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Risk Management Assignment: Emergency Plan for Glasgow City Centre Incident


Task: Background
On the 22ndDecember 2014 in Glasgow City centre the driver of a local authority refuse lorry lost control of his vehicle, with the subsequent loss of six lives and many serious injuries. Read paragraphs 9-33 and 513 – 559 of the determination of the Sheriff into this incident, which can be found here: ff0000d74aa7

You are the Safety Manager for a large UK local authority which includes a large city and which operates regular refuse collections throughout the city centre. Your Chief Executive has read about the accident and is concerned about the public reaction to the continued use of refuse vehicles in the city after such an incident. However, he is also concerned because he has been informed that there would be significant risks to public health if refuse collection had to be stopped for more than 48 hours in the city centre and that many shops and restaurants may be forced to close if their refuse remained uncollected for longer than this period of time.

Therefore, he has asked for a report from you that describes the emergency planning procedures that should be in place for dealing with the consequences of such an event should one take place in the city centre.

He has also asked for an assessment of the possible consequences the local authority (and individuals within in it) could face after such an incident.

Risk Management AssignmentBrief
You are required to write a two-part report that addresses the requirements of the Chief Executive. As a guide, Part 2 should be no longer than 1200 words as Part 1 should form the bulk of the assignment.

Part 1: Emergency Planning: Consider the information in Module 7 relating to emergency planning and crisis management and prepare a report for the Chief Executive that addresses the steps that could be taken to manage such an incident if it happened in your authority. You should consider the stages in the emergency planning cycle and how this could be applied to this situation (e.g., the immediate incident, cooperating and coordinating with the emergency services, the need to maintain refuse collection while dealing with the reputational risks and communication strategy etc)

Note: you do not have to demonstrate detailed knowledge of waste and refuse collection but should be able to explain how a system for adequate emergency planning could be applied to this scenario.

Part 2: Consequences: This should consider the possible outcomes of any investigation and the consequences could be for the local authority and individuals within it. Consider what enforcement action after a criminal investigation could be taken, what the main health and safety legislation would be and include an assessment of when a charge of corporate manslaughter/homicide might be considered likely.


Executive summary
This report on risk management assignment is prepared for CEO to provide a detailed overview of emergency procedures in place to deal with any adverse incidents similar to the refuse lorry incident at Glasgow City Centre. The objective behind any safety risk management is thoroughly assessing the potential risks involved with the cases and implementing its appropriate mitigation policies. Safety risk management is provided by both national and state-level systems, especially in the state of the United Kingdom. Post the incident at the Glasgow city centreon 22nd of December 2014, where a refuse truck driver lost his control on the vehicle and met with a dreaded accident in which 6 public members lost their livesand few sustained major injuries. The driver of the vehicle had reported having passed out during driving and ended up colliding with several pedestrians on the sidewalk of the streets of Scotland.

Post the refuse truck incident, several emergency policies and planning needs to be undertaken to eradicate similar accidents in the future in any other area as well. On one hand, refuse trucks are vital components of the functioning city. Refuse trucks being an integral part of our everyday lives, helps to maintain the cleanliness of the city area. Collecting and transporting the garbage trashes and bins from all over the city of Glasgow and its proper disposal are maintained by these refuse trucks. Hence, complete removal of these large-sized vehicles will prove disadvantageous for the clean maintenance and waste management programs. If the routine functioning of the refuse trucks is halted for a period of more than forty Eight hours in the locality it will have a severe impact on the operations of several shops, eateries, commercial areas, industrial spaces, and households will be subjected to malfunctioning. Many may be forced to shut down due to the non-collection of the waste.

On the other hand, keeping in mind the public reaction and upheaval after the incident is also equally crucial. As six people have been killed on the spot while fifteen others injured in the process, this will not be accepted well by the citizens. The survivors and families of victims killed in the accidents are likely to oppose the use of waste carrying Lorries in the locality. This report identifies the requirements of implementing adequate emergency planning measures, trainings for the staffs including drivers.

