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Research Project Assignment On Air Traffic Control

Question

Task
Air traffic control: Pilot lost communication from air traffic control in this situation how the air traffic control is going to respond to safe landing of the aircraft

Select any airport and describe; for eg Melbourne Tullamarine international airport, developing for future air traffic control.

To avoid collision how the Air traffic control need to be developed for future generations

In this coming next generations how the air traffic control is working and developing .for future generations.

Answer

Introduction
This research project assignment will be able to find a way to land the air craft in case the pilot loses control and also show how the air traffic control will develop for the future generations. This research project assignment includes introduction, literature review, and gap in knowledge, objectives, research questions, expected outcomes, research methodology, the project plan, the required resources, the planning budget and the risk analysis of the proposal.

Sometimes, due to technical issues, the pilot loses control of the aircraft. In such a situation, how can a flight be landed safely is the main aim in this proposal.The risk analysis in this research project assignment is high. If the steps are not followed properly, it could lead the aircraft to a fatal crash. The risks of landing the air craft is mostly loss of life (Isaac &Ruitenberg, 2017). Other factors like weather, the pilot’s capability and the terrain where the air craft is landing are some of the risk factors.

Literature review
Air traffic control is being given with the responsibility to map the flights in real time. As large air space area is being covered radar coverage is being explored and exploited by the air traffic control system to restrict collision or accidents. Multiple radar systems are often used in U.S. at higher altitudes which are over 90%. A radar archive system (RAS) preserves all the radar information for weeks. This information is useful in case of search and rescues the flight. A controller with the help of the last radar can determine the position of the aircraft if a flight gets disappeared from the radar screens.

Pilotage and Dead reckoning is important in air navigation system. This aid is deployed for the flight and the pilot to reach their destination safely. It provides warning to the pilot from prospective dangers which could lead up to collisions or deviations from their schedule paths. Ground control is very important as all the movement points of the aircraft which includes all taxiways, inactive runways, holding areas is very important to control upon.

When the signals from the Air Traffic Control (ATC) are lost, due to technical faults, the pilot faces a lot of problems. With no guide from the ATC (Air Traffic Control), the pilot has no idea about the incoming air traffic, clearance of airport runways, etc. if in that situation the weather becomes rough and the pilot has to prepare the air craft for an emergency landing, then it becomes a very hectic and panicky job for him to perform. With no sense of where he is or which is the nearest airport to land safely, the lives in the air craft come into jeopardy.

In case the air craft gets hijacked, there is no way the pilot can reach to the ATC (Air Traffic Control ) to let them know about the situation they are facing mid air. This causes an alarm in the passengers and also makes the pilot and cabin crew nervous. The feeling that there is no help on the way and that there is no way that help could be asked for is a situation every person dreads to face. Sometimes hijackers mess with the technical equipments of the air craft so that the connection of the air craft with the base is broken. In such situations there is no way in which the pilot or any crew member could send a report to the ATC (Air Traffic Control) or to some other flight for help.

Terminal control helps to provide all kinds of services which are being provided by ATC to carry upon within airspace. Traffic flow is broadly divided into departures, arrivals, and over flights. The ATC must ensure that the terminal control provides exact and accurate responsibility regarding the information about the appropriate altitude and landing of the aircraft. Terminal control or radar approach is not available in all airports. In such cases en-route center or a neighboring terminal coordinate directly with the tower so that the aircraft can land visually. Pilots have to comply with the instructions provided by the en-route air traffic controllers.

In emergency situations, in case some passenger falls sick or even if the pilot or a crew member falls sick suddenly, then the plane is landed in the nearest airport. But if the signals are lost and there is no way in which the ATC (Air Traffic Control) can be informed that there is an emergency situation on board, and then it becomes a very serious problem. The sick patient cannot be taken for immediate emergency care and he may lose his life because of this technical fault. If there is no doctor present in the flight during that situation, then because of no contact with the ATC, and not having the knowledge of which is the nearest airport where the plane could land so that the patient can be given immediate medical attention – the pilot becomes helpless and this may cause the life of the patient.

One of the most important responsibilities of en-route is to do the duty of Air traffic control which is being accorded to many small airports which range from the clearance at the ground level till the destination being reached. This en- route air traffic controller is commonly referred as “Centre”. They help the pilot by providing information and instruction to move up to the ascribed altitude while keeping safe distance from other aircrafts nullifying any risk of colliding.. It effectively and efficiently looks toward the safety of the aircraft when it is being landed. The moment the aircraft reaches to the destination it is handed over to the next important authority center. This act has to be carried out in a seamless manner which involves transfer of identification between the controllers.

