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Reviewing The Literature On Human Resource Management


Task: You are required to review a sample of the literature on an Australian sector.
Step 1. Select a sector to study.
Select one of the following sectors to study: construction sector; health sector, or
retail sector. You will use this sector for both Assessment 2 and 3.
Step 2. Select five relevant articles. You will identify five relevant peer-reviewed
academic articles. These articles must be:
  (1) Published since 2014
  (2) Related to your selected sector: construction, healthy or retail, in Australia,and in a way that is useable for Assignment 3 Essay
  (3) Related to one of the unit themes from Weeks 1 – 5 in this unit (e.g. HRM,
industrial relations, HR planning and work design challenges)
It is recommended that you undertake your research via the online ‘search’ of
CQUniversity Library.
Step 3. Write 500 words on each article (500 x 5= 2500 words)
For each journal article, write to the headings in the template. These include:
  • full reference
  • outline of research objective and research question
  • outline of the method
  • discussion of the findings
  • summary of the conclusions
  • indication of how this will be relevant for your Essay 3.
Place each article on a new page.


Article 1
Full reference for the article:
Shantz, A., Alfes, K., & Arevshatian, L. (2016). Human resource management in healthcare: the role of work engagement. Personnel Review, 45(2), 274-295. [Doi: 0.1108/PR-09-2014-0203]

Objective and research question
With the increase in cost pressures, it has also become necessary to ensure quality care of the patients by providing a safe and secure environment for both staff and patients with interest to induce Human Resource Management practices. The main objective of the research is to study and present a test model to engage the relationship between four human resource management practices as well as care quality and safety in two different occupations and groups on health care mainly for nurses and administrative workers. Various questions are researched and answered like-

  1. What is the mediating role of engagement to find out the relationship between healthcare context and four relevant HRM practices outcomes?
  2. In what way human resource management practices affect the outcomes for large publicly funded healthcare systems?


For the current research, investigations are done for important dimensions that are related to each other. Random Sampling is done with a hardcopy questionnaire survey. The sample size included 42357 nurses and 2661 administrative support workers. “Preminilarity data analysis” is proceeding with descriptive statistical analysis, means and standard deviation to formulate correlations. A different statistical model like “Seven-factor model” and other analysis is used to carry on the investigation.

Findings and discussion
Demonstration of a positive correlation between human resource management perception and quality of safety and care in any healthcare sector is determined. Positioning engagement as a mediator to provide new insights into the human resource management performance chain is studied. JD-R model for understanding the manner with which HRM practices are leading towards outer results are also studied. Discussion of the process is done through which HRM perceptions can lead to valued results leveraging the “Social exchange theory”. This states that human resource management perceptions are leading and reciprocation process on the sector of employees also. Limitation in healthcare sectors and also practical implications related to growing HRM practices. Also, findings are elaborated and well-studied. The study resulted in creating advance JD-R model and also provided support to generalize the model in two ways.

First by examining the model in the context of healthcare and second examining the model for occupational groups the results portray future outcomes, whereas training has the weak relationship towards engagement. Various human resource management practices having a varying relationship between strengths along with engagement are found. The staff surveys also provide an insight into training content which is different for both staff and administrative workers. The findings state that in future nurses will have higher engagement levels as compared to administrative staff. It explains the relationship between engagement and occupational identification that professionally mediates it.

As per the conclusion, the healthcare organization has been tasked with the balance of equity and quality care with efficiency for ensuing patients and healthcare staff to operate in a safe workplace. The strength of HRM relationship with outcomes through engagement is differed depending upon whether staffs were a nurse or an administrative worker.

How this article is related to my Essay 3
With this research, the study encourages various human resource management practices to be understood which will lead nurses and administrative work engagement. This article solved the issue of employee engagement in healthcare sector of Australia. Various activities are to be provided to increase employee work which will result is quality service of safety and patient care. Health centres can use HRM practices for balancing quality care and efficiency by meeting the retention of workforce engagement. 