Therefore, the study has identified the process of bringing an emergency plan into action along with the procedure of planning after facing any unexpected incident such as Glasgow incident. At the same time, this study has identified the procedure of gauging the potential outcome and negative consequences of such an incident in the context to the local authorities. Along with that, the study has provided recommendations on developing an emergency plan to avoid such a critical incident.

Proper and solid refuse collection is important to protect the health, safety of public and environmental factors. In technical words refuse collection refers to the solid waste collection that includes non-liquid wastes that come from human activity and a solid range of waste collection from disaster. Refuse or waste collection is a labour-intensive activity to reduce domestic garbage, and emergency waste such as plastic bottles and packaging, fallen trees, and rock obstructing transports. The report includes emergency planning to reduce refuse or solid collections in Glasgow city centre of local authorities from the United Kingdom.

Emergency planning is the action plan of a business organization that takes action in order to reduce the effects of incidents or accidents. Mostly this planning includes prevention, preparedness, response, and mitigation to minimize the effects of the accidents.

Therefore, this report focuses on presenting the detailed procedure of emergency plan on the basis of incident at Glasgow City Centre. Primarily, the two parts of the study determine to identify the critical importance of emergency planning and prevention along with the procedure of response and preparedness for any mitigation and recovery from the situation. Along with that, the part includes communication strategy and need for the refuse collection that has helped in identifying the procedure of implementing emergency plan at the time of need. Mitigation processes include factors such as mentioning the refuse collection to maintain the cleanliness, hygiene, and safety of the people along with environmental quality.

Part two of the study has focused on identifying the consequences along with the legal authority body that can affect the emergency plan and procedure along with helping the organisation to perform in a better way. On the other hand, undertaking new changes on the basis of legal charges and medical body are other critical parts of the study. In this part, importance and activities of the local police is also going to be presented in brief. Most importantly, it has concluded the entire aspect along with recommending the most effective strategies to manage the entire issue.

Aim and Objective
This report is intended to understand the different problems that are present associated with the case of emergency planning that needs to be undertaken while using refuse lorries in view of Glasgow incident and public reaction, For instance itneeds to be understood how the current incident that has been reprinted will have repercussions through public sentiment and for operational procedures and what the emergency plan for the same must be to mitigate this essentially. This could play a more than important role in informing the best practice that could be undertaken. The salient objective of this study is:

  • To understand how an emergency plan can be brought into action and what the planning should be like for such an incident.
  • To gauge the possible consequences of the incident on the local authorities.
  • To provide a recommendation as to how emergency planning can be better to reduce the chances of such incidents in the future.

Part 1
Emergency planning

Following is the emergency planning cycle of the report,It has five main parts- prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation (Leigh, 2019). The prevention will focus on the creation of solid plans. Preparedness includes activities like remedial actions. The response is the organization's way of reacting to the challenges of emergencies (Pescaroli, 2018). Recovery is the process of stabilization of the system’s functions. Lastly, mitigation helps in the reduction of losses due to such emergencies.

The case of Glasgow city where a lorry has lost its control and six people lost their lives along with many serious injuries shows that there is a serious need for the maintenance of the vehicle and training of the drivers before they are taken into the industry of refuse collection. The industry of refuse collection must train its drivers for which they may even conduct training sessions that will show them how to handle such emergencies without hesitating or panicking (Akhtar, et al 2017). The drivers of the refuse Lorries must be provided with emergency equipment where they can use it during such potential accidental situations. They may be provided with special protection covers for the head, hands, and legs to prevent them from being injured too. Since accidents are not something that can be predicted from before, it is necessary for the train and its drivers to be brave enough to handle such situations. Checking of the vehicle's different parts before starting to collect refuse around the cities, must be made mandatory for preventing such cases to occur.