Sometimes when the weather conditions deteriorate the ATC (Air Traffic Control) requests the pilot to do an emergency landing in the nearest airport and get the passengers of that flight to safety. But if the signal is lost and there is no way the flight can be informed about the situation of the nearest available airport, then the flight suffers through turbu8lence. If the weather conditions become more violent then the air craft might even face a fatal crash. These situations arising due to lost connections between the ATC and the air craft in mid air, causes not only discomfort for the passengers and crew on the plane, but also might lead to a fatal accident.

The way air traffic control is upgrading itself for the next generation is highly commendable. The satellite as it is being positioned continuously will provide inputs regarding the position of the aircraft for every second. This automatically results into the safety of the plane. Since the flight operates in the contract system it in turn helps the controller to ask for more reports to safely guide the flight. But this is costly for the companies to bear upon so this system is being use in case of emergency. This is also helping the planes from spreading biological diseases like bronchitis, and other respiratory diseases like Nitrogen dioxide.

Gap in Knowledge
Despite all the efforts made by the pilot, if there is no control regained, then there is a PARE rule that can be followed to regain control of the aircraft. P stands for Power which is turned into Idle, A stands for Aileron which is turned to Neutral, R stands for Rudder which is turned into full opposite and E stands for Elevator which is also turned to Neutral. But sometimes even if PARE is used, two primary controls out of the three primary controls, turn into neutral first. In this case the air craft starts spiraling. The Power should be pushed at this situation and not pulled. In this situation there is a gap in knowledge of what can be done. If this does not work then the last hope is to let go and keep trying the same process (Myr, 2018).

Sometimes the loss of control is caused due to mishandling of the air craft by one or both the pilots. These situations lead to wrong calculations of the performance of the air plane. The flaws in the maintenance of the air craft also leads to high risks of air craft accidents. The gap in the knowledge of the training crew on board due to faulty training or teaching is also a reason why all gaps should be mended in order to eliminate risk factors. Environmental conditions of a place cause a high risk for the air craft and make them swirl due to loss of control.

The basic gap is that when a pilot is in any of the above said situations, he cannot act in a calm manner and try to find a way out of that problem with calmness and is intelligent enough to act in a fast but composed manner. Most of the times the pilot panics which in turn panic the crew members and the passengers as well (Rodrigues et al., 2018). A pilot should be taught during training to think in a composed mind and find a way out of such situations.

The selection of pilots, crew members, co – pilot everything should be done in a strict way. The pilots and crew members who have complete knowledge of what to do if the control of the air craft is lost mid-way, should be selected. Pilots should not get distracted while multi-tasking in an emergency situation. In some of the aircrafts the switch that unlocks the door is placed beside the rudder trim selector. In such situations, if the pilot panics then they press the wrong switch and cause more tension in the flight (Vascik, Balakrishnan&Hansman, 2018).

Objectives
There are many objectives in this research project assignment, based on which this proposal has been composed. The different things that could be learnt from this proposal will help the pilots, passengers and the people to have a safe flight. The main objectives for this research project assignment are as follows:

  • To create a safe and evolved Air Traffic Control system for the future generations.
  • To find the way to land an air craft if the pilot loses control midair.
  • To look at the faults related to the Air Traffic Control system that might be responsible for flight to lose control midair.
  • To recommend to be calm and composed in such situations and help the pilot to land safely.

Research Questions
The different questions that were gathered from this research project assignment that are the main reasons for doing this project are as follows:

  • How can a safe and evolved Air Traffic Control system be created for the safe travels of the future generations?
  • How to find a way to land an air craft if the pilot loses control of the flight midair?
  • What are the faults of the Air Traffic Control system that lead the air craft to lose control midair?
  • What ways are recommended to be calm and composed in an emergency situation and try to come out of it safely?

Expected Outcomes
The most important outcome that is expected to come out from this proposal is the welfare and safe flight for the future generations. In mid-air, if a pilot loses control of the air craft due to the weather, or fault technical equipments or uncomposed mind of the pilot, then the ways in which the flight can be landed safely is received from this proposal. The present Air Traffic Control system can be developed and upgraded to a better version to avoid accidents, miscommunications, etc. These are the outcomes expected to receive from this proposal.

Research Methodology
A survey will be conducted in this research project assignment of five to six managers of the leading airlines. Interviews of pilots who have been through emergency flight landing situations will also be conducted. The deductions obtained will be received from these interviews. The information will be collected from leading Air Craft journals and manuals. The information gathered from the interviews will be based on positivism.

Project Plan

Research Related Tasks

Description

Time - frame

Proposal

Talking and researching about the motives of the proposal. The aims are jotted down which are the main reasons to make the project proposal.

