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Quality Management Assignment On Exploring The Concepts Of ISO 9000


Task: The purpose of this individual assignment is to provide the student with an opportunity to demonstrate his/her mastery of one or more related topics discussed during this module and apply them in the context of the topic of this assignment. 

You have studied concepts, models and topics set out in the module guide.

If you wish to improve your learning before embarking on this assignment, you may want to conduct a systematic search of relevant scholarly literature material. This is strongly advised.

The student is required to select TWO questions from the list below and submit a substantiated answer of between 1500 and 2000 words for each question. The student is also required to make a presentation of no longer than 5 minutes on ONE of his/her answers

2. Explain the concept of process mapping using flow charts and why this is done. Draw a flow chart to show how you answered this question.

3. 1988 Zeithaml, Parasuraman and Berry developed the SERVQUAL-model as a quality management tool for use in service industries. Discuss the workings of this model. What criticisms do you have of the model? Identify at least 3 “gaps” that apply to Wittenborg.

4. Explain why the appraisal of product quality will depend on the viewpoint of the appraiser. Illustrate your answer by considering the "quality" of a suit-case as seen through the eyes of a) the manufacturer b) the retail sales point c) the end user and d) the environment. Name at least two other factors that influence our appraisal of product quality

5. What is the intended purpose of ISO 9000:2015? Does ISO 9000 serve its purpose? Will an organization with an ISO certificate produce goods of a higher standard than an organization without a certificate?

9. Customer-driven quality represents a proactive approach to satisfying customer needs that is based on gathering data about our customers to learn their needs and preferences and then designing, manufacturing and providing products or services that satisfy customers. Describe 3 main difficulties with this approach to quality management.


Answer 5 
The proposed quality management assignment examines the readings of Iskandar and Halimah, (2019) that ISO 9000 is referred to as an international standard on quality management along with the quality assurance that is developed for helping the organisations for effectively documenting the elements of a quality system that is required for maintaining the proper quality system. Organisations are found to make use of the standards for demonstrating an ability for continuously providing the services and products that can meet the regulatory demands of the customers. Hence, the present quality management assignment deals with the concept of ISO 9000 as well as its intended purpose for quality management. 

Intended purpose based on ISO 9000: 2015
As stated by Benzaquen et al., (2019), ISO 9000 is responsible for helping an organisation for satisfying with the regulatory needs of the customers along with achieving continual improvement. This needs to be considered for being the initial step along with a base level regarding the quality system. This concept is considered as a standard of quality management which is known to present such guidelines which are intended for increasing the efficiency level within a business leading to customer satisfaction. The main goal of ISO 9000 has been for embedding a system of quality management in an organisational culture along with increasing its productivity and reducing the necessary costs through ensuring quality products and processes. As evidenced by Litvaj and Makarovi?, (2019), ISO 9000 is known to be intended for helping the users regarding the understanding of fundamental concepts, vocabulary, and principles relying upon quality management for being able to efficiently and effectively implementing the quality management system as well as realising about the value through the other standards of quality management. Thus, ISO 9000 is not particular for any specific industry rather, they can be applied within the organisations of various sizes. Hence, the main purpose of ISO 9000 outlined herein quality management assignment is to bring quality management within the organisations through the usage of certain principles that can be applied within an organisational culture, which are mentioned below:

quality management assignment

Figure 1: ISO 9000 quality management principles
Source: (Hendri et al., 2019)

Customer focus
According to Redko and Shadrin, (2019), it is noted within this quality management assignment that through understanding the preferences and requirements of a customer, an organisation can accurately create its target market by the key demographics, which help in increasing the revenue.

  • Aligning the objectives of the organisation with the requirements and preferences of the customers
  • Aiming for exceeding the customer expectations 

The goal of the leaders has been for motivating the employees who work for a project along with the successful leaders can reduce the chances of miscommunication within the departments.

  • Fixation of challenging goals
  • Setting models for organisational values
  • Recognition based on employee contributions 

Process approach
The concept of Process approach within quality management illustrated in this segment if quality management assignment is responsible for lowering the cost by effective use of the personnel; resources along with the time (Shi et al., 2019). 