The refuse collection team must provide immediate emergency services to the affected person if any incidents occur where anyone is injured (Dhamala, et al 2018). In the case where if anyone loses life the company must investigate the situation thoroughly so that the company does not face any reputation harm. Therefore, the CEO requires considering this stage as one of the most important aspect of the emergency planning cycle to prepare for the next step (Glavinov, 2020). Most importantly, the responsiveness of the emergency plan has to be handled and managed carefully by considering the legal procedures as per negligence law.

In relation to the Glasgow city incident of the refuse lorry, the refuse collection company must prepare for emergencies. They must follow the emergency policies, plans, and procedures (Voorn, Van Genugten, and Van Thiel, 2017). There are various safety measures that can be opted for in such situations. The staff of the refuse collection must be provided with proper equipment and clothing. Boots, gloves, and life suits for emergencies must be provided to the workers of the refuse collection. The chief executive must make sure that all the workers are assigned and also that they pass the training of refuse collection driving and handling such situations (De Paoli, Di Miceli, and Giuliani, 2020). Preparedness is all about the procedure of working as per the planning related to preventive approachesof emergency planning cycle. For example, in this case, the CEO requires paying attention to the facts regarding tracking of the locations of Refuse Lorries.

In response to the Glasgow city accident, the major rules which are to be followed are prevention, staying calm if any accident happens, following the safety procedures and protocols, reporting along with investigating and reviewing the incident followed by the management of the long term effects (Martinez, 2019). It has been observed that the assessment of the risks can be time-consuming, but it is a most important aspect that should be followed in order to prevent injuries as well as accidents. The drivers should be trained to assess the primary risk associated with the accidents and should be trained to mitigate the issue at least on a temporary basis. Apart from this, the main thing which the drivers need to be trained for is to stay calm in the situation of an emergency and not panic (Rafi, Aziz, and Lodi, 2018).

The drivers should be trained to handle the situation by using their critical thinking capabilities instead of giving an overly emotional response to the situation. When the drivers would be able to think in a critical manner, then the critical thinking judgments will help the drivers to restrict any further mishap.

The drivers need to be trained with all the safety protocols which would ensure that the staff would be able to handle the emergency situations. Most importantly, responsiveness is the key aspect of the entire cycle that can help in managing any emergency situations by following the legal protocols. This approach can also include the emergency services, administering the first aid facilities (Nisula, 2018). It has also included the medical team and other critical formalities as per the mitigation of the identified problematic situation.

It has been also mentioned that keeping a record for the injuries as well as the accidents in the United Kingdom is mentioned under the statutory duties (Demiroz and Haase, 2019). The record of the accidents should be clearly mentioned along with the actions taken for resolving the problems (Nicholson, 2020). All these steps should be pursued in a manner that would provide long-term solutions for the accidents faced by the drivers. This would also involve activating the emergency operations tasks followed by the evacuation of the populations who are threatened in such a situation and also carry out a fire fighting operation along with rescuing the stressed victims of the accident.

In relation to the Glasgow city incident, the company must take certain types of hazard impact steps that would save the lives of the people and will also aim at reducing the various economic losses. In the recovery stage, the company must focus upon returning to the community in a normal or even near-normal situation which would mainly include the restoration of all the major and basic services that are provided by the company (Kaufhold, 2019). The company must also focus on repairing the physical as well as the damaged parts of the vehicles and should also focus on resolving the social as well as economic damages.

The major recovery strategy would mainly include the cleaning up of the debris, taking financial assistance from the governments as well as the individual stakeholders to recover from the loss, the rebuilding of strong and resilient vehicles which would include all the safety aspects so that it has less effect on the drivers if they find themselves in any kind of emergency or accidental situations (Munawar, 2020). Mass care which would include for both the animals as well as the human beings who were either directly or indirectly been affected by the accident should be pursued. Some kind of financial support must be provided to the victims so that it would help them to recover from their losses.

The recovery plan must be in line with the various strategies that are prescribed by the protocols made by the government and the company must follow all the guidelines to actually execute the recovery plan (Kwak, Seo, and Mason, 2018). The recovery plan plays a critical role in satisfying the needs and expectations of the organisation, and CEO can get profit from the activities by considering the responsive aspects of the work.

