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Public Health Assignment On Diaspora Of Brimbank

Question

Task:The Australian Health Policy Collaboration at Victoria University has been working in partnership with the City of Brimbank in the western suburbs of Melbourne to improve the health outcomes in the Brimbank Community.

In collaboration with the Public Health Information Development Unit at The University of Adelaide, and the Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living at Victoria University, two Brimbank population reports have been prepared:

The Brimbank Atlas of Health and Education
https://www.vu.edu.au/sites/default/files/AHPC/pdfs/Brimbank-Atlas-of-Health-and-Education.pdf

Physical Activity, Sport and Health in the City of Brimbank
https://www.vu.edu.au/sites/default/files/AHPC/pdfs/Physical-activity-sport-and-health-in-City-of-Brimbank.pdf

A summary of the findings and their implications can be found in the Brimbank Collaboration: A Collaborative Approach to Lifting Health and Education Outcomes
https://www.vu.edu.au/sites/default/files/AHPC/pdfs/Physical-activity-sport-and-health-in-City-of-Brimbank.pdf

These reports were designed to enable Victoria University and Brimbank community leaders and organisations to plan and develop integrated policies, services and strategies to lift health and education outcomes across the Brimbank community now and in the future.

Considering the social determinants of health for this assessment you will use this data to inform the development of a health promotion project plan to address a priority health issue in the City of Brimbank. You can target a specific population group in Brimbank or develop a project that targets the broader population.

Your project plan should align with the Victorian Public Health and Wellbeing Plan 2015-2019. You should consider focusing on the priority of ‘Healthier Eating and Active Living’ in the Plan but recognize that there are important relationships between all priorities. Please see the Unit Coordinator to discuss if you are uncertain.

Your project plan should also consider the VicHealth Action Agenda for Health Promotion.

Answer

Executive Summary
Project planning is essential in order to ensure proper and successful implementation of any project. In this case of this public health assignment, high prevalence of smoking habits has been observed among people of Brimbank. Therefore, the first step of this project planning is to identify health issue. Australian Health Policy Collaboration has partnered with Brimbank in order to overcome health issues that are prevalent in this community. Smoking has a tremendous health impact as it affects the cardiovascular system. Nicotine constricts blood vessels thereby affecting health provision of the people. Furthermore, it has also been observed in this public health assignment that nicotine causes an obstructive pulmonary syndrome that impacts the health. Therefore, health promotional project needs to be implemented in order to uplift the health profile of these affected people.

1. Introduction
Project planning involves development of a schedule in order to meet goals and objectives that could promote better social environment. A proper identification of prevalent health issue is prerequisite in order to formulate an effective project plan in this public health assignment. Furthermore, identification of stakeholders along with strategizing activities is also essential in order to carry out any project plan. The Australian Health Policy Collaboration has partnered with Brimbank in order to overcome health issues that are prevalent in the community. Smoking has immense health issues and this would be outlined in this current project plan. This habit affects the health structure of individuals and therefore, it is essential to work in collaboration with Brimbank in order to overcome this health issue. This following public health assignment will also address potent stakeholders and human resources that are required for this plan. Finally, a timeline along with budgeting expenses would also be highlighted in this section.

2. Focus on the project
2.1 Outlining health issue: Brimbank is one of the Local Government Area (LGA) that has been located in Victoria comprising of about 27 suburbs. Most of the residents get involved in gambling and gender equity that affects their health profile. Nearly half of the population has a smoking habit that causes an immense impact on health. Edelman et al. (2017) opined that smoking could lead to a variety of health-related complications that impairs normal metabolic functioning of the body. Smoking causes mood stimulation and therefore, most of the people seem to get addicted to this habit. It has been observed that physical withdrawal from this habit of smoking could lead to cognitive impairment. Anxiety and depression are some of the common outcomes of withdrawal from nicotine. Gostin and Wiley (2016) commented that nicotine causes constriction of blood vessels that give rise to elevated blood pressure. This increased blood pressure affects the normal circulation and this could facilitate in the occurrence of myocardial infarction. Furthermore, loss of appetite is another major outcome of prolonged ingestion of nicotine.

