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Research Proposal Assignment: Administration of Psychometric Tests in Grade 9

Question

Task: Prepare a detailed and well-researched research proposal assignment on Administration of Psychometric Tests in Grade 9 to Promote Early Career Choice and Satisfaction.

Answer

1. Introduction
1.1 Research Title for Research Proposal Assignment

Administration of Psychometric Tests in Grade 9 to Promote Early Career Choice and Satisfaction

1.2 Background of the Research Proposal
Psychometric test among students helps in evaluating their performance as a candidate. Teachers are emphasizing teaching students from middle-high and high schools in making them prepared for their future careers. Psychometric test is not limited to the skills, abilities, knowledge, attitudes, job type, and personality; it is also an effective step to determine one’s choice on their future objectives. The studies have identified that lack of empirical evidence on psychometric testing with the help of Multiple Intelligence (MI) instruments can generate serious problems during the time of its application (Shaaria and Matoreb, 2019). The main motive of psychometric tests among the students is to strengthen their mental and physical queries to clear out on individual’s conditions. Other studies have explained that psychological models from the psychometric test narrate personality dimensions within the career choice process (Moir, 2021). It is based on accountability and intelligibility. Most of the psychometric tests is aiming at analyzing the student’s capability by revealing their cognitive capacity. The current research proposal is based on understanding the administration of psychometric tests among the students from 9th grade for assessing early career choice and satisfaction.

1.3 Research Problem/ Issue
The increasing popularity resulted in the increasing amount of job demand in different industries. People are looking for jobs without understanding their motive or demand for that particular role. Cultural variables make a significant impact on the psychometric test performance that can support cultural biases (Fernández and Abe, 2018). Organizations are currently seeking psychometric tests to avoid hiring people who are not fit for a potential job role. Recruiter frequently faces difficulties in having an overwhelming number of candidates who do not reveal any particular trait, domain, and skills that can make their application approachable for that particular job role.

1.4 Relevance of the Study
Being a student of psychology, the current study related to the administration psychometric test among the students in making their early career choice will generate a strong impact on the future research process.

1.5 Research Question
The potential research question for the current study will be,

  • What is the possibility of making improvements in skills and cognitive aspects to achieving satisfying career choices among the students from 9th grade?

1.6 Objectives of the Research Study
The potential research objectives of the current study will be,

  • To understand the importance of psychometric tests for the students from 9th grade in making their early career choice
  • To measure the impact of the psychometric test in improving the cognitive and physical capability among the students
  • To specify the areas where the psychometric test can make a beneficial impact in choosing the right career path
  • To achieve the positive impact from the psychometric test in promoting satisfying career choice

Submission 2
2. Literature Review
2.1 Theoretical Approach

A psychometric test is an important approach among the students in measuring their abilities, skills, and talents evaluated by some specific set of questions. The questions are depending on the required skills, personality traits, cognitive capability, and physical requirements according to the job positions. According to research by (Harrison, Collins and Müllensiefen, 2017) explained that the modern psychometric theory helps in conducting ability tests. It can be assessed by conducting computerized tests and automated item generation. The fundamental implication of psychometric tests is generating career satisfaction.

The theoretical aspect of administrating psychometric tests among the students in 9th grade enhances flexibility from individuals to achieve job satisfaction (Davidescu et al., 2020). The main concept of psychometric test is not new; it has been practiced since the early 20th century. The test is mainly depending on the jobs that the candidates are applying for. Promoting the improvement on psychometric tests among the students in 9th grade will help them in measuring their hidden attributes and identify any area that they should work on from an earlier stage.

2.2 Review of Past Literature
According to (Christopher, 2020),the Administration of psychometric tests in grade 9 is essential for promoting early career choice and satisfaction. Many countries that have accepted the new educational methods are growing with innovation. The other countries that have not accepted the new learning concepts are struggling to attain their required goals like India. In many countries, the education system has not developed with the needs of this modern century and cannot perform well in HR management There are numerous issues such as social status related to a job opportunity, social pressure, another impact for driving youngsters towards a particular field of learning. After completing their education in this system, they get confused in selecting their professional field and fight in their further life. Psychometric test in career counseling has grown into a vital part of modern education in the developed countries. The psychological tools are assessing the internal possibility of young people in their career choice.