In the mitigation strategy in response to the Glasgow city incident, various measures should be taken by the company to prevent such emergencies in near future (Claros, Sun, and Edara, 2017). The mitigation strategies that are to be executed by the company should mainly focus upon reducing the chances of emergency happeningsor even result in the reduction of the various effects of damages which are a result of unavoidable emergencies (Himes-Cornell, 2018). Some of the measures of mitigation that should be included are the establishment of the various codes which may be in the form of building codes along with fulfilling the requirements of the zoning aspects (Chen, 2021). In order to avoid the accidents of the lorries, the company can involve in changing the design of the trucks and also might reconsider the aspects of the size as well as the weights of the vehicles.

Apart from that, the drivers need to be informed to keep a safe distance between the cars in the traffic. The most important thing which needs to be remembered is that there must be some sort of effective enforcement made by the governments which would help in mitigating the effects of the accidents on the road (Sun, Bocchini, and Davison, 2020). The safety measures and guidelines that are prescribed by the government must be followed by the companies and the drivers of the refuse collection trucks.

Cooperation and coordination with the emergency services
Coordination service helps to manage collaboration between incident responders, transportation agencies, emergency management, and transit providers during this disaster that happened in the local area of a Glasgow city centre (Zeng, Wang, and Qu, 2021). Coordination work is important during disasters in an area of a country. Collaboration and coordination from everyone are needed in the critical situations of their locality or country to remove wastages after accidents happen.

The need to mention the refuse collection
Refuse collection is required for the maintenance of hygiene and cleanliness, environmental quality, and safety of the people. Refuse collection helps the individuals to clean their wastes and rubbish in refuse or rubbish collection Lorries prior to the final disposal. With the emergence of urbanization in the cities, the wastes have also increased in households, malls, and many places. The need to refuse collection has increased due to the increasing population and also the industries (Janmaimool, 2017). The wastes from these industries will not be disposed of and will create health hazards and environmental degradation which can be frightful threats to the population of the cities along with the animals too.

If refuse collection is not performed there will be many problems. People living in the cities may go around littering. They may throw the wastes here and there if the refuse collection Lorries or bins are not allocated in the cities. This will not only dirty the place but also make it unhygienic and ugly to live in. Sometimes waste materials may contain substances that may cause injury to the people as they may contain sharp or dangerous objects within. There remains the danger of brush fire hazards from the refuse. If the refuse is not collected then the people may also create a public-property nuisance by dumping there.

In the construction sites, it is important that the wastes are refused in the refuse collection lorries so that during the construction activities no one has the danger of health hazards, accidents resulting in injuries, or environmental harm. Both the residential and commercial users, hence, need the refuse collection (Chen et al, 2017). The refuse collection system is initiated by the government as a step to protect the environment as well as the population from unclean and unhealthy situations. The incident of Glasgow city has resulted in people’s belief in refuse lorries but if they have not been there to collect the refuse then the city would have been swimming in the pool of dirt and wastes. There would not have been the beautiful sights around the cities and suburbs that the people see around them.

Communication strategy


Methods of communication

Responsible person

For the up-gradation of the action plan and implementation of the plan every year. This is also to motivate and inform the employees for the development of the campaigns for the targeted communication

There are selective methods of communicating with them internally and externally. The internal methods are member briefings, committee reports, and papers, events and meetings, SharePoint, and noticeboards. The external method that can be used is the local media (Souri, et al 2019).


For informing the community people about the methods, timings, location, and process of refuse collection. To also inform that no litter should be thrown here and there. They may be charged for littering the streets, lanes, and roads as per the community waste guidelines by the authority (Obuah and Okon, 2017).

The internal methods that can be used for communicating with the community people are through news and Events. The external methods that can be used are waste blogs, doorstep, public notice boards, school visits, and posters and advertisements in the public buildings.

Community groups

For informing the authority regarding the action plans that have been made for the refuse collection process and also regarding the changes that they have made in their processes so that if it clashes with the community authority guidelines of wastes they may be able to come to a conclusion through their communication for the proper implementation of their plans (Janmaimool, 2017).