  • Identification of linkages within the organisational activities
  • Deploying the business resources in an effective manner
  • Measuring the capability for business activities 

People engagement
Involvement based on the people can lead to personal investments for any project along with turning for creating committed and motivated employees. 

  • Ensuring the abilities of the individuals that can be used and valued as well
  • Evaluating the performance of an individual 
  • Enabling the factor of employee participation regarding continuous improvement 

Evidence-based decision-making process
Based on the views of Wulfsberg et al., (2019), it is clear in this report on quality management assignment that through making some informed decisions, a company can become more likely for making accurate decisions.

  • Assurance of accurate accessibility along with reliable data
  • Providing proper decisions depending upon the analysis of data
  • The utilisation of proper methods for the analysis of data

There is paramount importance for this factor discussed in the case scenario of quality management assignment and needs to be the permanent objective regarding every organisation.

  • Aligning the activities of improvement 
  • Empowering the organisational people for making improvements
  • Celebration of improvements

Management of relationship
This can make the leaders of an organisation be dedicated for their goals which can help in aiding themselves for the achievement of improved productivity (Porsev and Bulatov, 2019).

  • Selection and identification of suppliers for managing the costs along with optimisation of resources as well as the creation of values

Creation of values
This factor explored in the context of quality management assignment makes it important for the establishment of mutual relationship and this creates a value regarding both parties.

  • Collaboration for improvement as well as the development of activities
  • Recognition of the successes based on suppliers 

Serving the purpose of ISO 9000
As per the views of Gritsenko and Rud, (2019), comprising of ISO certification seems to be significant regarding SMMs based on its ability for enacting with the profitability; growth as well as cost savings. The benefit based on the reduction of waste is also known to allow the workforce for being much more efficient along with the establishment of ongoing standards of the quality management system as per the improvement as well as the success of sustainable customers. As per the standard of ISO 9000: 2015, it describes certain fundamental concepts along with the principles based on quality management that seems to be universally applicable for several things that are mentioned below within this quality management assignment:

  • Through the implementation of ISO 9000, it can help the organisations seeking sustained success in the long run based on the implementation of the quality management system
  • As stated by Rudyuk and Gerasimova, (2019), this can be applied for the interested parties along with organisations who seek for improving communication by common understanding based on the vocabulary that is used within the system of quality management
  • Organisations that are seeking for confidence within the supply chain can also make use of standards for ISO 9000 regarding the requirements of services and products of the organisation that can be met

Hence, ISO 9000: 2015 is known to specify the definitions and terms, which can be applied for all the systems and standards of quality management, which can be developed through ISO/ TC 176.

Comparison between the standard of goods produced by organizations with and without ISO certificate respectively
As evidenced by Luburi?, (2019), ISO 9000 is considered to be a certification which is recognised internationally that can ensure the quality of the product along with its services for an organisation. Being certified with ISO 9000 consists of several advantages for the corporations and comprising of quality products can also help in obtaining more and more customers as well. The most significant aspect based on ISO 9000 has been the process-oriented approach. This ensures a company to look for a bigger picture rather than the individual processes along with the departments of the organisations. The findings obtained from the analysis on quality management assignment mentions that the implementation of this particular approach, different audits might be conducted through a check based on effectiveness regarding the system of quality management. These consist of three major audits that are first; second and third-party audits (Coletto and De Monte, 2019). First-party audits are considered as the internal audits, which are encouraged by the standards of ISO 9000 for getting the feedback quickly through those people who know the organisation. Nevertheless, this process of audit cannot be viewed impartially. 

Thus, the audits of the second party seem to allow any customer for evaluating the performance upon any organisational culture. As per the views of Mozhaeva, (2019), being an alternative for the audit of the second party, most of the organisations has choices for becoming certified through ISO 9000 with the audits of the third party. In the present case of quality management assignment, the body of independent certification is known to come within an organisation that can evaluate in the context of the presented guidelines regarding ISO 9000. When a company seems to meets the needs and preferences of the respective standards, it is seen to be certified within ISO 9000 along with carrying a seal based on the quality that is recognised across the world. Thus, this makes the organisations that have been certified with ISO 9000: 2015 standard indifferent from the companies without the respective certification and this makes the certified organisations authentic about producing quality goods and services.