According to (Powis et al., 2020), the learners have to be chosen mainly on reliable potentials with the course requirements, not exclusively on academic standards as was the custom of the past time. The non-academic abilities were to be evaluated through a local set of psychometric testing. For the abilities who accomplished at the required level in the tests, and organized discussion directed by a team encompassing an academic staffer and one from the home-grown amateur group. The non-cognitive tests were planned to evaluate “empathy”, “morality” and “imagination”. The other things to be evaluated are the organized discussions both constructive individual potentials and the nonappearance ofunwanted ones. Choosing decisions were to be made mainly onperformance in the discussion and on psychometric test verdicts.

According to (Maree, 2018), fast information technology growth and other modifications in the last years, changed the perceptions of parents and career counselors for the kids’ growth and advancement in their studies and choosing their career goals. Additionally, numerous career fields have disappeared in the last few years and a lot of career fields are growing every day because of the information technology advancement. Management of psychometric tests in high school is important for promoting early career choice andsatisfaction. Nowadays, youngsters are more liberal for choosing their career ways in contrast to the previous century peoples as they are more aware of their circumstantial occurrence and requirements of employment. Career choice opportunities are more flourishing now. The advancements are not matched with the comparable advancement of their personal feelings throughout their developmental stage. Psychometric tests are required to measure their ethics, creative capabilities, compassion towards others. Lots of people as well as kids are facing a bigger sense of meaninglessness and purposelessness in their early stage of life. They do not get a chance for expressing their thoughts throughout their life.

According to (Tariq, Tayyab, and Jaffery, 2018), empathy is a crucial personal attribute along with considerable ability in an individual's life. The cautious usage of empathy is helpful for the healthcare persons in their job for the patient’s comfort. It is a bigger challenge to enquire the learning breach regarding empathy in students in higher school and undergraduate level. Management of psychometric tests in high school is very significant for promoting early career choice. As reported, many students in South Asian countries (such as Pakistan) are mistreated and humiliated by their senior students. The students are found in personal suffering beyond their domestic environments, absence of societal care, grown work pressure, and insufficient relaxation period. These have all been connected to the suffering and decreasing empathy during academic years. There is a propensity towards societal suitability and improper recall. Accused may underor over-value their empathic preparation.

According to (Takci, Gurkahraman and Yelkuvan, 2017), There are several possible issues which affect the students’ decision for making their future career. All researches do not comprise astudy of the relations between the issues investigated and succeeding stages of academic success. Several studies observe the relations between the stage of academic success and the pupils’ aptitudes, comforts, and opportunities, by using different data removal approaches and classifiers. Surveying for the psychometric test is applied to many students. The comforts of a student may be in sciences, humanities, farming, and commercial trade. An appropriate condition for the students is to have a career in which they are attracted as well.Once career choice is completed, there may be many opportunities of the institution in which the students will study. For this cause, potentials and abundance of the institutional sections should encounter the student’s prospects. The efficiency of teachers, whether the institute has student replacement contracts, grants, achievement levels are instances of features that students take into attention by choosing the appropriate institute.

According to (Maree, Cook and Fletcher, 2018), conventional psychometric valuation tests are restraining for not giving people wide chances to discover and mature. Additionally, the major portion of the valuation instruments only exists for selecting sets of entities and lack application possibility in different issues. Career counseling practices that are generally dependent on the valuation instruments have restricted results for confronting the career requirements of different sets of persons. This understanding provoked the people to discover alternate working habits with other people (teenagers in specific) who struggle to maintain changes in their lives.Effective career organization approaches for teenagers should target precisely at serving them become more strategic, adaptive, and stronger.