The internal methods that can be used to communicate with the community authority are the official discussions and meetings held with the members of the community authority and sign agreements and also through official events. The external methods that can be used for communicating with the community authority are official emails, presentations at meetings, public notice boards, visits to the community authority office, and print messages.

Community authority


Part 2 - Consequences
The fatal accident witnessed at the main city centre of Glasgow has been put under legal considerations immediately to seek justice and obtain meaningful results. The incident is not only restricted to the victims and people injured in the accident along with the truck driver but also several other intermediaries and links working in between the cases. The matter has been taken up by the Glasgow City Council and details have been investigated along with its possible outcomes. The driver of the refuse truck has been giving implications of possible medical history which might be the culprit behind the main accident.

The driver reported having several medical issues which had been diagnosed before. After a previous incident, similar to the refuse truck one, the driver had lost his consciousness behind the wheel of a bus too (Chen, et al. 2017). He is expected to have been a victim of frequent fainting and dizziness. Upon detailed investigation, several outlays and branches of the case have been relieved which will act as a medium of help to ensure the proper functioning of the future emergency planning and consequences related to it.

Legal authority body
The working of the Fatal Accident Inquiry board of the cities of the United Kingdom has a pivotal role in resolving the case of similar fatal and dreadful accidents. The procurator fiscal is in charge of taking off the fatal case and investigating in detail the various causes of death, accidental moves, and whether there were changes to mitigate the possible accident. The role of the procurator fiscal is to profane into the matter of sudden and suspicious death related to accidents and also look into the complaints registered by the local police authorities (Gallagher and Donnelly, 2019). Determine the following outcome of the fatal incident, and relevant precautions which could be taken. Relevant other decisions thereafter can be taken by the judicial body of the United Kingdom if similar road accidents and fatal incidents take place.

Local police
The local bodies of police and similar authorities are required to play their part in the consequent investigations upheld post any traumatic incident in near future. The police have to intervene in matters of such fatal incident cases and take note of the various details vital to the investigation process. They are essential components of the investigation as they can be termed as a primary witness and in charge of the scene of the crime after the incident taking place. Collecting samples, interacting with the onlookers, eyewitnesses, handling data, noticing key inputs are also undertaken by the local authorities and police (Loveday, 2018).

Medical body
Similar to the case of Glasgow, the medical body and representatives are much involved in the investigation process and its due outcomes. As we have seen in the previous accident at the Queen Street area, the driver had a previous medical history and was subjected to various illnesses which gave him the right to defend himself. His doctors had known the history of his severe neurocardiogenic syncope attacks (Li and Guldenmund, 2018). But he rules out the fact of linking dizziness and losing consciousness with syncope illness. Such vital inputs had proven essential in scrutinizing the case and analysing the possible outcomes. Hence, the vital feedbacks of the medical bodies and doctors are essential in solving such cases and understanding the true reality behind each crime.

Undertaking new changes in rules
The Health and Safety Executive body of the state is responsible for implementing new laws to mitigate the limitations which were observed before. The refuse truck organization which works for the state has to bring in several changes to enforce a new functioning system to ensure that no such accidents take place in the near future (Çal?? and Büyükak?nc?, 2019 ). With such a previous history, the organization has been stamped, and not every citizen is satisfied with its functioning across the city. The Health and Safety management has to preside over the general body meeting which includes the employees working for the refuse truck organization. Appropriate supervision of the employee's health and habits needs to be undertaken. Regular and daily basis health check-ups and regular maintenance of the health records of every individual employee within the company will lessen the chances of on-road accidents.

Every driver has to undergo at least 35 hours of training to attain the CPC which is the Certificate of Professional Competence(Lasota and Hankiewicz, 2020). Every commercial and large vehicle goods driver, especially that of refuse trucks needs to possess the particular Certificate to gain employment and continue driving. This 35-hour training has to be maintained for another five more years. The road traffic acts and the driver's license regime under the DVLA should be under strict regulation to check on individual drivers. Placement of the waste bins and collection depots should be vitally strategise to ensure the safe driving and collection of the waste and trash. The waste collection areas should never be placed near any residential area or school campus, on the site of a busy or crowded road, or any shopping area.

