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Critical Analysis On The Role Of Energy On Sustainable Development Goals


Task: In this module you will find that the world economy is on an unsustainable path and fundamental changes will be required to create sustainable pathways. In September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly has adopted the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and associated targets. These goals build on the Millennium Development Goals and are presented as a ‘plan of action for people, planet and prosperity’. The goals if fully realised will transform our world for the better by 2030. Energy has risen to prominence in recent times within global debates and one of the SDGs now focuses on energy. In addition, energy has an implied role in some other SDGs as well. It is therefore important to understand the role for energy contemplated within SDGs and recognize the challenges in achieving them by 2030.
The core requirement of the assignment is for you to demonstrate that you have gained a critical understanding of sustainable development as it is discussed in academic and policy literature, and, from the evidence provided, as it is practiced particularly in the area of energy.
This assignment assesses your progress in developing the skills of material selection, structuring an essay and referencing. It also assesses your understanding of the subject and your ability to present your ideas in a coherent manner.
This assignment encourages you to 1) think about the role of energy in SDGs, 2) identify the main issues that may arise in achieving SDGs relevant to energy (i.e. SDG7 and other SDGs where energy plays a role) and 3) suggest any possible ways of overcoming these challenges.
1. Select at least two academic, peer-reviewed journal articles of your choice, published after 2015/16, dealing with the role of energy in the SDGs.
2. Write a short paper, not exceeding 1000 words (excluding bibliography and abstract), to critically analyse the articles selected in step 1 to discuss the role of energy in the Sustainable Development Goals, highlighting the main issues that may arise in achieving the SDGs that are relevant to energy (i.e. SDG 7 and other SDGs where energy is relevant) and suggesting any possible solutions to the issues. Your paper should demonstrate that you meet the learning outcomes listed below and that the work is in accordance with all of the notes and guidance that follow. You can use, with appropriate citation and referencing, the materials available on the Blackboard and your own further reading to write the paper.


1. Introduction
The sustainable development goals are considered as a global step taken for the betterment of this planet. There are 17 sustainable development goals according to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In 2015, the SDGs were adopted by UN member states. The SDGs provides a communal framework for the peace and well-being of people now and later (Nilsson, Griggs and Visbeck 2016). The 17 goals are integrated and intended to create a balance between environmental sustainability, economy and society. Energy is one of the main focuses of this essay. SDG 7 highlights the energy aspect of developed as well as developing countries. The expansion and up-gradation of technological sources and infrastructure is the main motive of SDG 7 (Osborn, Cutter and Ullah 2015). As stated by, the Secretary-General of UN, Ban ki-moon, Energy is the main source that is responsible for linking the economy, society and environment. Energy is the cause of every challenges or opportunity arising in today's world. Access to energy sources is one of the major aims of SDG 7. Originating renewable resources and enhancing energy efficacy is the pathway towards removing the imbalance present globally.

2. Critical analysis of articles
Two articles have been chosen to analyse the role of energy being used. The first article is given by Phebe Asantewaa Owusu & Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie and reviewed by Shashi Dubey. This article highlights the sources of renewable energies, sustainable issues and climatic changes. Here, the researchers have focused on the various ways in which renewable energy can help mitigate climatic issues. The paper suggests some measures which can be considered to help achieve the sustainability of renewable resources (Owusu and Asumadu-Sarkodie 2016). The paper further examines the eradication of the use of fossil fuels & its impact on climatic changes. The paper highlights the two major consequences of today’s world which are energy contribution and energy preservation. The researchers have focused on using renewable resources like solar energy, geothermal energy, hydro energy, bio-energy and tidal energy in place of fossil fuels (coals, gases & oils) to achieve the sustainable development goals 7. Lastly, the paper elaborates on the barriers which affect the implementation of renewable resources and policies regarding its implementation. Some recommendation has been presented by the researchers, which are a reduction of carbon emission by changing lifestyle, engaging in a joint venture with international supports, involving in innovative researches and investing in renewable resources.

