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Research Report Assignment: Employment In Labor Market Of Australia

Question

Task:
Prepare a well researched and detailed research report assignment on the employment opportunities in the labor market in Australia.

Answer

Abstract
As per the investigation on research report assignment, it is evident that in this era, both confusion and dilemma can be found for the first-time migrants in Australia leaving behind and start a new life within the country. Several challenges or issues can be found like communication and language, changes within status and role, and lastly separation from the family. As per the new survey conducted it has been found the majority of migrants get their job with the help of family or friends from Centrelink help. People do not get their job are due to the absence of local experience or even finding issues for comprehending the language. The study focuses on carrying out an examination or determining the main cause and possible effect of immigration and employment in various cities of Australia. This is found to be important for the age group of 25-40 years in the span of the last 15 years. All the information can be collected easily with the help of economic study and data will be made available to the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Also, this comprises Australian open government data, and different kinds of journals and resources being made available on the online platform. The study will help in creating a complete understanding regarding the acceptance of migrants and what can help in gaining reference for the labor market for people trying to migrate to Australia.

Introduction
The research study is advancing knowledge of workforce supply along with making demand by complete analysis of employment dynamics in the lifecycle. It even helps in evaluation of effective for policies so that it can enhance the present labor market [20]. Study of labor market is found to be important for proper-functioning of the society. The labor market is bit tightened and most of employers are facing issue in recruiting skilled labor in the year 2010 in comparison to 2009 [3]. Australia is considered to be world’s top three culture of diverse nation which stand works for around 45 per-cent of the population [11]. Nationally employers are being able to fill up around 61% of the vacancies right from 65% in the year 2009. Most significant kind of tightening was seen in Western Australia where certain proportion of vacancies being fell by 14 percentages [5]. The averages of 1.3 suitable applicants were seen on basis of vacancy. Northern territory is even experiencing fall of 8 percentages within portion being filled [19]. It has been found that there are fewer than 0.2 suitable applicants as per vacancy.

Work with government, industry and health sector tend to evaluate the present employment, welfare, retirement, tax and transfer policies. It will help in informing the development of right measures which can increase the participation of labor force [12]. There has been unemployment across the Australian economy which tends to remain at steady rate from December 2018 at value 5%. Although there are around 200,000 jobs have been created for last 15 years, this job growth is not that much steady for pushing down the unemployment rate. All this has taken place as a result of increasing labor participation rate which checks the portion of Australia 18]. This data stands out to be highest participation being recorded for the 2012. It is found to be sign of national economy being functioning at rapid rate due to low growth of wages. There are different vacancies within construction table, Automotive trade and child healthcare which become tough to be filled up in the year 2010 [13]. Employer recruiting within food service and accommodation and healthcare has been reported at the highest level of difficult recruitment. There has been moderate level for competition for ongoing vacancies with average value of 5.6 applicant’s vacancy. Both number and variety is found to be difficult for filling up occupation within Darwin revealing an opportunity for entry into the labor force using low skilled occupation [17]. There has been opportunity for job seekers so that exist for community and personal service, technician and trade workers. It is found to be much more difficult for filling up occupation within Darwin so that there can career path for progression in different industries more specifically the retail trade.

Migrants do from various social, economic and linguistic background and they need to have a diverse needs and aspiration so fulfilling Australia. Getting access to employment and business option in Australia for the given migrants and refugees over the age of 45 years. This age factor stands out to be serious challenge which needs to be faced. Migrants and refugees tend to face different kind of barriers at various level creating a direct impact on effectiveness of strategies for finding new job in information technology industry of Australia. Among the given barriers some of the issues being faced are English language, culture barriers, torture and trauma background, oversea skills and recognition qualification, absence of work experience, racism, learning new procedure for establish new business. Social issues are focused to only side of the issue, as older the worker gets there can be pervasive discrimination. At present, migrants have arrived with university degree which would require longer period of time prior to integrate themselves in Australia. In most of the cases, the mature aged newcomers need to study English so that they can enhance their ability to establish effective communication. With latest development in technology, newcomers will include recent developments in system and there can be ongoing improvement in different industries and legislative development in various occupational domain.