Week 1 to 2

Literature Review

The works of different writers and engineers are reviewed and points are obtained from them about how those writings affect the proposal.

Week 2 to 3

Collection of the Data

Interviewing the managers and pilots of different airlines.

Week 3 to 5

Analysis of the Data

The data obtained from the surveys and interviews are analyzed using primary and secondary means of tools.

Week 5 to 6

Presentation of the Research Conducted

A discussion is made and a result is obtained from the conducted research of the presentation.

Week 7

Submission of the Final Report

The final proposal is prepared in a prim and proper manner and ready to be submitted.

Week  8

Required Resources and Planning Budget
Good training schools for pilots and crew members need to be arranged so that they get proper professional training. Pilots need to learn how to remain calm to handle situations like these. The switch that unlocks the door should not be placed beside the rudder switch. All the technical equipments of all flights should be maintained in an equal way so that the pilots do not confused during an emergency. Modern upgrading techniques to control air traffic should be installed and the people should be trained properly who work on the technical team of the Air Traffic Control system.

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References
Behrens, J., Werner, K., Hauer, L. C., &Delovski, T. (2016). U.S. Patent No. 9,369,195. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.https://patents.google.com/patent/US9369195B2/en

Irfan, M., Bull, M. J., Clinch, A. T., &Pember, S. J. (2017). U.S. Patent No. 9,754,494. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/39/ac/02/2db70d5b73bdbe/US20120303253A1.pdf

Isaac, A. R., &Ruitenberg, B. (2017). Air traffic control: human performance factors. Routledge.https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781351959964

Kontogiannis, T., Malakis, S., & McDonald, N. (2017). Integrating operational and risk information with system risk models in air traffic control. Cognition, Technology & Work, 19(2-3), 345-361. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Tom_Kontogiannis/publication/316745489_Integrating_ operational_and_risk_information_with_system_risk_models_in_air_traffic_control /links/5b104dfe4585150a0a5e0838 /Integrating-operational-and-risk-information-with-system-risk-models-in-air-traffic-control.pdf

Lovato, A. V., Fontes, C. H., Embiruçu, M., &Kalid, R. (2018). A fuzzy modeling approach to optimize control and decision making in conflict management in air traffic control. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 115, 167-189.https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Cristiano_Fontes/publication/320986549_A_fuzzy_modeling_ approach_to_optimize_control_and_decision_making_in_conflict_management_in_air_traffic_control/ links/5a1557eaa6fdccd697bc204a/A-fuzzy-modeling-approach-to-optimize-control-and-decision-making-in-conflict-management-in-air-traffic-control.pdf

Manske, P. G., &Schier, S. L. (2015).Visual scanning in an air traffic control tower–A simulation study. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 3274-3279.https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/82755040.pdf

Marchitto, M., Benedetto, S., Baccino, T., &Cañas, J. J. (2016). Air traffic control: Ocular metrics reflect cognitive complexity. International journal of industrial ergonomics, 54, 120-130.https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jose_Canas2/publication/303690766_Air_traffic_control_Ocular_ metrics_reflect_cognitive_complexity/links/57867cf308ae36ad40a694aa/Air-traffic-control-Ocular-metrics-reflect-cognitive-complexity.pdf

Mercer, J., Gomez, A., Gabets, C., Bienert, N., Edwards, T., Martin, L., ...&Homola, J. (2016). Impact of automation support on the conflict resolution task in a human-in-the-loop air traffic control simulation. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 49(19), 36-41. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20170011190.pdf

Myr, D. (2018). U.S. Patent Application No. 15/421,457.https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/ae/5b/b9/ee874f82c9042f/US20180218615A1.pdf

Rodrigues, S., Paiva, J. S., Dias, D., Aleixo, M., Filipe, R., & Cunha, J. P. S. (2018). A Wearable System for the Stress Monitoring of Air Traffic Controllers During An Air Traffic Control Refresher Training and the Trier Social Stress Test: A Comparative Study. The Open Bioinformatics Journal, 11(1).https://openbioinformaticsjournal.com/VOLUME/11/PAGE/106/FULLTEXT/

Vascik, P. D., Balakrishnan, H., &Hansman, R. J. (2018).Assessment of Air Traffic Control for Urban Air Mobility and Unmanned Systems.https://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/117686/ICAT-2018-03_Vascik_2018a%20Vascik%20ICRAT%20UAM%20and%20UAS%20ATC.pdf?sequence=1

Diallo A, Thuillier D. The success dimensions of international development projects: the perceptions of African project coordinators. International journal of project coordinator cover letter. 2004 Jan 1;22(1):19-31.

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