The second article is given by Joshua Rosenthal et al. Here, the researchers have intended to develop an integrated model to interlink clean cooking oil and sustainable development goals for the betterment of health and environment. The key points were, using LPG is better than using biomass cookstoves. The paper elaborates about the benefits of using LPG. Biomass Gas stoves which include burning of woods and charcoal as a source of renewable resources is not as beneficial for health and environment as using LPG. The data has been collected from 40- low class and middle-class countries

3. What is the role of energy in sustainable development goals and issues?
3.1 Article 1
In the first article, the researchers have focused on renewable resources. Renewable resources are those sources of energy which are present in abundance in nature like, water, air or forest. Hydropower is a source which is derived from water sources like running tides to generate electricity. A hydropower project includes dams, reservoir, in-stream projects from where energy can be transformed into a usable source. But, installing of dams and reservoirs require uprooting of civilization, which is a barrier. In developing countries like India, developing of sites is a tough scenario due to low socio-economic status and scarcity of land. Hydropower installation also affects the ecological continuation (Nilsson, Griggs and Visbeck 2016). Bioenergy is derived from biological sources, like, woods and agricultural wastes, animal wastes. It reduces the concentration of greenhouse gases. Some of the issues highlighted is a scarcity of biowaste, degradation of soil vegetation, deforestation. Solar energy is directed from Sun radiations. Installation of solar energy panels in developing countries acts as a hindrance. Geothermal energy is originated naturally through the earth's core. Heat is mined and extracted in the form of liquid, from geothermal reservoir sources which get transformed into usable sources (Barbier 2002). Wind energy is transformed into kinetic energy and can be transformed through onshore wind technologies. Ocean energy is generated through, tides, waves and currents.

3.2 Article 2
The paper focuses on satisfying sustainable development goals 3 (Health and well-being), SDG5 (Gender inequality), SDG 7 (Calen and affordable energy), SDG 13 (Climate), and SDG 15 (life on land). Using LPFs can reduce CO2 emission and deforestation. Global warming too can be managed by using LPG. Using LPG, for domestic usage helps in minimizing climate-related issues, modernity and time- efficacy (Troncoso and da Silva 2017). Using LPG also have an empowering content, as it helps the women community to reduce the time required to collect woods from forests. The researchers have noticed issues like high rate of LPG, weak fuel distributorship, poor market supply chains, and properly accommodates required to implement LPG.

4. Suggestive measure to the issues-
4.1 Article 1
The energy sector is intertwined with economic growth and energy consumption sources (Alshehry and Belloumi 2015). Thus, per capita income is highly correlated with energy consumption. Engaging with international support can help manage operations. Each individual’s participation is required to bring the transformation. Using rooftop solar panels, solar ovens, and solar air conditions must be developed by those who are financially stable. The researchers have themselves highlighted some suggestive measure which should be brought into practical use. A proper channel must be inputted, to channelize the need and sources in a balanced manner. Technological interventions can help upgrade the access of energy sources to a wide range of the population. Making resources affordable to use must be ensured by the higher authorities.

4.2 Article 2
Accessibility of LPG can be ensured by proper governmental policies and amendments, especially in developing countries. Proper authoritative steps must be taken to implement the use of LPG in domestic levels (Troncoso and da Silva 2017). Awareness among the public must be started. Marketing strategies which encourage the use of LPG must be introduced. Affordability must be ensured by managing the cost of LPG in developing countries.

5. Conclusion
In conclusion, it can be said that various researches focusing the sustainable development goals have been cited, mentioning two in this paper. The role of energy is evident in every sector. Developing countries need much awareness, to encourage the practice of using renewable resources to meet the SDG 7. The global decision to eradicate wastage of energy resources and proper distribution of sources is highlighted in the suggestive measure.

Archery, A.S. and Belloumi, M., 2015. Energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth: The case of Saudi Arabia. renewable and sustainable energy reviews41, pp.237-247.

Asumadu-Sarkodie, S., & Owusu, P. A. (2016d). The potential and economic viability of solar photovoltaic in Ghana. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects.

Barbier, E. (2002). Geothermal energy technology and current status: An overview. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 6, 3–65.10.1016/S1364-0321(02)00002-3.

Kim, J.E., 2019. Sustainable energy transition in developing countries: the role of energy aid donors. Climate policy19(1), pp.1-16.

Nilsson, M., Griggs, D. and Visbeck, M., 2016. Policy: map the interactions between Sustainable Development Goals. Nature News534(7607), p.320.

Osborn, D., Cutter, A. and Ullah, F., 2015. Universal sustainable development goals. Understanding the Transformational Challenge for Developed Countries.

Owusu, P.A. and Asumadu-Sarkodie, S., 2016. A review of renewable energy sources, sustainability issues and climate change mitigation. Cogent Engineering3(1), p.1167990.

Troncoso, K. and da Silva, A.S., 2017. LPG fuel subsidies in Latin America and the use of solid fuels to cook. Energy Policy107, pp.188-196.


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