The study aims to explore certain portion of people who visit Australia on temporary visa. And those who make visa to transition for permanent residential status. Some of the temporary migrants are not considered to be a part of Migration program [15]. They have increasing become as the very first step for permanent settlement within Australia for various people. The taxi industry has evolved as an important area for attracting new migrants [1]. In the last 15 years, the demographic profile of taxi drivers has changed a lot. Migrants who have low skills tend to fill up some of low status job within the labor market. The overall number of jobs being employed within manufacturing domain has been reduced to large extent [10]. In addition, there is need for new skilled jobs in various service occupation like retail, domestic help, aged care, catering and cleaning. In the last few years, the migrants do come up with skills which have lower level within education [14]. These migrants can be found within low skilled occupation like aged care, transport and cleaning. If the migrants focus to ways to tackle the growing issues to get a job in Information technology industry, then they can easily get a job in Australia. Migrants need to overcome the possible issues in social domain, economic and industry issues.

Very recently, migrants have chances to be easily employed as employee instead of business operations and independent contracts [4]. The data for this study will be collected by using secondary method that is from research article and Australian employment websites [9]. Research methodology is an important chapter which helps in revealing the suitable approach which requires to be adopted. The selected approach for research philosophy is positivis which help in collected proper information. For this study, deductive approach has been chosen which allow researcher to carry out the study using secondary sources. Migration tends to create severe impact on the economy, social and culture. The research will help in finding the importance of migrants to the growth of Australian economy. Employment has always been considered to be a vital factor for migrants so that they can take part within Australian society [7]. Without migrant labor Australia would not evolve as modern, advanced economy and vibrant as it is today.

Concept Map in research report 1

Fig 1: Concept Map of the Study
(Source: Created by Author)

Literature Review
As stated by [1], the immigration on the labor market tends to be based on migrants, the skill of present workers and characteristics of economy. It will be affected in both short and long run when economy can adjust with the labor supply. Short-term effect of immigration on wages or employment for present workers is based on skills of migrants. The labor market is tightening and employer experience has been facing issues in recruitment of skilled worker right from the year 2010. On National level, employers are being able to fill up around 61% of the vacancies revealing a reduction of 65% in the year 2009. The biggest tightening was seen in Western Australia, where certain portion of the vacancies are being filled up by 14 percentage value. It has been found that there around 1.3 suitable applicants for each given vacancy [12]. Northern territory has also faced a tightening experience with a fall of 8 percent value in the given proportion of vacancy. It has been found that fewer that there were 0.2 suitable applicants for each given vacancy. The author has revealed that major difficulties being filled in the year 2010 was seen for resource profession comprising of occupations like mining engineers and geologists. Along with this, the fill rates for automotive trade fell by a value of 19 percentage points [8]. It has concluded from different studies that strong labor market with slight younger profile, participation of high labor force was seen for the employment rate 5.4 %.

According [20], the Australian labour market has faced certain number of changes in last few years. This has been specifically seen in domain of industrial relation, economic environment, and present employment relations. Australian government aim to make sure of the fact that Australian labour market stay stable by creation of enhances trade and employment system [10]. There is requirement for addressing the wage rate and employee relationship which can help in focusing on both country and different parties involved in checking the productivity of the given enterprises. The government has got involved so that it can ensure that right labour laws exist and most of the reforms can be done in this sector to enhance the overall productivity [5]. The growing importance of state within labour market has provided opportunity for employees so that they can find paying jobs. Different institute and labour unions have come up to ensure that changes can be done in the labour market both at regional and international level [1]. There is need for assuring proper flow of information within labor market from different employers to job seekers. It can help in understanding the level of competition which exists within Australian labour market. In addition, this can even help in analysing how geographical and job locations for wage rates can be understood by Australian labor market.