Smoking increases the risk of developing chronic pulmonary syndromes. Moorhead et al. (2015) opined that emphysema and chronic bronchitis are some of the health outcomes of prolonged intake of nicotine. Apart from this, smoking increases risk for developing severe cardiovascular disorders that affect the normal pathophysiology of affected individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma and lung cancer are common among patients with smoking habit (Starweekly.com.au, 2018). Most of the people residing in Brimbank have this smoking issue and this affects their physical well being. These health issues affect the body homeostasis that restricts normal metabolic functioning. Hair loss, as well as greying of hair, is also common among these patients on nicotine ingestion. Therefore, these severe outcomes need to be restricted and prevented in order to ensure proper health status of the residents. It is essential to educate people regarding these detrimental health impacts of smoking. Stanhope and Lancaster (2015) argued that it is difficult to make people understand regarding these issues as nicotine is one of the mood-changing drugs. Apart from all these issues, nicotine also affects reproductive and digestive system of the body. Therefore, it can be seen that smoking has immense health impact that ceases the normal physiological functioning of the body.

2.2 Identification of policy framework
2.2.1 Purpose of this project plan: Majority of the people residing in Brimbank has immense heath risk factors. It has been observed that most of these residents have smoking habits that have detrimental impact on health profile. Therefore, it is essential to educate people regarding these health impacts caused by nicotine. Banks et al. (2015) added that these affected people have no information regarding smoking issues and harm caused in their body. Thus, it is prerequisite for these people to get information and receive proper education regarding smoking. Galligan et al. (2015) commented that health-related campaigns are essential in order to propagate information regarding smoking. Proper planning of any project is essential to ensure their effective implementation with the community. In this case, community of Brimbank needs to be trained and educated regarding the harmful impact of smoking. These communities need to be provided with proper training in order to safeguard their health profile. Therefore, this project plan is essential in order to spread information and knowledge regarding smoking to residents of Brimbank.

2.2.2 Policy framework:Australian Council on Smoking and Health works in collaboration with healthcare institutions in order to uplift the health status of the citizens. Smoking affects the physical well being of the residents and therefore, it is essential to educate them regarding the harmful impact of this habit. Based on the Tobacco Products Regulation Act 1997, it is essential to restrict tobacco usage by the residents of Australia. According to Smoke-Free Environment Act 2016, Nicotine and tobacco intake need to be prohibited in order to safeguard the health provision of these Australian residents.

2.3 Project stakeholders
Stakeholders are individuals having interest in any project that aims to improve the wellbeing of community. It is essential to include stakeholders in case of any project in order to catalyse an effective project. In order to upgrade the health structure of Australian residents, it is essential to plan an effective evaluation process. Gao et al. (2016) commented that in case of planning of project, it is essential to identify potent stakeholders. It is essential to recruit and involve skilled and efficient stakeholders who could carry out this project with utmost efficiency. The following are some of the identified stakeholders that are required in this project:

public health promotional project

Figure 1: Stakeholders of the health promotional project
(Source: Created by the researcher)

Apart from these above-mentioned stakeholders, first-aid charity group, healthcare charities, as well as specialist healthcare charities, are some other stakeholder groups that are included in this project plan. These members would help in proper execution of project plan that would overall help in spreading information and knowledge to these residents.

2.4 Target group of the project
In this case of this public health assignment, the targeted group involves community of Brimbank who are involved in smoking. It is essential to make these residents understand the harmful impact of smoking. Jha (2015) commented that target group needs to be identified in case of any project. The stakeholders of this public health assignment need to train and educate Australian residents in order to safeguard their lives. Therefore, it is essential for these residents to receive proper education and knowledge regarding this smoking. Furthermore, these residents would also be provided s\with some alternative strategies that would overall help them to cope up with their smoking habits.

3. Project content
3.1 Project goals: A proper development of goal is essential in case any project plan. It has been observed that development of effective goals is the primary step in this project. Furthermore, Jha and Peto (2014) commented that goal development would ensure that every stakeholder has distinct focus and objective in their action. The main aim of this project plan is to uplift and improve the health structure of Australian residents. It has been observed that most of the residents of Brimbank smoke and this affects their health profile. Therefore, this project would address this primary health issues and educate these citizens regarding the detrimental impact of nicotine. This project will overall help these affected citizens to improve their physical and mental well being thereby promoting effective metabolic functioning of their body.