According to (Baker et al., 2017), students can be successful in their higher education field or further career fields by maintaining the targets of that specific field. Companies around the globe are presently finding it problematic to hire persons who can fulfill their job necessities. Additionally, high school diploma courses are presently less worthy than in the previous decades, and present youngsters are confronting with their career opportunities needing information and skills demanding high school educational exercise. Management of psychometric tests in high school and universities is now vital for developing their career goal in different fields.

2.3 Conceptualization
The psychometric test can be obtained by sox different methods in evaluating a candidate’s capability. The tests are including – numerical, inductive, verbal, diagrammatic and logical reasoning, and error identification. One of the objectives of the current research proposal is approaching in understanding the importance of psychometric test in assessing cognitive improvement among the students from 9th grade. Research conducted by (Jaarsveld and Lachmann, 2017) explained that the psychometric test promotes three different features – knowledge domain, construct definition, and problem space. These all make a significant approach towards the students in understanding their career choice. The identification of appropriate career choices in an earlier stage helps in achieving job satisfaction. It is also important in grooming oneself in being experts in different areas to be prepared for future job opportunities. The current research proposal is based on finding out the important aspect of psychometric tests for the students in making an early career choice.

Submission 3
3. Research Methodology
3.1 Research Paradigm and Design

Psychometric tests have been in use for a long time. It is used for selecting a common process. The test is generally used in the large and competitive organization. It helps to assist in selecting candidates based on their natural skills rather than depending on their educational background (Mahmood, 2017). The research will start from analyzing the literature review on the psychometric test and how it helps students to develop skills that are important for the career they want to pursue. The research will establish important factors to involve psychometric tests in grade 9 students to assist them in choosing a career. Huge scientific literature and information will be the primary source of the research. Past theory-based research showed that the self-efficiency can help in achieving necessary skills in students. Learning skills can never be enough for people. The research method will be secondary.

The information that will be collected will primarily base on general information that will be important for evaluating the research questions. The secondary data can be in various forms such as statistical studies published by the government or other authentic publishers(Johnston, 2017). Secondary research is also known as desk research. The research will be predominantly focused on the previously existing data. The whole research program is cost-efficient. The primary research data is already available to conduct the secondary method of research. The research will also be conduct by collecting information from the educational institute. It will be a great source of collecting data on the psychometric test. Most of the researches is done in colleges and universities. Educational institutes generally collect primary data from various students and individuals.

Another way to collect secondary data for the research is to use online data. It is the most recent yet very effective secondary data collecting platform. Psychometric tests in grade 9 to promote early career choice and satisfaction research can be hugely incorporated with internet data collections. It is also a very easy and low-cost secondary data collection method. Websites and internet sources have huge records of research data from all around the globe. A prominent benefit of using the internet as a research data provider is that the provided research topic is crucially based on scientific information. It is important to collect critical information about the sampling (Rice et al., 2017). Collecting internet based can help in to study a large population. It can also assist the research by providing external validation, predicting the authenticity of the collected data.

The research will be done through the qualitative method. The method will be included with grounded theory, ethnographic study, phenomenology, and case study. The qualitative research method in psychology is widely accepted. The acceptance of the qualitative research method requires local, structural, and cultural changes (Kuo and Wallace, 2020). Qualitative research rejects a positive approach to the available data. A qualitative method depends on the individual and evaluates the perspective of the individual (Howitt, 2019). Thus using the qualitative method as research can be very effective to produce a non-bias result. Grounded theory will analyze the existing data in the qualitative method. It will allow the researchers to illustrate a theory that answers the research questions. It will focus on the dominant phenomena than the individual's behavior. The ethnographic method will help to analyze, interpret and describe a particular culture's distinctiveness. The research will conduct ethnography because the research topic demands to study a group of people to understand various aspects of life. The phenomenology method is also important to evaluate in the research paper because the topic needs to be described with in-depth information and insights. The case study method is inevitably important for the research because the study is based on how's and why's.