The case scenario of quality management assignment also considers the study proposed by Aleksandrova and Bezhentseva, (2019) that the standard of ISO 9000 helps in implementing the systems of quality management, which eventually is meant for monitoring the product progress passing through every stage based on the production through development towards the testing for assembly regarding the feedback of the customers. One of the cornerstones associated within this standard has been continuous improvement, as not a single organisation can be satisfied with the process conditions for a provided moment rather the organisation must have been looking for different ways for making the processes much more effective. Thus, the present standard of ISO 9000 examined in the quality management assignment has been written through the insatiable desire of the business world regarding their excellence in mind. This is the reason for the requirement of continuous improvement based on the standard that is for inspiring progress along with the pursuit of perfection. ISO 9000 has been marked as a flexible standard, which is known to lay down the organisational needs for being followed; however, it also allows a company for fulfilling its requirements according to their ways (Porsev and Bulatov, 2019). This, in turn, helps in increasing the scope of effectiveness based on ISO 9000 that allows a wider range of organisations for the creation of systems regarding quality management that are responsible for matching the needs of the organisational culture.

To conclude the study developed in the above sections of quality management assignment, the discussion has emphasized the standard of ISO 9000: 2015 along with defining its principles regarding the systems of quality management. However, the intended purpose based on the respective standard along with the importance of organisations certified with the concerned standard has also been highlighted in the present discussion on quality management assignment.

Answer 9
According to Liu et al., (2019),proactive customer service is referred to as an approach for the support of customers where businesses are responsible to make their initial move for helping the consumers. These particular businesses are found to get out of the way at first for finding the potential problems along with resolving them before the customers ask. Hence, the present study prepared in this quality management assignment focuses upon the concept of customer-driven quality for proactive approach along with highlighting its advantages and limitations as well. 

What is the proactive approach of customer-driven quality regarding the satisfaction of customer preferences and needs in the context of quality management assignment?
Customer-driven quality
This is considered as a set based on practices that help in developing software that can, in turn, ensure the expectations of the customers, which needs to be met along with being exceeded. As per the views of Vukadinovic et al., (2019), for the determination of quality as per the customers, it is generally recommended that an organisation should employ with customer interviews; surveys; focus groups along with techniques of critical incidents. Hence, a proactive approach seems to focus upon the elimination of problems before their appearance along with a reactive approach, which relies upon the response of events after their occurrence. Differences within these approaches seem to be the perspective through which each can be responsible for providing the assessing actions along with the events. The proactive approach helps in the implementation of quality management based on the requirements and demands of the customers. However, several other concepts fall under this approach, which is mentioned below:

Customer relationship management
This seems to be an approach, which is responsible for managing the interaction of an organisation through its potential and current customers. As evidenced by Elia, (2019), this makes use of data analysis regarding the history of the customers through an organisation for improving the relationships of the business with the consumers that specifically emphasizes upon customer retention along with driving the sales growth. This allows the companies to become much more effective through automating several aspects based on the business. Through the sales processes towards the campaigns of marketing along with business analytics and the data of the customer, this approach streamlines the respective processes regarding the purpose of business. Thus, the use of a proactive approach based on the organisations entails for gaining knowledge about the possible risks along with maximisation of understanding the customers and leads to significance for the risks and establishment of appropriate mitigations. This helps the organisations for proactively improving the systems and operations, which delivers a product with better quality. 

Three major challenges associated with the respective approach for quality management
As opined by Ate?, (2019), similar to the benefits of a proactive approach; it also consists of certain limitations regarding the implementation of quality management within an organisational culture. In many cases, organisations might wrongly anticipate the challenges of the future along with ending up the expense of a good amount for valuable resources as well as time within it. The major challenges faced by the organisations through this approach are mentioned below:

Changing needs of customers
This seems to be one of the main limitations discussed in the context of quality management assignment for satisfying the requirements of the customers as, within the dynamic environment, the needs of the customers are known to be constantly changing. Due to the constant change within the needs of the customers, the ability of the suppliers tends to surpass for meeting with the expectation of the customers with time and quality. Hence, in this type of cases, if the suppliers perform a quality management for the products, it might hamper the time of the customers and for delivering the products to the customers in time, the suppliers at times skip the system of quality management, which seems to create a loophole for the company (Libman et al., 2019). Thus, this creates a sense of dissatisfaction within the customers as per their changing needs for the products and services. 