3.2 Objectives of this project: Objectives involve statements regarding immediate change that is required in Brimbank. It is essential for the stakeholders and members of this project to follow these objectives and work accordingly that could improve the physical well being of these people. Knowledge, awareness and behaviour need to be improved by these Australian citizens in order to facilitate proper health structure. The following are some of the objectives of this project-

Objective

Specific

Measurable

Achievable

Relevant

Timeframe

To implement no-smoking policies in order to reduce smoking habits among youth by almost 90%

This objective is specific as it tends to reduce prevalence of smoking among youths. Furthermore, smoking policies will also reduce this high intake of nicotine among adults.

This could be measured from statistical reports of Brimbank

This could be achieved by educating public regarding the smoking prohibition policies

This objective is highly relevant as almost majority of these citizens indulge in smoking habits

4 months

To encourage citizens for fruit and vegetable consumption by around 50%

 

This objective is highly specific as a regular intake of fresh fruits and vegetables would reduce harmful health outcomes.

This could be measured by monitoring and surveying people regarding their diet plan. This would provide detailed information regarding the prevalent ingestion of fruits and vegetables by Australian residents.

A proper training and education of these people would help in achieving this objective. The stakeholders of this project would educate people regarding the health benefits of consuming high amount of fruits and vegetables.

Brimbank residents do not invest in buying fruits and vegetables. Their rate of consumption of these fruits and vegetables are quite less and therefore, this objective has high relevance in the project plan.

5 months

To provide pictorial instructions in order to improve physical activity level among youths by 20%

 

Pictorial instruction would help people with less information and knowledge to engage in physical exercise that would overall help their health structure.

This could be effectively monitored by reviewing health status of Australian residents.

This could be measured by measuring physical activity level of the residents.

Brimbank residents do not perform proper physical activities. Therefore, it is essential for the residents of Brimbank to get involved in physical activities.

5 months

To educate citizens of Brimbank regarding the harmful impact of smoking

 

This objective is specific as education and knowledge are essential in order to enhance the health structure of residents.

This could be monitored by surveying residents of Brimbank regarding their knowledge of smoking habits

This could be achieved by providing proper training to these stakeholders. They could train and educate public regarding the adverse health impact of smoking.

This objective is relevant as education and knowledge are essential in order to facilitate proper health status of these residents. 

3 months

Table 1: SMART objectives
(Source: Created by the researcher)

3.3 Health Promotional approach: Smoking has immense health impacts and therefore, it is essential for stakeholders to address this issue. In case of any project planning, it is essential to address the main health issue that is prevalent in the community. Meo and Al Asiri (2014) commented that health promotion campaigns help in highlighting this issue and provide several mitigation techniques. Mohammed (2016) opined that health promotion enable an individual to control over their body thereby improving their health. It is essential to build health policy that helps in improving their health status. In addition to this, it is also essential and prerequisite to create a supportive environment to cater effective improvement of health. Moolgavkar et al. (2018) stated that community actions also required to get strengthened and personal skills need to be developed. Social cognitive theory states that interaction and experiences encourage cognitive development of an individual. Müezzinler et al. (2015) commented that social interactions impact cognitive or behavioural development of an individual.

Smoking habit has a detrimental impact on the health status of people. Education and knowledge of this harmful impact of smoking could help these affected residents to quit from this habit. Furthermore, Health Belief Model predicts behavioural changes that occur within an individual. Richardson et al. (2014) argued and commented that behavioural change is necessity for people of Brimbank in order to improve their health status. These people should understand the importance of consuming fruits and vegetables. This would ensure proper maintenance of their health profile. Therefore, this model suggests that behaviours of mankind need to alter that could promote their better health.

3.4 Strategies and activities : In case of any health promotion project, stakeholders are required to strategize their activities in order to ensure proper fulfilment of their objectives. Several health promotional strategies are summarized as follows-

  • A proper formulation of health-related policies
  • Providing supportive environments
  • Personal skill development
  • Improving community actions
  • Providing healthcare services

Proper health policies need to be implemented by stakeholders in order to ensure effective health status of the community. Furthermore, it has been observed that supportive environments would help to improve health profile of these communities. Maiti et al. (2018) stated that personal skill development could also ensure proper implementation of healthcare policies. has been observed that most of the people have little or no information regarding the detrimental impact of smoking. Nicotine tends to constrict blood vessels of the affected patients and therefore, this information need to be provided to these affected people. It is the duty of these stakeholders to provide proper information and knowledge to these affected communities so that they restrict intake of high amount of nicotine. Daoud et al. (2015) stated that proper promotion of healthcare services would also allow prevention of any disease. Obstructive pulmonary syndrome is one of the most common outcomes of intake of high amount of nicotine. Therefore, a proper follow-up of these health promotion approaches would help in uplifting the health status of the affected individuals.