As revealed by [19], job losses and possible changes to the work life arises due to interaction between possible technical changes and structure of the labour market. In order to understand and improve, the future workers and work should take into account the possible factors and how they interact with one another [17]. Technological changes have taken place for last 250 years right from the beginning of the industrial revolution. There is no kind of evidences which can help in pace for technological development. But the technical change is very much associated with ICT. As a whole technological change stands out to be beneficially but there are many occasion where ongoing interaction for technological change and labour market has harmed the workers [14]. The impact of these changes are not found to be apparent one but even can be felt within the current period of disruption. All this arises from the rapid technological changes and in this way, the weaker section receives few benefits in term of productivity. Employers being recruited within accommodation and food services are reported with a high level of recruitment issue [13]. The very high level of current vacancies stayed completely unfilled in comparison to all other regions being survey for time span of 12 months. It has been found that there is moderate level of competition for vacancies with average number of applicants around 5.6 for individual vacancy within Darwin. The average number of 1.9 applicants was suitable [12]. Both number and variety stand out to be difficult for fill up occupation within Darwin has indicated that there is opportunity for entry into the labor force by using skilled labour forces.

As per [16], job opportunities do exist for job seeker for both personal service and community service workers (for child cares) and trade workers (metal trade workers). There can be issue in filling up the occupation within Darwin which reveals that there can be option for career path progression in different employing industries more specially the retail trade [8]. This can be found to be useful for social assistance and healthcare services. In the last few years, there has been decline in full-time working hours which has been completely halted and even reversed while most of the employers have tried to gain the flexibility right at the expense of workers. Gig-economy is not a new thing and it is predictable outcome to improve the power of employer. Technological disruption will work as a catalyst which can help in breaking down the work in pattern [4]. This will again help in facilitating shift towards arrangement which can work for favor of the employers. The possible social benefit related to technological innovation can be understood if and only if the policies are interchanged so that there can be fair share of benefits with the workers. The author has found that there is increase in the number of people receiving the unemployment benefits between the year 2008 and 2010 [2]. Vast majority of the development is seen as a result of people establishing interaction with Newstart.

As stated by [9], employee relation has been considered seriously by different regulatory bodies along with changing disciplinary actions. All these are much affected with respect to concern for resolving the employee grievances and wage rate in relation to that specific issue. Different institute and labor unions need to sort for checking that most of the employees can have an understanding regarding rights and roles to be considered [4]. Different aspects like job performance, duty misconduct and different issues are affected within growth in workplace. Australia labour market aims to address the regulation issues, involved legislation and bargain elements. Recent changes in the labor market with respect to employee relation have been centered much. Diversity within workplace and involvement of different bodies are inclusive of government, labor unions and non-union movement. All these have made significant number of changes in the labor market. Employee relation aims to focus on the ongoing interaction and behavior of people within workplace. This even addresses the breakdown for interaction between employees and employers [7]. This requires involvement for practice and theory of regulations along with proper management of employee relationships. It requires involvement of social and political dimension for power distribution in between management and employees. In the last few years, the ongoing changes in labor market have resulted in shift for new demand and trends for employee behavior and interaction resulting in range of development [11]. The reduction of union power and its influence within labor market will bring flexibility for labor. There can be constant changes for social attitudes so that it can create a diverse kind of employment landscape along with suitable employee relationship.

According to [13], Australian government has stayed committed so that it can ensure that people should not currently stay in the labor force who wants to work. It is made available for start working so that they can desired skills when they enter the job market. In order to end this, government has funded a range of skills and initiative for job seekers and workers for some of the vital industry sectors. It does comprise of 660 million right under sustainable growth initiative which can help in addressing some immediate skills needed within the Australian market [9]. Along with this, Australian government has invested around 200 million dollars for new important skills for investment. This fund will help around 39000 people for providing support to sectors which faces huge skill demand. In consultative pluralism, it is found to be much more formal and flexible way for employee relations as found in relation to Australian Labor market. Labor Unions have been involved in decision-making which is encouraged through recognition [18]. The two-way mechanism is found to be a problem-solving mechanism. Globalization has evolved as an important factor for overall growth of economy in majority of countries; the Australian government has brought several changes for benefits. It has been demanded that Australian government need to consider some of its strategies within labor market so that they can stimulate the domestic economy.

Methodology
Type of Research

Qualitative method is considered to be much more descriptive where inference can be easily collected from the data. Qualitative research method tends to originates from the social and behavioral science. At present, the world is bit complicated and it is tough to understand what people think and perceive [7]. Qualitative research method will understand the topic as it makes the whole thing much communicative and descriptive one. The point should be noted that qualitative data collection of this research topic will help in providing data collection being non-numeric one [9]. This is due to the fact how decision is made within the firm. In order to reach the desired conclusion, the collected needs to be holistic where findings should be done through careful analysis.

