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Public Health Assignment: USA & UK Health Care Responses To Covid-19


Task: Objectives
• Develop an understanding of another country’s health system
Required Readings/Resources:

The US Health System
1. Documentary – PBS News Hour (2021) Critical Care – America Vs the World
If you have trouble accessing the video via this link, please search the title through the web, it is also available on youTube. The full show is one hour.
2. Duckett, S (2021) How the US health-care system works — and how its failures are worsening the pandemic, The Conversation
3. The Commonwealth Fund resource of health policy across different countries
The Commonwealth Fund resource is the key resource you need to understanding the USA and your tutorial groups health care systems.

Other Health Systems
Below are some resources to assist you in answering question 4. This is not an exhaustive list, and you don’t need to read them all, but use them as a resource to assist you to answer the set questions. These questions centre on the health system of the key countries you’ll be looking at.

1. The OECD have published a number ‘Reviews of Health Systems’, including reviews on Mexico, Colombia, and Switzerland. They are accessible via:

Please note: you are not required to read the whole review just skip to the parts relevant to you (typically the executive summary and/or Chapter 1).
2. You can also access information on all countries from the main page of the OECD – make sure you click on the HEALTH link:
3. WHO: Information on all countries.
4. The European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies have also written publications on various health systems including: Canada, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States. These publications available at: Again it is not necessary for you to read the whole report, only the sections needed to gain an understanding of the health system and answer the questions.

5. ‘Sick around the world’ presents short videos on Japan, Germany, Switzerland and Taiwan. The videos are available at:

COVID 19 responses
Below are some resources to assist you in answering workbook question 5. You don’t need to read them all, but use them as needed a resource to assist you to answer the set questions.
6. ‘Policy Responses to the Coronavirus Pandemic’ – an incredible resource developed by Oxford University and the Global Change Data Lab with data focused on the pandemic
7. The Conversation has published a significant number of articles so far on the pandemic. This link will take you to the Australian edition, which does include some papers about different countries, but you can also find Conversation sites for other counties – simply change the edition tab on the top left-hand corner of the screen

Questions to be answered thorough this public health assignment:
The US Health System

Question 1a: Drawing on the Video, Commonwealth Fund and Duckett references describe the key features of the US health system (e.g., public, private, mixed; the ideological basis for the system, how does it address health inequalities).

Question 1b. How has the USA responded to the COVID pandemic (e.g., morbidity and mortality rates, the type of policy response that was put in place in relation to physical isolation, testing, income support, vaccination rates, impact on health inequalities (ie. have some population groups been more badly effected etc)

Other Health Systems and their Response to COVID
You selected a country with your tutorial group, that country should be the focus of the following questions.

Question 4a: Describe the key features of your chosen country’s health system (e.g., public, private, mixed; the ideological basis for the system, how does it address health inequalities).
Question 4b: How has your country responded to the COVID pandemic e.g., morbidity and mortality rates, the type of policy response that was put in place in relation to physical isolation, testing, income support, vaccination rates, impact on health inequalities (ie. have some population groups been more badly effected etc)


Introductionto public health assignment
Due to the focus upon American region, the individualism approach becomes evident. Although the political system follows the ideological approach in America, the healthcare structure is abided under individualism. This creates discrepancy in decisions and regulations desired within the nation. The health sector in America suffers due to excessive individualism with less of regulation and more of gap (Meneses-Navarro et al. 2020). It is highly risk prone for American people and their health status when the political ideologist approach contradicts with healthcare strategies. The limited coverage provided to only selected residents’ impact the public opinions. It is the political mismanagement under the rule of Donald Trump which triggered the strong trace of individualism through the ideological approach. This report gives an illustration about the health crisis and overcoming strategies used in America as a response to COVID situation.

1a: Drawing on the Video, Commonwealth Fund and Duckett references describe the key features of the US health system When the US health care system is likely to face failure due to the worsening impacts of pandemic, Duckett reference leads to key features adopted for reviving the condition. Use of Ideological health system supports the US clinical settings. A coordinated integration of comprehensive approach by the government of the US is tried to be achieved (Sattui& Robinson, 2021). Use of federal funding resources makes sincere attempts to overcome the failures in health sector operations through high cost of medical services. It is by the application of ideological health strategy that federal funding is depicted with a generous insurance system. It is the collateral adjoined approach that is advised to share the contribution between federal funding system and state-run Medicaid system. As a clear depiction of ideological system, the “Obamacare” reform modified the funding structure of US healthcare sector with federal as well as state marketplace.

The inequalities in cost of health treatment between US and other regions of the world are possible to be mitigated when this strategy of “Obamacare” marketplace is actualized in real-life (Unruh et al. 2021). The people in US do not only seek benefit of avoiding extremely high premium charges, but also brings negotiation through private insurance of bulk buy arrangement. The more expensive and less effective medical treatment strategy at US healthcare is replaced with America’s revised ideological approach. It is the incapacity of Trump to accept the reality of COVID-19 pandemic which led to failure in scientific advices to use meaningful strategies.