3.5 Evaluation Plan
Evaluation plan provides ample information in order to improve project implementation. Hamadeh et al. (2018) opined that proper evaluation plan is essential and necessary in order to improve health provision of these communities. Planning and proper dissemination of tasks are essential in order to promote effective health structure. In this case, project managers need to delegate tasks to their staff members based on their skills. The project manager needs to obtain information and survey people of Brimbank in order to understand their behaviour towards smoking. This survey would provide information regarding the prevalence of smoking in Brimbank. Based on these statistical reports, management needs to recruit staff managers and provide them with tasks.

The members need to target groups in order to carry out proper health promotion project. These members need to educate people regarding the impact of smoking on health profile. Furthermore, some of the members need to provide alternative methods to these people that would help these people to overcome their situation and quit smoking. Therefore, it can be said that before carrying out any project planning, it is essential and effective to follow an evaluation plan. The key performance indicators also need to be followed by the project manager. After proper implementation of this project, the managers need to carry out another survey in order to evaluate effectiveness of this project. This sort of survey and questioning public will help this manager to understand the effectiveness of this project.

4. Infrastructure of this project
4.1 Outlining required human resources: Human resources are prerequisite in case of any health promotion plan for their effective implementation. In case of this public health assignment, manager needs to understand and analyse the main resources that are required in order to train and educate people of Brimbank regarding adverse impacts of smoking. Adequate number of staff members is required to provide information regarding smoking. Furthermore, it has also been observed that posters, as well as advertisements, also required to be provided by project managers in order to inform people regarding smoking. Rao et al. (2014) commented that effective use of project resources would promote proper implementation of any project plan. These staff members are required to get training regarding adverse impacts of smoking. These project managers need to delegate tasks based on the skills and efficiency rate of their employees. It is observed in this public health assignment Staff members should be provided with proper training. Therefore, trainers need to be implemented in this health promotion project.

In this type of healthcare promotion project, first-aid charity groups need to be recruited. In addition to this, collaboration with other healthcare institutions would also be effective in this case. Zheng et al. (2018) opined that collaboration with healthcare institutions would provide proper information and knowledge to these people. These healthcare practitioners would provide information and knowledge regarding adverse impact of smoking. Home care providers are also required in this type of health promotion project. Smoking has impact on cardiovascular as well as nervous system. Therefore, clinicians need to be hired in this project that could provide more in-depth information regarding adverse impact of smoking.

4.2 Project timeline

Project timeline

Project timeline

Figure 2: Project timeline
(Source: Created by the researcher)

Project scheduling is one of initial step in case of any health promotion project. It has been observed that this sort of project scheduling would help in proper implementation of plan. This step would be facilitated by project officers. The second step is communication with stakeholders and fundraisers. Policy makers and managers are stakeholders of this project. Eventually, fundraising needs to be discussed with policy sponsors. Data need to be collected with the help of survey and based on information, decisions need to be taken. In Brimbank, people have less information and knowledge regarding smoking. Therefore, project staff members would provide information to these people.

4.3 Budget breakdown

Administration

Amount required (in $)

Advertising

1000

Posters

625

Messaging

700

Travelling

10000

Equipment

400

Printing

125

Total

12,850

Table 2: Budget required for Administration
(Source: Created by Learner)

Staff expenses

Amount required (in $)

Salaries

100,000

Fooding

15000

Travelling 

20000

Conference

10000

Training

12000

Total

157,000

Table 3: Budget required for Administration
(Source: Created by Learner)

Development of the resource

Amount required (in $)

Consultancy Fee for Marketing

2500

Printing

750

Miscellaneous

1000

Total

4,250

Table 4: Budget required for Administration
(Source: Created by Learner)

