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Psychology Assignment: A Reviewon Six Cultural Dichotomies

Question

Task: This psychology assignmentaimed to provide a platform for the students to produce a report that differentiate psychological theories and concepts across cultures critically. It enables the students to do an in-depth review and support with empirical materials.

Instruction:
1. This is an individual assignment.
2. You are required to review all six cultural dichotomies critically.
3. You are required to compare your home country with another country of selection (preferable country with big differences in terms of geographical location and cultures) only.
4. You are required to support your writing critically by including at least TEN (10) scholastic research articles / academic books, which related to the content.

Answer

Review
i. High Power Distance- Low Power Distance

The concept of “Power Distance” discussed in this section of psychology assignment implies potential extent to which lesser powerful members belonging to a potential institution or organisation within country standards, expect as well as properly accept that power is further distributed in an unequal manner. While exploring “Pakistan”, with “Hofstedes six-dimension”, model, it is noteworthy that in higher form of power-distance cultures, authority openly tends to demonstrate their potential rank and subordinates or members are not provided critical work or included in organisational decision-making attributes (Khanet al. 2021) In Pakistan, the power-distance score is 55 in average, which clearly demonstrates that the relationship or potential association between leaders and subordinates are rarely personal or communicative (Hofstede-insights.com, 2021). In this context, Australia comprises of a “low power-distance culture”, with an average score of 36, which marks a potential indicative regarding greater form of equality between various societal standards, engaging different governments, organisations along with several institutions (Gulet al. 2018). However, in Pakistan due to high-score in this aspect, the orientation do not reinforces any form of cooperative interaction or communication across various power standards, resulting in creating an unstable form of cultural-environment.

On the contrary, the low-power-distance in Australia further implies that power in potentially spread out to everyone in organisations rather than being only allocated or properly reserved for certain groups. Therefore, while Pakistan believes that only certain groups in organisation can comprise potential accessibility to power, on the other hand, Australian believe that the powerful as well as powerless needs to live in concert with one another (Green, 2019).In Australia, managers tend to socialise more with their potential subordinates when compared to managers in Pakistan. It also implies that Australians focuses on assuring greater form of equality aspects between various societal and cultural standards when compared to Pakistanis.

ii. Uncertainty acceptance-Uncertainty avoidance
It is critical to note that “Uncertainty avoidance and acceptance”, is a potential extent to which different members in a culture feels potentially threatened through unknown circumstances or ambiguous situations, resulting in creation of institutions as well as believes for avoiding the same. In this context the average score of Pakistan in this aspect in 70, therefore comprising a higher form of preference in terms of “avoiding uncertainty” (Hofstede-insights.com, 2021). It clearly indicates that countries like Pakistan that consists of higher score in this aspect maintain rigid form of codes related to belief as well as behaviour. Generally, Pakistan with higher score in this division is more intolerant of “unorthodox ideas and behaviour” (Riveretet al. 2018). In these kind of cultures, there comprises an emotional requirement for potential rules and regulations even if the rules never tends to work and people of Pakistan tend to comprise of an inner urge to be potentially busy as well as work hard. Innovation within organisations is generally resisted and precision as well as potential form of punctuality is norms of the culture.

Six Dimension comparison between Australia and Pakistan

Figure 1: Six Dimension comparison between Australia and Pakistan
(Source: Hofstede-insights.com, 2021)

On the contrary, estimated “uncertainty score”, for Australia is 51, which is relatively lower than Pakistan as per the “Hofstede Insights”. In this concern, it implies that Australian do not like uncertainty aspects as much as the culture of Pakistan and comprises of a need for stability for organisational members (Akhtaret al. 2019). Australians also strive for potential consensus and tends to comprise of more stress as well as potential anxiety. In Australia, the society is more tolerant towards a diverse and cross-culture due to potential waves of immigration as well as natives and aboriginal population. Unlike, Pakistan, Australian organisation and businesses tends to embrace potential form of risks.

Australia with a much lower score of this aspect from Pakistan, also tend to assure and support better innovation within workplace and organisations (Butt, 2020). In Australia, privacy is potentially considered as the norm while attempting at personal form of ingratiation, which meets with proper rebuff. The population is more multicultural in Australia when compared to Pakistan, risks are taken, and new form of concepts as well as potential ideas is easier to launch in organisations. Multi-cultural communication is relatively higher and people in Australia tend to tolerate different opinions while comprising of fewer and lesser rules and norms while compared to Pakistan.

iii. Collectivism-Individualism
It is critical to note that in “collectivist societies”, people tend to belong to different “in groups”, which takes proper care of people in return for their loyalty to the groups. However, in “Individualist societies”, degree of proper interdependence within society standards is maintained. Pakistan comprises of a low-score (estimated) of 14, in this aspect, which can be considered as a potential form of “collectivistic society” (Hofstede-insights.com, 2021).