Article 2:
Full reference for the article:
Cooke, F. L., & Bartram, T. (2015). Guest editors’ introduction: human resource management in health care and elderly care: current challenges and toward a research agenda. Human Resource Management, 54(5), 711-735. [Doi: 10.1002/hrm.21742]

Objective and research question
With provided universal pressures within elderly care and healthcare sectors for high care, cost reduction, proper effective management of staff and workforce has become important and crucial for a healthcare organization. The key objective of the research is to elaborate on the future understanding of human resource management in health care sectors which has gained by the adoption of interdisciplinary, multi-level and multi-stakeholder approaches. The healthcare needs to reform for modernizing the public care provision. HRM is trying to understand public choices and improving health service. Few questions are also answered.

  1. What are the key challenges associated in managing the clinical as well as non-clinical professional?
  2. What is the role of HRM on High performance work system within healthcare organizations?
  3. How health managers will facilitate the implementation of human resource management practices like high performance groups among different professionals?


The investigation is done of some important dimension which is interrelated to each other. Immigration policy and also vocational education policy which can affect skilled supply, retention and recruitment of the workforce will be done. The industry for residential aged care will also be analysed and lastly, the management for a diverse workforce will be needed along with multidisciplinary activities and stakeholder perspective will be performed.

Findings and discussion
Despite informative and methodological growth in the research of human resource management is performed for healthcare, a discussion and analysis is also done related to research gaps, targets, issues and approaches. The demand-supply of the workforce skills in healthcare are analysed with the help of an analytical framework. It includes multi-stakeholder and multilevel. The articles explain major emphasis which is provided in skill need for aged and healthcare people. It also provided a clear picture of the skills required for employees and staff members. The significance is about the relationship between commitment as well as a skilled workforce which will get shaped by cultural values and ideology toward the home country. The investigation will show the need for making skill list through skill audits. This would help to identify the needs for training of staff members within healthcare.

Not only that the workers would be better prepared for the organization. The positive impact of rules and regulations will help workforce and skill development and also enhance quality. The research says that there is an interdependency of institutional factors on supply and demand for skills. This is done by informing employees and government about what can be done within Australian society in work management and multicultural environment. The study sheds light on innovation implications and also mentions how to care organizations are well equipped and managed properly. This is helpful in retaliation of well-qualified workers and will also investigate about labour supply which is been drawn from employees.

The article provides an overview related to policy development and sectoral development for healthcare in Australia. Challenges are been identified and also included in providing care and financial provision to centres. The implication is mentioned related to HRM. understanding is being done related to how human resource management can provide a positive impact on workers and some effective HR policies are also been mentioned related to organizations.

 How this article is related to my Essay 3
This can be related to retention of the staff members and the administrative workers by identifying certain human resource management practices which can be changed and improved. This in return provides positive workforce and employee retention in healthcare. This also impacts on employee turnover. The research focuses on how human resource management practices will be analysed within Australian healthcare to solve some major challenges and provide staff with a better workplace.

Article 3
Full reference
Herkes, J., Ellis, L. A., Churruca, K., & Braithwaite, J. (2019). A cross-sectional study investigating the associations of person-organisation and person-group fit with staff outcomes in mental healthcare. BMJ open, 9(9), 669. []

Objective and research question
The contemporary culture of the workplace is critical for the overall performance of the health system. These are fundamental detriments since they possess a strong potential to impact the quality of services offered and the experiences of staffs and patients. The article explores the extent to which the employees in healthcare are compatible with the immediate work environment and human resource management. The article then analyses the impact on staff outcomes specifically in the domain of mental healthcare.

Research questions are stated as follows:

  1. Does the organisational climate impact the performances of staffs in mental healthcare?
  2. Does the impact of organisational climate affect the mental well-being of staffs?

For researching on the above aspect 213 participants (staffs) were involved in working mental health facilities spread across six states in Australia. A survey tool equipped with multidimensional facets was used to derive results from the person-organization and person- group fit and link them to the staff outcomes. Numerous regression analyses method was utilized to comprehend the association of the fit with the measures of the outcome. The staff outcomes comprised of emotional exhaustion and burnout. Work stress and job satisfaction were also considered.