In this research study, a detail outline has been given regarding the research technique which can help in analysis of the labour market of Australia for migrants lie between an age gap of 25-40. The chosen philosophy of this research is positivism which can help in collecting desired information depending on the logic along with evaluation [11]. In addition, deductive approach will be used in this research study where secondary sources can help in achieving the how employment in the labour market has changed in the last 15 years for migrants. Descriptive design of the research methodology will be used by researcher to reveal the use of concepts in detailed way which can again help in understanding possible impact of this study [6]. Only secondary sources of data will be used for collecting detail topic along with enhanced analysis of the quality.

Data collection
Data is found to be an important source of information which can help in collecting desired information as per the basic need of the study. There are generally two method of data collection like primary and secondary which helps in giving details of any research study [6]. Primary data of study is found to be helpful in collecting raw data of the study which can work as per the requirement of research topic. On the contrary, secondary data sources make use of data to increase the topic and also help in providing enhanced study of the topic which need more data and description.

The literature sources of this study would require some additional information collected by making use of secondary sources [1]. There are many tools for secondary sources inclusive of both offline and online sources like books, articles, blogs and website. Different Australian website for migrate labours will be analyzed. The study will even make use migrants acceptance in the present labour market of Australia. Use of secondary research in the study will not only help in proper analysis of the information but also can help in clearing out the target by adding much more insights [3]. It is found to be vital for formulating questions or research method which needs to be used up for in-depth study by the help of primary research. Supplementary knowledge around the primary information will help in revealing the focus in-depth.

External secondary sources are found to be beneficial for the market research. Both accessibility and efficiency will help in adding up in-depth study of changes in Australian market in last 15 years.

Data analysis
For data analysis from different journal papers and Australian labour website, content analysis will be used. Content analysis is the best tool for understanding the presence of specific words, themes and related concepts by using some qualitative data [10]. With the help of this analysis technique, researcher can easily quantify and analyze presences, meaning and relationship within Australian labour market. Data sources can be any form like literature for occurrence of the communicative language. A specific study will help in analysis of different form of text to go for analysis. In order to analyze the research by help of text, text for content analysis need to be coded and completely broken down into some manageable categories.

Researcher makes use of content analysis so that they can find out the exact purpose, specific messages and possible impact of communication content. It can be also used for influencing both producer and audience regarding the text which they analyze. Content analysis is found to be useful for quantifying the possible occurrence of desired concepts and historical analysis [9]. In order to analyze how labour market has changed in the last 15 years for migrants aged from 25-40 in Australia, a list of things need to be considered like

  • Finding possible correlation and pattern how the given concepts can be communicated
  • Understanding the intention of Australian labour department
  • Revealing the possible difference in communication in various contexts for labour who have migrated to Australia.

Tools required
Reporting tools will provide an option to individual so that they can collect and extract data in form of charts, label and other kind of visualization sources [1]. This will help the researcher to find data related to labour market has changed in the last 15 years for migrants. There are many sources of data for reporting namely non-governmental organization (NGO) newspaper, reports, and articles from different website and lastly hospital records.

Labour reports: This report will give an in-depth and comprehensive report by making use of activities carried out the migrant labour in Australia [12]. All the information is contained within these reports so that it can form the basic academic purpose for collecting the desired data for study.

Research journals: In comparison to newspaper and journal articles, research journal is much focused on for academic study [6]. A journal paper is found to be scholar publication comprising of articles being written down by researcher, professors and other related experts in the field.

Justification for choosing specific method
In this study, positivism has been used which can help in enhanced analysis of some hidden points and detail information related to how employment in the labour market has changed in the last 15 years for migrants aged between 25-40 in Australia. Also, the nature of the study is found to be time-limited as result realism or interpretative study has been completely removed [8]. The chosen positivism philosophy aims to completely limit the role of researcher in manipulation and evaluation of data which again results in possible errors in this study.