It is due to the individualist orientation according to nation that led to perfect storm across the US health system. Under the idiosyncratic condition, the COVID-19 pandemic outrage led to disastrous conditions (Vasquez et al. 2020). The strategic application resulted in further fuelling of the surge in US region. The president’s reluctance about COVID-19 pandemic makes the surge in COVID to impact in disastrous manner. The delayed response of the state from Presidential control affected the Corona virus task force. The major difference between US and other regions get implied when Australia is found to operate with sincere state-based steps with health response.

The individualistic orientation maintained across US as a result of social norms led to casual behavioral response towards COVID-19. Not wearing mask, not following social distancing rules have further escalated the spread of corona virus. This hugely elevates the cost of testing COVID-19 and seeking healthcare treatment cost at US (Puschel et al. 2021). The long-term treatment for COVID-19 is very different from flu or viral fever. The mismanagement of Donald Trump added to the dysfunctional consequences across COVID situation which acted as a major determining factor through lack of healthcare awareness across US.

Question 1b: How has the USA responded to the COVID PANDEMIC
Healthcare insurance necessary for national population was greatly ignored by Americans, hence millions of people suffered during COVID-19 pandemic. Total number of affected cases rose to 4.37 crore with 7.01 Lakh deaths taken place across the United States. California experiences 47.5 L cases, Texas with 40.8 L, Florida with 35.8 L and New York with 24/4 L (Burks, Ortega &Bergmark, 2020). However, the morbidity rates were parallel and showed maximum concentration in California with 69,420 deaths, 66,234 in Texas, 55,300in Florida and 55,016 in New York.

In case of physical isolation, America was incapable of finding the missing piece to build proper quarantine strategies. Americans showed least rate of tolerance power in terms of obeying the isolation and the social distancing or quarantine period. The excessive cost hike surrounding COVID testing and cost elevation of testing kit charges in the US naturally pulled down the interest of their people to show compliance towards COVID regulations and protocol policies (Garcia et al. 2020). The strong urge to free mixing, beach visits and tours across city with disregard towards wearing masks and maintaining social distance further escalated the case count. American government data related to COVID-19 states that doses provided to residents have secured 39.6 crore by partial vaccination rate. In terms of fully completed vaccination, 18.5 crore people in the US are covered. This illustrates that 56.3 percent of total population of the United States are fully vaccinated till date.

The more expensive and less effective strategy is applied by the health department services at America. It is unfortunate that one of the leading power hubs of the world, The Unites States of America carried poor healthcare statistics of 18 to 24-year-old people do not possess insurance to protect their life through medical coverage. Due to the mismanaged control of Donald Trump, the risk in public hospital incapacity got created (Gorodeski et al. 2020). The “Obamacare” provision was appropriate to cover the health services with financial support of state and federal structure. Due to lack of pocket friendly approach the people affected on economic level got most prominently impacted to remain uncovered medically.

Question 4a: Describe the key features of UK health system
Under the prominent attributes of the United Kingdom, public healthcare is offered with uniform spread across the permanent residents of their country. With a total population of 59 million, the aged population concentration is rising which determines a severe factor across the UK. On a much positive note, the government takes interest and involves in funding the healthcare services on their own expense. Under the operation of NHS as the central core of theUK healthcare structural system, the majority of the residents in UK are able to seek medical attention with proper care in multiple departments of specialization. There is significant initiative taken by the country in terms of providing healthcare coverage through insurance and mediclaim policies for the citizenship holders of the UK. Under NHS the healthcare services are free except some bare minimum charges. The general taxation is paid through 18% of the income tax which becomes the healthcare fund for the entire nation. It is aimed at receiving almost 4.5 percent of the total income of the citizens from different parts of the UK so that healthcare services are subsidized and NHS is able to provide free and nominal charges for treatment and care services.

When the COVID-19 health crisis outbreak took place across the world, it dismantled the health and medical infrastructure of UK as well. With a huge number of cases of 79 Lakh and total mortality by 1.37 Lakh the United Kingdom has faced severe downturn in the clinical settings. Precisely, the data depicts how Egland shows 67.3 Lakh cases and 1.2Lakh deaths with maximum concentration of affected people due to the spread of corona virus(Sánchez-Duque, Arce-Villalobos & Rodríguez-Morales, 2020).

In terms of Scotland the rate is less as per the reduction in population by 5.7 Lakh cases and 8,666 deaths. In Wales, the cases were 3.6 Lakh with 5,907 deaths and Northern Ireland with 2.41 Lakh cases and 2,567 as mortality rate. The best system provided under UK health structure is the universal coverage received by all members of the country carrying citizenship. NHS is the strongest pillar of entire UK healthcare structure that allows the best of treatment to be offered irrespective of caste, creed, religious bias or income rate difference. It ranges from routine checkups to even specialist consultation and operations or therapies. Usually the economic spending is not required for that seeking health treatment from NHS out of people’s pockets. UK is ranked quite higher in terms of healthcare system effectiveness to cover all their people without any economic burdening which is main factor to pull down the heath appropriateness in US. However, in terms of variation of health specialties, US are more diverse than that of UK.