This issue can be supported through the application of negativity theory, which has been developed by Aronson and Carlsmith in the year of 1963. It is known to suggest that any type of discrepancies for performance through expectations can disrupt an individual by producing any kind of negative energy. This respective theory consists of its foundations within the process of disconfirmation. The negative theory is considered to state that whenever, the expectations are held strongly, customers can react negatively for any type of disconfirmation. Hence, dissatisfaction can occur when customers evidence the perceived performance to be less than their expectations. However, the readings prepared in this section of quality management assignment signifies that effective feelings on the other hand for any service and product can be related inversely for the magnitude based on the discrepancy.

Inadequate production planning 
The quality management assignment also analyses the words of Potrich et al., (2019) that as per the system of quality management, it makes sure about assessing the proper process used for ensuring quality management of a product or service such as maintaining logistical and technical capability along with supporting teams for production of reasonable quotes. Hence, for the present case, the use of proactive approach deals with a customer-centric quality where it considers the predictions about the marketing of the customers rather than considering the aspects of interim department leading to the proper quality management system. Without this feasibility, it can lead to customer dissatisfaction along with ineffective management of quality for the products. This can also include the analysis of risk for the logistical and technical issues.

This factor can be related with disconfirmation theory, which states that satisfaction is associated with direction and size for the experience of disconfirmation, which can result in a comparison of the performance of service with the expectations of the customers (Hadidi et al., 2019). The paradigm of disconfirmation has been considered as the best predictor based on the satisfaction of the customer. According to the disconfirmation theory, it argues regarding the satisfaction, which can be associated with the direction and size regarding the experience of disconfirmation, which can result in a comparison of service performance along with the expectations of the customers. Satisfaction seems to be the result for the direct experiences through services and products, which can occur through a comparison of perceptions over standards. Research tends to indicate about the way through which service has been delivered to be the most important as compared with the service process and its outcome along with dissatisfaction for service that can happen when the expectations of the customers are not met. Hence, through the above theory illustrated in this section of quality management assignment, it can be stated that not meeting with these processes can result in the in-efficient process of quality management that can eventually lead to disconfirmation of the customers regarding the services and products of an organisation.

Result in delay
As per the issues provided in the above segments of quality management assignment related to the proactive approach in quality management, for mitigating these drawbacks can require a specific time to make the products available within the market for the customers. Based on the views of Suprin et al., (2019), this can, in turn, create an issue for the customers as the products would not be delivered to the customers within time. For instance, the suppliers need to be provided with sufficient time to get the proper goods and apply the capability of logistics along with technical capabilities can result in a delay for developing the manufacturing process which can be problematic for quality management as well along with being a disadvantage. Problems within quality management and production delays generally arise together. 

This factor can be supported through the Assimilation-Contrast theory which stated that if the performance seems to be within the acceptance range of the customers, even falling from the short of its expectation, the discrepancy can be disregarded. According to this paradigm, satisfaction has been considered as the function for discrepancy magnitude within the perceived and expected performance (Scheidt and Chung, 2019). As per this assimilation theory, most of the customers tend to adjust with the differences within the perceptions regarding the performance of a product for bringing within line through the prior expectations provided; the discrepancy needs to be smaller. However, based on this respective theory, if performance is known to be within the range of acceptance for the customers, assimilation can operate along with the performance that needs to be deemed for being acceptable. In case, the performance falls in the rejection latitude, the contrast is responsible for prevailing along with an exaggerated difference and the product can also result in being deemed unacceptable as well. 

Nevertheless, this theory discussed in this context of quality management assignment also deals with certain criticism such as the theory has been attempted for being flawed. Attempts through different researchers for testing theory can empirically bring mixed results (Bruçaj, 2019). However, the concerned theory has also been supported through early research. In contrast, it has been argued about the measured expectations along with an assumption that there have been perceptual differences within satisfaction and disconfirmation.

As per the above discussion on quality management assignment, the section has highlighted the concept of proactive approach within quality management. However, the major challenges related to the proactive approach for implementation of the quality management system has also been identified in the present section.

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