also help employees to be multitasking and all the employees can handle any of the designation as per the requirement of the firm.

Continuous improvement
The major aim of TQM strategy mentioned herein total quality management assignment is to improve the product and service quality of a business. Continuous improvement is the best method that helps organisations in improving its product quality, business process, employee training and more. The process of continuous improvement will allow the company to fulfil the requirements of their consumers. Understanding the needs of the customers is important and this will also help the company in understanding the way they can improve and modify their products in order to make it more desirable for the market. The process of continuous improvement may contain certain factors such as benchmarking a quality standard, empowering the employees and enhance the inventory time.

Customer satisfaction
It is analysed in the above sections of total quality management assignment that companies like McDonalds need to pay special focus on customer satisfaction. This is important for their sales and helps them in sustaining in the competitive environment. In order to improve the quality standards the entire workforce of the company is provided training and they are continually involved in learning programs so that the customer satisfaction rate of the firm is enhanced. The management is responsible to ensure that the quality of the product is maintained so that customers are satisfied and can attain value for money. Trained workforce with enhanced food quality helps in the development of a positive environment in which consumer satisfaction is attained. Enhanced consumer satisfaction helps in increasing the brand image of the company.

As TQM technique examined herein total quality management assignment helps in continuous improvement and better development of products it is evident that the operational cost is reduced and profitability of the firm is enhanced in a significant manner. In addition, the technique helps in improving customer satisfaction rate and this allows the firm in gaining a competitive edge in the market. As competition is increasing adopting techniques are vital for business firms so that they can sustain in the market.

It can be concluded from the above discussion on the total quality management assignment that business organisations that implement quality management strategies such as benchmarking and total quality improvement can receive a number of benefits and enhance their performance in the market. Improving performance and product quality can help the firm in gaining the loyalties of their consumers and also provide them with competitive edge in the market. Some of the challenges illustrated above within this total quality management assignment are associated with these strategies such as lack of data validity in benchmarking however this issue can be resolved by the management by taking adequate initiative.

Reference list
Ajelabi, I. and Tang, Y., 2010. The adoption of benchmarking principles for project management performance improvement. Total quality management assignment International Journal of Managing Public Sector Information and Communication Techniques, 1(2), pp.1-8.

Alhazmi, E., Bajunaid, W. and Aziz, A., 2017.Important success aspects for total quality management in software development. International Journal of Computers and Applications, 157(8), pp.8-11.

Arunachalam, T. and Palanichamy, Y., 2017. Does the soft aspects of TQM influence job satisfaction and commitment? An empirical analysis. The TQM Journal, 29(2), pp.385-402.

Bowen, B.D., Headley, D., Kane, K.D. and Lutte, R.K., 2018. Enhancing global competitiveness: benchmarking airline operational performance in highly regulated environments. The Collegiate Aviation Review International, 17(1).

Duan, Y., Chen, X., Houthooft, R., Schulman, J. and Abbeel, P., 2016, June.Benchmarking deep reinforcement learning for continuous control. Total quality management assignment In International Conference on Machine Learning (pp. 1329-1338).

Honarpour, A., Jusoh, A. and MdNor, K., 2018. Total quality management, knowledge management, and innovation: an empirical study in R&D units. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 29(7-8), pp.798-816.

Luburi?, R., 2012. Synergistic effects of total quality management and operational risk management in central banks. International Journal for Quality Research, 6(4), pp.381-388.

McMillan, C., 2018. Organizational Identity, Corporate Strategy, and Habits of Attention: A Case Study of Toyota. In Strategic Management.IntechOpen.

Raval, S.J., Kant, R. and Shankar, R., 2019. Benchmarking the Lean Six Sigma performance measures: a balanced score card approach. Total quality management assignment Benchmarking: An International Journal.

Riva, A. and Pilotti, L., 2019. The strategy and the evolution of benchmarking methodology: the case of Rank Xerox-Fuji. EconomiaAziendale Online, 10(2), pp.273-291.

Sivakumar, B. and Dominic, J., 2016. Application of total quality management in academic libraries. Total quality management assignment International Journal of Information Dissemination and Technology, 3(3), pp.192-197.

The British Library. (1900). W Edwards Deming: Total Quality Management thinker. [online] Available at: [Accessed 17 Jan. 2020].


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