The drivers should be penalized immediately for breaking any rules laid out for them. Major roads should be avoided by the truck drivers and there can be fixed times allocated for the collection of the trash which can be publicized in the areas to avoid any intervention in the working hours. Risk management training can be used as active skills to be an observant driver to eradicate any chances of possible risks. Along with the regular renewal of the employees and their functioning, technological advancement like the introduction of pedestrian protection systems and facial recognition technology can be added to the large vehicles that can help in limiting the various types of fatal accidents (De Merich, et al. 2018). Proper identification of road maps and routes needs to be chalked out as well.

Legal charges implementation
Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 that is also known as (PUWER) is one of the most crucial regulations that should be known to the CEO. This regulation covers the use of equipment while providing health and safety related security to people of a workplace. The law requires inspection and intervals as per the requirement from the aspect of management system (Sienkiewicz and Owczarek, 2021).When any person related to the corporate organization is observed to have committed similar types of crimes or mistakes even in the past and have tendencies to repeat the same in the future, that person can be penalized under the legal charges of homicide or corporate manslaughter (Odeyinde, 2020). Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, UK is another critical regulation that needs to be taken care of in this organisation by considering the risks regarding health and safety along with assessing the risks to protect the employees from any type of foreseeable risks.

Conclusion and Recommendations
Here it is concluded that the driver of the Glasgow city centrecannot manage the vehicle and a disaster happened that increases the solid wastages in this particular area of the United Kingdom. The aim of this report is to collect the wastes to clean and make our environment safe. The report also discusses the objectives such as adequate emergency planning for waste collection that is mentioned in the scenario. The report also concluded that the emergency planning for the refusal collection of this area. The paper also concluded the importance of coordination and cooperation works to collect wastes or garbage from the locality mentioned in the given scenario. The report also discussed the need for refuse collection and communication strategy to collect the refusal collection. Therefore, the study has presented the consequences and emergency planning cycle to manage such an incident in future.

Conclusions from the case of this study derive and bring out the element of importance that needs to be reviewed in the case of the same.

It can be understood that this study essentially resonates with the element of interventions that need to be brought around. It reveals the importance of emergency planning and takes on the specified scope for the current situation that has been observed. The recommendations are properly in line with the impact of the same and this would assure a higher potency of development that can be engaged within and assured for the overall impact of the same. This helps in gauging and assuring a larger rate and greater scope of delivery towards the said terms and organisational nuances.

Training and development
Appropriate recommendations for the working approach in the organisation can help in improving the entire procedure of work. For example, training and development for the employees can help the CEO to maintain the legal aspects of the organisation and provide support to the employees regarding health and safety. The commendation essentially looks into the training and development of the employees regarding such situations. They involve and include the scope of updating and ensuring proper training is undertaken overall. It can be seen that the preparation needs to develop through a multifaceted degree to influence burglary firemen, medical care labourers and the police. This would introduce a chance to moderate the harm in instances of such crises later on. The preparation should be modern and changed by the circumstances confronted. It isn't unexpectedly seen that obsolete preparation strategies influence the framework unfavourably and the absence of readiness is obvious through this.

Implementing legislations
Setting goals are laid out as a quick arrangement component since it is fundamental to be vivified successfully. This assists with creating a thought of the needs. Most importantly, legislative aspects need to be implemented to avoid any mistakes or unexpected situation regarding corporate manslaughter.

This demonstrates that the reaction of the general possibility should be adjusted. In Cases of such occasions, it may very well be seen that after-activity should be a solid censure of the individual blameworthy and the earlier activity to be set up incorporates guaranteeing that the labour force is quality controlled right away. This assists with forestalling the earlier and the noteworthy examples of the equivalent.

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