Finding and discussion
The regression analysis concluded that person-organization fit was more effective. It accounted for 36.6% of the discrepancy in satisfaction. It was also responsible for emotional exhaustion by a tangible degree of 27.7%. 32.8% of depersonalization was caused by it. 23.5% of work generate stress was attributed to the person- organisation fit. The analysis also was able to infer that the person-group fit had a decidedly lesser impact on the staff outcome. 15.8% of the discrepancy in satisfaction was caused by person-group fit. Emotional exhaustion was affected by 10%. Depersonalization was affected by 28.6% and 10.4% of work stress was caused by it. The findings clearly show that the perception of the staff with respect to the culture of the healthcare organisation and workplace can have severe implication on the well-being of the staff. The research carried on the study of human resource management was thus able to report the impact on staff’s well-being from the dual aspects of person-organisation and person-group fit. The organisational culture through the regression analysis was found to be a major contributor to the perception of an employee in mental healthcare. Organisational culture was responsible for staffs feeling burnt out and exhausted to participate in normal daily activities. Thus also had a veritable impact on the quality and safety of the care tendered to patients. The person-group fit had a more powerful impact on the depersonalization of staffs. The segmentation practised in the study aid sun the understanding of the different underlying factors influencing the outcome.

The study was able to conclude that the perception of the staff for the workplace and the organizational culture has deep implications on the well-being of staff. The interactions with co-workers and the values practised in the workplace are crucial for the mental well-being of staffs.

How this article will contribute to my Essay 3
The article sheds light on an important aspect of the workplace especially in the domain of healthcare. Thus, it establishes the psyche of an employee which is affected by the immediate culture. The mental well-being is instrumental in the retention of employees in healthcare. The role of culture in case of well-being and retention will help in essay 3 comprehension.

Article 4
Full reference
Jongen, C., McCalman, J., Campbell, S., & Fagan, R. (2019). Working well: strategies to strengthen the workforce of the Indigenous primary healthcare sector. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1), 1-12. []

Objective and research question
The capability of the primary healthcare sector committed to serving the Indigenous people are critical for fulfilling the medical requirements of the ATSI population of Australia. A large portion of it is dependent on the experience of the workforce, skills and motivation. Despite the strengths, the sectors are suffering from measured setbacks that are impeding the development of a stable and strong workforce. The study collects necessary data from the health services controlled by the community. The areas of strength and the areas which can be improved are explored in the study.

The research question of the article:

What are the areas which need improvements in the care provided to ATSI population in healthcare?

The study uses the grounded theory methods to interview a total of 17 staffs from ACCHS and derives necessary conclusions from it. The information collected was analysed, coded and transcribed with respect to several policies of the organisation. The strategies which are responsible for enhancing the quality of the workforce were inferred.

Finding and discussion
The study was able to capture 6 priority areas which were assessed to be of central importance for developing a strong workforce. Among these were the attraction and retention of ATSI health professionals. Improving the capacity and skills of the workforce were assessed to be the second factor. The tender a responsive and culturally safe environment was adjudged to be a critical factor. Increasing the number of ATSI healthcare students and the better access to information were also the reasons responsible for a more string workforce. The barriers to the retention of ATSI health workforce were identified to be impacted by systemic factors of restricted career pathways, restricted funding from organisations and inadequate compensation packages. Reasons affecting the engagement of ATSI people were ascertained to be community responsibilities, racism, isolation poor education and stress.

The model for workforce enhancement was segmented under the aspects of empowering the stability of the workforce, having strong leadership, growing capacity and functioning well together. The accomplishment of workforce stability was linked with the requirements of the staff to understand the philosophies and values of community control. The need for the right skills to get proper access to information was identified as a major factor for developing workforce stability. Support in daily activities was assessed to be a strong reason for developing workforce stability.