3.2 Population
A population can be explained as a study of an individual, or an object. The common characteristics that are present in the taken sampling can be discussed as the dominating research question. In the given topic the population can be defined as the importance of psychometric tests in students. In one word, population means the average characteristics that are present in the group. The research is done by focusing on 15 research papers. These are the sample of the research subject. The research will also estimate the population means. The psychometric test is conducted in three various categories such as aptitude, personality, and skill tests. The research will evaluate the various aptitude tests given by students. Skill and personality tests will also be analyzed to understand the importance of the psychometric test. Establishing the proper numeric number of the population is difficult. It indicates all the elements that are provided in the data. Various statistics such as standard deviation, the average deviation will be taken from the population to elaborately illustrate the population parameter. The population parameter can be estimated by adding population means and standard deviation detonated respectively "mu" and "low case sigma".

3.3 Sampling
In this paper, research has been done through a secondary qualitative analysis method. Through this method, 15 research papershave been selected for evaluating the importance of psychometric test in early stages. Every student has to face the phase of psychometric during their carrier path. Collecting data informs that individuals should have the practice of phasing psychometric tests from childhood. The development of facing ability makes them efficient for their future path. The researcher provides information about the growing ability of individuals from the cognitive and physical aspects. Researchers also provide information about the area where the psychometric test can be used for the improvement of the students. Mental health has a determining effect on the developing ability of an individual in establishing a carrier path (Vaingankar et al., 2018). The researcher has been given their focus on evaluating the importance of psychometric tests for the students of 9th grade.

The 9th grade has been recognized as the starting of the carrier developing phase that needs more sincerity. During data collection, it has been observed that researchers always give focus on students' growth. The growth of the students depends on improving the physical and mental growth of an individual. The objective of this research is to analyze the importance of the psychometric test. In this paper, the effects of selecting the right carrier have been analyzed to check satisfaction probability percentage. It is a well-known theory that inappropriate carrier selection never brings satisfaction for the students. The research has been developed in such a way that in the end, a clear picture can be visible to the viewer for developing a psychometric test for 9th-grade students. Developing a perfect result will help the observer to develop their implementing step in a way that brings success for them. The various research paper has been collected to evaluate the past research data for psychometric test evaluation.

Research has been done in a way that brings positive impacts of psychometric test improvement. The psychometric test developed positive growth for the students. Having accessing capability makes the students efficient for the future carrier. The secondary data collection method helps to improve the research more significantly so that the outcome will be beneficial for the researchers. Psychometric test analysis helps to evaluate the impact it on student's growth. Different aspects of the psychometric test have been analyzed through the secondary qualitative analysis method. Collecting information helps to evaluate the impacts of psychometric tests on various growth aspects. Some research studies have been provided information about psychometric test also has the capability to check attitudes of the students (Guillasper, Soriano and Oducado, 2020). The aim of the study was to analyze the physical and cognitive growth of the students by implementing the psychometric test. Every possibility of psychometric test evaluation has been analyzed in the research to make the implementation more appropriate.

3.4 questionnaire:
The secondary research method focuses on a central research question mentioned in below section

  • What is the possibility of making improvements in skills and cognitive aspects to achieving satisfying career choices among the students from 9th grade?

3.5 Data Collection Method
The research will be secondary research and the data will be collected through Qualitative Method. In this research proposal, a thematic analysis will be conducted for collecting data. The data will be collected from the literature review of the scholarly articles. The research proposal will be based on the psychometric test in grade 9 to promote early career choice and satisfaction. The psychometric test will help to analyze the abilities, skills and talents of the students to find out his or her various particular qualities. Some questions will be aptitude questions, some will be reasoning based questions, scenario-based questions and others. It will help to identify and analyze students’ abilities and skills and help to choose their careers. Psychometric test is mainly the measurement of mind and it helps to analyze the mental condition of a person (Chipana-castillo, Miranda-roca and Vicente-ramos, 2021). The research proposal of using the psychometric test in grade 9 to promote early career choice and satisfaction will be conducted by Qualitative method where the different and unique point of views will be involved.