4b: UK response to COVID-19
The impact of COVID-19 was profoundly felt in the UK. Due to the spikes in the number of affected people and death cases, the severity of healthcare infrastructural incapacity was evident. Not just the respiratory syndromes, but overall mental health illnesses were also given simultaneous importance to cope with unending restrictions and lockdown in UK. Isolation, social distancing and wearing masks regularly were applied which helped the pandemic effects to curb down in UK without struggles. A significant amount of 13% people paid in private as well as public healthcare services to receive care treatment under medical insurance(Puschel et al. 2021). Mostly all patients admitted with respiratory issues were offered free coverage by NHS National Health Service in UK. The Official Status of Health Statistics I controlled and updated for people awareness. More than 79% of the entire health expense related to COVID-19 was expended by the NHS. This allowed charitable trusts, funding from enterprises and investors and out of pocket to insure and cover maximum population of the UK.

The population uses the eligibility criteria to match with provision of Medicaid so that federal subsidy is used to help support the health requirements. It is out of this strategic proposition that 20 million people gained the health coverage by reducing the adult age share of uninsured effectiveness. The contribution of government role operates in legislative effectiveness to frame the national strategies. With administrative payment, the Medicare program is established across American population to fund the health insurance for federal employment under active pharmaceutical products with medical devices. The health status and response by US and UK are compared where UK is at much stable and controlled situation with no economic burdening as compared to the US.

Burks, C. A., Ortega, G., &Bergmark, R. W. (2020).COVID-19, disparities, and opportunities for equity in otolaryngology—unequal America. JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery, 146(11), 995-996.

Garcia, P. J., Alarcón, A., Bayer, A., Buss, P., Guerra, G., Ribeiro, H., ...&Atun, R. (2020). COVID-19 response in Latin America. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 103(5), 1765. Retrieved from
Gorodeski, E. Z., Goyal, P., Cox, Z. L., Thibodeau, J. T., Reay, R. E., Rasmusson, K., ... & Starling, R. C. (2020). Virtual visits for care of patients with heart failure in the era of COVID-19: a statement from the Heart Failure Society of America. Journal of cardiac failure, 26(6), 448-456. Retrieved from

Lynch, J. B., Davitkov, P., Anderson, D. J., Bhimraj, A., Cheng, V. C. C., Guzman-Cottrill, J., ...& Sultan, S. (2020). Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines on infection prevention for health care personnel caring for patients with suspected or known COVID-19. Clinical Infectious Diseases. Retrieved from

Meneses-Navarro, S., Freyermuth-Enciso, M. G., Pelcastre-Villafuerte, B. E., Campos-Navarro, R., Meléndez-Navarro, D. M., & Gómez-Flores-Ramos, L. (2020).The challenges facing indigenous communities in Latin America as they confront the COVID-19 pandemic.public Health assignment International Journal for Equity in Health, 19, 1-3. Retrieved from
Puschel, K., Ferreccio, C., Peñaloza, B., Abarca, K., Rojas, M. P., Tellez, A., ...& Montero, J. (2021). Clinical and serological profile of asymptomatic and non-severe symptomatic COVID-19 cases: Lessons from a longitudinal study in primary care in Latin America. BJGP open, 5(1). Open&utm_medium=cpc&utm_source=trendmd Sánchez-Duque, J. A., Arce-Villalobos, L. R., & Rodríguez-Morales, A. J. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Latin America: Role of primary care in preparedness and response. Atencionprimaria, 52(6), 369-372. Retrieved from

Sattui, S. E., & Robinson, P. C. (2021). The COVID-19 Pandemic and Rheumatology: Impact on Providing Care in Latin America and Around the World. Retrieved from Unruh, L., Allin, S., Marchildon, G., Burke, S., Barry, S., Siersbaek, R., ...& Williams, G. A. (2021). A comparison of health policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada, Ireland, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Health Policy. Retrieved from

Vasquez, L., Sampor, C., Villanueva, G., Maradiegue, E., Garcia-Lombardi, M., Gomez-García, W., ...&Chantada, G. (2020). Early impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on paediatric cancer care in Latin America. The Lancet Oncology, 21(6), 753-755. Retrieved from hs_email&utm_medium=email&utm_content=88144507&_hsenc=p2ANqtz--fhnVVWfsyv29qj6LgnTS5M7eP3io-TcXIcbiGQmDi3txQJKPNyPxq2QH_BpfH0COKcy4Y6R8dpDBAdRo2VB5rhMcGMQ&_hsmi=88144507


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