Trainings (per sitting)

Amount required (in $)

Venue cost

1000

Food

2500

Travelling

1500

Stationeries required

500

Trainer fees

1000

Total

6,500

Table 5: Budget required for Administration
(Source: Created by Learner)

4.3.1 Justification of project expenses: As per the records shown in the table 2, it can be said that for the administration purpose of the project an amount of $12,850 will be required. The analysis has been done in the table above. For the purpose of advertisement more amounts is required as there will be advertising through digital platforms as well as non-digital platforms. Travelling requires a huge amount as the project manager has to travel to different people and places for bringing guests as well as collecting funds and equipments. As per the view of Rao et al. (2014), the amount for administration has to be supplied properly for proper running of the project.

As seen in Table 3, for the staff expenses there is a requirement of the major portion of the fund. It is seen that about $160,000 is being required for the staff expenses during the project. Salaries of the staffs who are involved in the project require the maximum amount. As the project continues for long hours there is an amount spend regularly for food and travelling. The training of the staffs for the project also requires an amount and the conference halls that are booked for training have their booking charges. According to Maiti et al. (2018), the project manager should talk to the staff and try to reduce the amount required by reducing the travelling costs so as to manage the huge budget of the project altogether.

According to data produced in Table 4 of this public health assignment, it can be said that to develop the resources and materials required for the project to be done there is a requirement of about $4,250. The maximum amount of this money is given to the person who guides the organisation of the ways to develop the project as his consultation fees. The rest is required for printing the documents and other miscellaneous services like travelling to the consultant, food and stationeries required.

As per the records shown in table 5, it is seen that per training session requires almost $6,500. The maximum amount is required for the food and travelling of the employees. A small percentage of the amount is required for buying the stationary products like paper, pen, markers that are required by the trainees and the trainers and the rest of the amount is paid as the venue booking price and fees of the trainer.

5. Conclusion
Henceforth, it can be said that project planning is essential in order to ensure proper implementation of any health promotion plan. In case of Brimbank of this public health assignment it is inferred that, most of the residents got involved in smoking habits and this affects their health condition. Therefore, it is essential to mitigate these issues and reduce this smoking habit. It has previously observed that smoking or intake of nicotine affects the nervous and cardiovascular system of the body. Therefore it is inferred in this public health assignment, people of Brimbank need to be provided with information and knowledge regarding the drastic impact of smoking. Australian Health policy has partnered with institution in order to ensure effective wellbeing of these people. Project manager and staff members need to be recruited based on their efficiency. High-skilled employees need to be recruited by these managers in order to provide proper education and knowledge to the people of Brimbank. These staff members should have proper training and it is the duty of these managers to facilitate proper training for these employees. Therefore, this public health assignment provides project planning would help to uplift the health profile of Brimbank community. Public health assignments are being prepared by our nursing homework help experts from top universities which let us to provide you a reliable assignment writing service .

Reference List
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Stanhope, M., and Lancaster, J., (2015). Public health nursing-e-book: Population-centered health care in the community. Amsterdam: Elsevier Health Sciences

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Jha, P., (2015). Deaths and taxes: stronger global tobacco control by 2025. The Lancet, 385(9972), 918-920.

Jha, P., and Peto, R., (2014). Global effects of smoking, of quitting, and of taxing tobacco. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(1), 60-68.

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Daoud, N., Hayek, S., Muhammad, A. S., Abu-Saad, K., Osman, A., Thrasher, J. F., and Kalter-Leibovici, O., (2015). Stages of change of the readiness to quit smoking among a random sample of minority Arab-male smokers in Israel. BMC public health, 15(1), 672. [Online] Available from: https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-015-1950-8 [Accessed on 14th July 2018]

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Zheng, Y., Ji, Y., Dong, H., and Chang, C., (2018). The prevalence of smoking, second-hand smoke exposure, and knowledge of the health hazards of smoking among internal migrants in 12 provinces in China: a cross-sectional analysis. BMC public health, 18(1), 655. [Online] Available from: https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-018-5549-8 [Accessed on 17th July 2018]

Starweekly.com.au, (2018). Brimbank council supports new smoking bans. Available at: http://www.starweekly.com.au/news/1834676-brimbank-council-supports-new-smoking-bans/

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