In this research, fifteen scholar papers will be taken to complete the research. The main research question is related to the possibility of making improvements in skills and cognitive aspect to achieve satisfied career among the 9thgrade students. In order to complete the research, detail and critical study will be conducted to identify the importance of psychometric tests for the students of 9 grades to choose their careers. The impact of the psychometric test will also be identified in developing physical and cognitive capabilities of the students. The research will also determine the areas where the psychometric test has a beneficial impact while choosing the correct career. The following research will also evaluate the positive impact of the psychometric test while selecting satisfied and correct career options.

The final research will be done with the help of fifteen literature papers. At first, the relevant papers will be selected from the scholar and the information of the papers will be critically analyzed. Qualitative method is a scientific research method that focuses on the participant's point of views (Groenland and Dana, 2019). It uses the larger samples and often its objectives are to being quantitative representative for the primary population. In this research proposal, the literature papers about the importance of psychometric test on the right career selection among the students of 9th grade will be evaluated properly and the data will be collected from the information used in the literature papers. The collected data from the literature papers will help us to fulfill the objectives of the research on the use of psychometric test among the students for satisfying career selection.

3.5 Data Analysis Method
After collecting the necessary data, the analysis of the collected data will be very important in the research. The research will show the use of a psychometric test among the students of grade 9 to choose the satisfying career option. The psychometric test is mainly used to analyze the mental condition of an individual. It is very important to assess the skills and abilities of the students to achieve correct and satisfying career options.

The following research will be a secondary research proposal and the data will be analyzed through thematic analysis. Thematic analysis is used to identify, analyze and report patterns within data. It allows critically analyzing the rich, complex and detailing description of the data of the research, by adding flexibility in the process. The thematic analysis helps us to find out the people's views, opinions, experiences, knowledge and values from qualitative data of the research (Terry et al., 2017). It allows more flexibility while interpreting the information and approaches huge sets of data easily by arranging them into comprehensive themes. Thematic analysis can be done through inductive or deductive approaches where inductive approach allows data to regulate the themes and the latter involves in the data with some defined themes based on the theory.

The current research will be conducted with the help of fifteen relevant research papers that will help us to evaluate the positive impact of the psychometric test among the students to choose their careers. The psychometric test will help to determine the skills and abilities of the students for choosing careers that will satisfy them. By conducting the thematic analysis of the research, the specific area of the psychometric test will be evaluated and the positive impact of applying psychometric test among the 9th-grade students will be identified to choose correct and satisfying careers for them.

In this research, the information will be collected from the research papers, no human participation is needed here. Several research papers that are relevant to the topic will be identified and then, a critical review of the papers will be conducted for thematic analysis. In the first step of a thematic analysis of the data, it is important to get an overview of all the information before analyzing the data. Then, the important section of the data will be highlighted to critically analyze the data. After collecting and highlighting the data, it should be collected together to get an overview of the main points in the research. The themes will be generated and reviewed. The problems of the research will also be analyzed and the collected data will be evaluated thoroughly for conducting proper research.

4. Bibliography
Allen, A.H., Jones, G.D., Baker, S.B. and Martinez, R.R., 2019. Effect of a curriculum unit to enhance career and college readiness self-efficacy of fourth-grade students. Professional School Counseling, 23(1), p.2156759X19886815

Chipana-castillo, C., Miranda-roca, G. and Vicente-ramos, W., 2021. ‘Management Science Letters’, 11, pp. 1583–1590. doi: 10.5267/j.msl.2020.12.014.

Christopher, A., 2020. ‘Magnitude of career confusion among college students in India?: An empirical report’, (June). doi: 10.25215/0802.114.

Davidescu, A.A., Apostu, S.A., Paul, A. and Casuneanu, I., 2020. Work Flexibility, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance among Romanian Employees—Implications for Sustainable Human Resource Management. Sustainability, 12(15), p.6086.