In this aspect, it can be stated that Pakistan comprises of potential loyalty in terms of collectivist-culture standards along with overriding different form of societal regulations as well as potential rules (Hofstede-insights.com, 2021).

In this type of Culture, the society of Pakistan fosters strong form of association where everyone is involved for taking potential responsibility for different members in their respective group.

Australian on the other hand, comprises of a high average score of 90 in “Individualism”, aspect, that assures that society of Australia is a highly individualist-culture. It implies that, unlike Pakistan, Australia translates into potential loosely-knit-society in which people are more concerned into looking after themselves along with their immediate-families (Zhaoet al. 2019). It is worthy to note that Australian businesses, unlike Pakistan tend to expect that their employees are self-reliant and potentially capable of illustrating proper initiative.

Additionally, while Pakistan’s collective-societies and business concentrates more in taking recruitment and promotion decisions because of family-association or group-management. Australian businesses on the other hand focus on taking the mentioned-above business decisions solely on grounds of proper merit or absolute evidence of individual’s capacity of work within the organisational standards (Mughalet al. 2020).Therefore, unlike Pakistan’s norms, only privacy is considered as a potential cultural form of norm in Australia and businesses expect their employees to be more self-dependent and take initiative in workplace as well as organisational standards.

iv. Feminine-Masculine
The fundamental issue in this aspect is that things, which motivate people, which are wanting to be best (masculine) or liking things, that an individual executes (Feminine). In this aspect, the estimated score of Australia comprises of 61, which is higher and resulting in Australia becoming a “Masculine Society”, Therefore, behaviour in terms of organisation and educational institutions are shared upon potential values, in which people believes they are striving and struggling for becoming the best in the society (Pensalfini&Meakins, 2019). Australians are generally proud regarding their success as well as achievement aspects in their life while the culture offers a potential basis for proper hiring as well as promotion decision-making aspects in the workplace attributes. In Australia, the conflicts are further resolved at an individual standards while the mutual goal remains to achieve the winning target.

On the contrary, Pakistan, scores 50 (estimated), in this dimension and comprises of a lower score than Australia (Hofstede-insights.com, 2021). It implies that Pakistan comprises of an intermediate score in this aspect but potentially favours masculinity. However, unlike Australia, most Pakistan businesses or society do not strive to become the best. There lies a potential attitude in some of the cultural part in Pakistan to do things that they like. Both of these countries, that is Australia as well as Pakistan shares a similar form of value preferring masculinity more than femineity trait in their organisational and social culture (Threadgold& Cranny-Francis).

v. Short term orientation-Long term orientation
This potential dimension clearly explains ways in which every society needs to maintain some proper links with its-own past while potentially dealing with different kind of challenges related to present as well as future. It enhances understanding of societies, which prioritise two existential targets in a different manner. In this context, Pakistan comprises of a score of 50 in terms of “long term orientation”, that states that it prefers towards potentially maintaining time-honoured form of traditions as well as norms(Hofstede-insights.com, 2021).

Pakistan also tends to view their societal change with a sense of suspicion (Khanet al. 2021).In Pakistan, the “long-term orientation”, is higher than that of Australia, which indicates that the society of Pakistan is generally characterised through both perseverance as well as persistence. It comprises of a potential respect associated with hierarchy in order with “status of relationships and thrift”. It enhances more traditional form of orientation in Pakistani societies when compared to Australian societies.

Six Dimension comparison between Australia and Pakistan

Figure 2: Comparison
(Source: Self-created)

In contrast with Pakistan, Australia’s estimated score in this aspect is only 21, which demonstrates a “Short term-orientated society”(Hofstede-insights.com, 2021). Therefore, it comprises of a pragmatic society comprising of encouraging potential thrift as well as efforts in proper modern education and preparing for future aspects (Muskatet al. 2021). Therefore, Australian societies unlike the Pakistani societies tend to mark a potential sense of security as well as proper stability. It enhances protection of individual reputation while assuring respect for traditions and favours. Australia tends to lean more towards “short-term orientation”, unlike Pakistan, which tends towards “Long-term orientation”, in organisational as well as societal aspects.

vi. Restraint-Indulgence
It is important to note that “Indulgence or restraint dimension”, comprises of a potential extent to which various people and societies tend to control and monitor their potential impulses as well as desires based on their raising backgrounds. While indulgence comprises of a weak control, on the other hand “Restraint”, cultures comprises of a strong control (Caudleet al. 2019)

Australian estimated score is 71, which is a relatively high score and leans towards being an Indulgent form of country(Hofstede-insights.com, 2021). People related to Australian societies exhibits a potential form of willingness for realising potential impulses as well as desires with proper regards to enjoy their life and concentrate on potential leisure activities(Caudle et al. 2019). Additionally, people in Australia tend to place a higher degree of proper importance on potential leisure time and act and tends to spend more money on spending a quality life.