In the current study, this specific research topic will make use of certain concepts related employment changes in the labour market. There are many models of labour market has changed in the last 15 years for migrants aged from 25-40 [5]. The current study has completely failed to make use of inductive approach as it cannot be implemented in present study due to absence of certain new concepts and theories by researcher. Descriptive design was used for defining the exact process to be used for how employment in the labour market has changed in the last 15 years for migrants aged from 25-40 in Australia. The possible impact of changes for employment in labour market is analysed by making use of descriptive design for this study.

Secondary research is an important tool for data collection which can help in processing market research [4]. This particular tool does come up with various benefits like best cost-effective alternative, accessibility in terms of time saving, developing the perspective of researcher. Secondary data is found to be helpful one in research collection as this support to earlier found data. This whole thing will help researcher to add up questions and perspectives.

References
This section contains all the references for the report in IEEE format[1] B., Hunter. Indigenous Australians in the contemporary labour market, 2018.

[2] D., McVicar, M., Wooden, I. Laß, and Y.K., Fok. Contingent employment and labour market pathways: bridge or trap?. European Sociological Review, 35(1), pp.98-115, 2019.

[3] J., Blackmore, C. Gribble, and M., Rahimi. International education, the formation of capital and graduate employment: Chinese accounting graduates’ experiences of the Australian labour market. Critical Studies in Education, 58(1), pp.69-88, 2017.

[4] N. Cassidy, and S., Parsons. The rising share of part-time employment. RBA Bulletin, September, pp.19-26, 2017.

[5] E. Saito, and T., Pham. A comparative institutional analysis on strategies that graduates use to show they are ‘employable’: A critical discussion on the cases of Australia, Japan, and Vietnam. Higher Education Research & Development, 38(2), pp.369-382, 2019.

[6] P., Lowe. The labour market and monetary policy. Address to the Anika Foundation Luncheon, Sydney, 26, 2017.

[7] C., Fagan, G., Hebson, I. Tavora, and D., Grimshaw. Making work more equal: A new labour market segmentation approach (p. 368). Manchester University Press, 2017.

[8] S., Baum, M., Flanagan, W. Mitchell, and R., Stimson. Wage inequality across australian labour market regions. Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, The, 24(2), pp.124-146, 2018.

[9] Z., Cheng, B.Z. Wang, and L., Taksa. Labour force participation and employment of humanitarian migrants: Evidence from the building a new life in Australia longitudinal data. Journal of Business Ethics, pp.1-24, 2019.

[10] G., Gilfillan. Characteristics and use of casual employees in Australia. Statistics and Mapping, Parliamentary Services, Canberra, Australia, 2018.

[11] A., Biener, J. Cawley, and C., Meyerhoefer. The impact of obesity on medical care costs and labor market outcomes in the US. Clinical chemistry, 64(1), pp.108-117, 2018.

[12] M., McKenzie. The erosion of minimum wage policy in Australia and labour's shrinking share of total income. Journal of Australian Political Economy, The, (81), pp.52-77, 2018.

[13] A., Wilkinson, M., Barry, R. Gomez, and B.E., Kaufman. Taking the pulse at work: An employment relations scorecard for Australia. Journal of Industrial Relations, 60(2), pp.145-175, 2018.

[14] A. Edo, and H., Rapoport. Minimum wages and the labor market effects of immigration. Labour Economics, 61, p.101753, 2019.

[15] F., Docquier, Z.L., Kone, A. Mattoo, and C., Ozden. Labor market effects of demographic shifts and migration in OECD countries. European economic review, 113, pp.297-324, 2019.

[16] L., Stafford, G., Marston,, M., Chamorro-Koc, A. Beatson, and J..Drennan. Why one size fits all approach to transition in Disability Employment Services hinders employability of young people with physical and neurological disabilities in Australia. Journal of Industrial Relations, 59(5), pp.631-651, 2017.

[17] W., Zwysen. Different patterns of labor market integration by migration motivation in Europe: the role of host country human capital. International Migration Review, 53(1), pp.59-89, 2019.

[18] M., Demirci. Transition of international science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students to the US labor market: The role of visa policy. Economic Inquiry, 57(3), pp.1367-1391, 2019.

[19] A., Lialina. Labor market security in the light of external labor migration: new theoretical findings. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 6(3), p.1205, 2019.

[20] A., Manning. The elusive employment effect of the minimum wage. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 35(1), pp.3-26, 2021.

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