Fernández, A. L. and Abe, J., 2018. ‘Bias in cross-cultural neuropsychological testing: problems and possible solutions’, Culture and Brain, 6(1), pp. 1–35. Groenland, E. and Dana, L., 2019. Qualitative methodologies and data collection methods: Toward increased rigour in management research. World Scientific.

Guillasper, J. N., Soriano, G. P. and Oducado, R. M. F., 2020. ‘Psychometric Properties of “ Attitude towards e-Learning Scale ” among Nursing Students Psychometric Properties of “ Attitude towards e-Learning Scale ” among Nursing Students’, (August), pp. 1–5. doi: 10.31901/24566322.2020/30.1-3.1135.

Harrison, P. M. C., Collins, T. and Müllensiefen, D., 2017. ‘Applying modern psychometric techniques to melodic discrimination testing: Item response theory, computerised adaptive testing, and automatic item generation’, Scientific Reports, 7(1), pp. 1–18. Howitt, D., 2019. Introduction to qualitative research methods in psychology: Putting theory into practice. Pearson UK.

Jaarsveld, S. and Lachmann, T., 2017. ‘Intelligence and creativity in problem solving: the importance of test features in cognition research’, Frontiers in psychology, 8, p. 134.

Johnston, M. P., 2017. ‘Secondary data analysis: A method of which the time has come’, Qualitative and quantitative methods in libraries, 3(3), pp. 619–626.

Kuo, E. and Wallace, T. L., 2020. ‘Introduction to the special section: Qualitative studies of reasoning and participation.’, Journal of Educational Psychology, 112(3), p. 417.

Mahmood, K., 2017. ‘Reliability and validity of self-efficacy scales assessing students’ information literacy skills’, The Electronic Library, pp. 1–18.

Maree, J. G., 2018. ‘Promoting career development in the early years of a person’s life through self- and career construction counselling (using an integrated, qualitative + quantitative approach): a case study’, Early Child Development and Care, 188(4), pp. 437–451. doi: 10.1080/03004430.2017.1365361.

Maree, J. G., Cook, A. V. and Fletcher, L., 2018. ‘Assessment of the value of group-based counselling for career construction’, International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 23(1), pp. 118–132. doi: 10.1080/02673843.2017.1309324.

Moir, J., 2021. ‘Career choice narratives: engineering personality types?’, in Focus on events and narratives in language, psychology, social and medical practice. ?ód? University Press, pp. 89–102.

Powis, D., Munro, D., Bore, M. and Burstal, A., 2020. In-course and career outcomes predicted by medical school selection procedures based on personal qualities. Medical teacher, 42(8), pp.944-946.

Rice, S., Winter, S.R., Doherty, S. and Milner, M., 2017. Advantages and disadvantages of using internet-based survey methods in aviation-related research. Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering, 7(1), p.5.

Shaaria, S. and Matoreb, M., 2019. ‘Psychometric Properties of Mymica Multiple Intelligence Instruments Among Delinquent Student in Primary School’, International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 7(4), pp. 101–118.

Takci, H., Gurkahraman, K. and Yelkuvan, A. F., 2017. ‘Measurement of the appropriateness in career selection of the high school students by using data mining algorithms: A case study’, Proceedings of the 2017 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems, FedCSIS 2017, 11, pp. 113–117. doi: 10.15439/2017F283.

Tariq, N., Tayyab, A. and Jaffery, T., 2018. ‘Differences in empathy levels of medical students based on gender, year of medical school and career choice’, Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan, 28(4), pp. 310–313. doi: 10.29271/jcpsp.2018.04.310. Terry, G., Hayfield, N., Clarke, V. and Braun, V., 2017. Thematic analysis. The Sage handbook of qualitative research in psychology, pp.17-37.

Vaingankar, J.A., Subramaniam, M., Tan, L.W.L., Abdin, E., Lim, W.Y., Wee, H.L., Chong, S.A. and van Dam, R.M., 2018. Psychometric properties and population norms of the positive mental health instrument in a representative multi-ethnic Asian population. BMC medical research methodology, 18(1), pp.1-12.

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