The study on human resource management concludes that the health workforce is a multifaceted and complex subject which has no clear one size fits all approach which is applicable and effective everywhere. The challenges of each workplace are critical and specific needing to tailor strategies according to the local needs and problems identified. Important issues are discussed and recommendations made as per the ACCHS, The result can, however, vary based on the situation of it in a particular Aboriginal Community.

How this article will contribute to my Essay 3
Comprehending and understanding the diversity of the workplace is inherent to the aspect of employee retention. The study executes specific research on the ATSI individuals and the strategies which need to be implemented in order to increase their involvement and mitigate turnovers. ATSI is an important part of the healthcare population and workforce in Australia. Thus the study will contribute to essay 3 by assessing the ATSI workforce an important part of the Australian healthcare sector.

Article 5
Full reference
Wilkinson, A., Muurlink, O., Awan, N., & Townsend, K. (2019). HRM and the health of hospitals. Health services management research, 32(2), 89-102. []

Objective and research question
The study concentrates on the human resource management in a hospital. There is currently a huge shortage of skilled professionals in healthcare. The efficient management of staffs is necessary to curtail turnovers and reduce the costs of the organizations. The article delves into the relationship between organisational performance and human resource management from the perspective of healthcare. The high-performance work systems are also assessed in the study and their implications are discussed.

The research questions are stated as follows:

  1. Does the human resource management impact the performance of the organisation in the healthcare sector?
  2. Does reduce turnover assure a higher productivity?

Four-page surveys were executed among HR managers of private and public hospitals in Australia. There were almost 686 hospitals from which the responses were collected. Regression analysis was used to assess the results of the study. The percentage of staff turnover was converted in as median split to allow logistic regression for smoother interpretation. A bundled approach has been used.

Finding and discussion
The study derives that healthcare is an essential service-driven industry. Thus the end product is delivered by the people. The efficient management of people is necessary for the success of an organisation in healthcare. The improvement in the work practices is necessary for accomplishing the desired success. It is also a low-cost method for enhancing the measured outcomes. In the measurement of the performance of an employee, the bottom line variables as factors ruling performances have certain advantages in the real world. Intermediate measures for employee outcome such as staff turnover are in theory closer to productivity but are not easy to interpret or derive. However, the study also emphasizes that a diminishing in the staff turnover may not actually be taken to as a positive sign. If the turnover is measured to be zero it may also imply that the workplace is highly functional and the staffs do not have the desire to leave. It may also imply that productivity in the workplace is below the standard. However stable staffing leads to positive outcomes in the healthcare industry.

The study emphasizes that stable staffing is crucial for accomplishing the aspect of productivity in the healthcare sector. It notes that being a service-oriented industry the management of the human resource is salient for achieving the desired level of productivity. The study on human resource management also establishes that a lower rate of turnover may not always lead to higher productivity.

How this article will contribute to my Essay 3
The article is of vital importance to essay 3. All previous researches assume that retention is necessary for increased productivity. This study reaffirms that; retention can imply that the workplace is highly functional making it difficult for employees to make the switch. The study sheds new light in terms of employee turnover and retention. This will be crucial for the essay 3 due to the fresh lease of thoughts provided.

Reference List
Cooke, F. L., & Bartram, T. (2015). Guest editors’ introduction: human resource management in health care and elderly care: current challenges and toward a research agenda. Human Resource Management, 54(5), 711-735. [Doi: 10.1002/hrm.21742]

Herkes, J., Ellis, L. A., Churruca, K., & Braithwaite, J. (2019). A cross-sectional study investigating the associations of person-organisation and person-group fit with staff outcomes in mental healthcare. BMJ open, 9(9), e030669.[]

Jongen, C., McCalman, J., Campbell, S., & Fagan, R. (2019). Working well: strategies to strengthen the workforce of the Indigenous primary healthcare sector. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1), 1-12.[]

Shantz, A., Alfes, K., & Arevshatian, L. (2016). HRM in healthcare: the role of work engagement. Personnel Review, 45(2), 274-295.

Wilkinson, A., Muurlink, O., Awan, N., & Townsend, K. (2019). HRM and the health of hospitals. Human resource management Health services management research, 32(2), 89-102. []


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