On the contrary, Pakistan is a very “Restrained society”, that comprises of low score in this mentioned aspect. Additionally, people of Pakistan, unlike Australian society tend to comprise both “cynicism”, as well as higher aspects of pessimism. They do not put potential emphasis on proper leisure time. Unlike Australian, societies, Pakistani people tend to control their potential gratification associated with their desires (Solihinet al. 2019). Pakistani cultures comprises of a potential perception that their different actions or activities are restrained through social norms along with emotions that indulging themselves is morally wrong(Hofstede-insights.com, 2021). Australian cultures on other hand tend towards possessing an optimal attitude through placing a higher degree of proper significance on leisure time.

Bibliography
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Caudle, A., Schuwirth, L., & Sweet, L. (2019). Nonsense, normative or necessity: the purpose of repeating a modified internship for qualified paramedics to move between Australian states: perspective from one state service. Australasian Journal of Paramedicine, 16.https://ajp.paramedics.org/index.php/ajp/article/download/674/864

Green, B. (2019). Carnegie in Australia: philanthropic power and public education in the early twentieth century. History of Education Review.https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bill-Green-4/publication/348402397_Carnegie_in_Australia_Revisited_Philanthropic_Power_and_Public_Education _in_the_Early_Twentieth_Century/links/5ffd0b3f92851c13fe06ac06/Carnegie-in-Australia-Revisited- Philanthropic-Power-and-Public-Education-in-the-Early-Twentieth-Century.pdf

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Hofstede-insights.com, 2021, Comparison between Australia and Pakistan, Retrieved 30th September from https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country-comparison/australia,pakistan/

Khan, I. U., Hameed, Z., Khan, S. N., Khan, S. U., & Khan, M. T. (2021). Exploring the effects of culture on acceptance of online banking: A comparative study of Pakistan and Turkey by using the extended UTAUT model. Psychology assignmentJournal of Internet Commerce, 1-34.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15332861.2021.1882749

Khan, I., Afeef, M., Jan, S., &Ihsan, A. (2021). The impact of heuristic biases on investors’ investment decision in Pakistan stock market: moderating role of long term orientation. Qualitative Research in Financial Markets.https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Imran-Khan-288/publication/349675781_The_impact_of_heuristic_biases_on_investors'_investment_decision_in_ Pakistan_stock_market_moderating_role_of_long_term_orientation/links/6045eda692851c077f2492cc/ The-impact-of-heuristic-biases-on-investors-investment-decision-in-Pakistan-stock-market-moderating- role-of-long-term-orientation.pdf

Mughal, M. F., Luo, M. R., & Pointer, M. (2020).Modelling visual impressions for Chinese and Pakistani ethnic groups. Pattern Recognition, 103, 107259.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031320320300649

Muskat, B., Hörtnagl, T., Peters, M., &Zehrer, A. (2021). Journal of hospitality and tourism management innovation capability and culture: How time-orientation shapes owner-managers’ perceptions. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 47, 217-227. https://www.academia.edu/download/67334648/2021_Culture_and_Innovation.pdf

Pensalfini, R., &Meakins, F.

(2019).Gender lender: Noun borrowings between Jingulu and Mudburra in northern Australia. Journal of Language Contact, 12(2), 440-478. https://brill.com/view/journals/jlc/12/2/article-p440_440.xml4

Riveret, R., Baroni, P., Gao, Y., Governatori, G., Rotolo, A., &Sartor, G. (2018). A labelling framework for probabilistic argumentation. Annals of mathematics and artificial intelligence, 83(1), 21-71.https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.00109

Solihin, I., Sanuary, S. T. P., Gunawan, T. P., &Nopia, A, 2019 THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE DIMENSIONS OF CULTURE: MASCULINITY AND FUTURISTIC ORIENTATION TO THE AVERAGE EXPORT VALUE OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES IN TEN CULTURAL CLUSTERS FOR THE PERIOD OF 2017-2019. Turkish Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, 32, 3.https://turkjphysiotherrehabil.org/pub/pdf/321/32-1-918.pdf

Threadgold, T., & Cranny-Francis, A. (Eds.).(2020). Feminine/masculine and representation.Abingdon: Routledge.

Zhao, S., Sheehan, C., De Cieri, H., & Cooper, B. (2019).A comparative study of HR involvement in strategic decision-making in China and Australia. Chinese Management Studies.https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/CMS-08-2018-0643/full/html

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