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Psychology assignment on police actions towards Indigenous communities and challenges related to radicalised policing


Task: Critically analyse in the psychology assignmenthow the historical actions of police towards Indigenous communities have shaped contemporary police/Indigenous relationships and discuss the challenges that radicalised policing poses to Aboriginal peoples’ access to justice in Australia today.


Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people belong to the indigenous community of Australia (Pearson et al., 2020). The Aboriginal indigenous community comprises 100 groups in the country and is divided due to the distinction of the set of language, history and cultural traditions. Through considering the historical fact, it is observed in this psychology assignmentthat aboriginal deaths have developed massively because of police violence over the last few decades. Due to the aboriginal deaths in prison as well as in police custody, even in the 21st century, it is a burning problem. It is observed in this psychology assignmentthat aboriginal operation against the police has been generated for releasing the high levels of imprisonment of the people of this community. It is enhancing the issues in the country, even in modern countries. The following psychology assignmentessay is going to focus on this particular aspect of the aboriginal people issue in Australian society. The discussion of the following essay is going to shed light on the analysis of the historical actions of the police towards the aboriginal community in Australia. Additionally, the challenges associated with the racialism of the police pose to the aboriginal people's access to justice will be taken into consideration in this psychology assignment.

In order to understand the modern political movement associated with policing actions against aboriginal people in the psychology assignment, it is required to consider the events of the late 1960s. First aboriginal legal service has developed during this time concerning the over deaths of the aboriginal people in police custody, police violence and racial discrimination (HIR, 2022). During this time, it was seen that a mass of young black activists took action to proof patrol for gathering information against the violence of the police. During the 1980s, aboriginal deaths in police custody were renewed again. In this psychology assignment, aboriginal organisations like legal services for Aboriginal (ALS) and Committee to Defend Black Rights (CDBR) were involved in the police violence against the aboriginal community as well as the family aboriginal people who had died in custody (HIR, 2022). In this context of this psychology assignment, it can be discussed about the investigation of the royal commissions regarding the aboriginal death in custody. It shows that around 99 deaths have been reported since the 1990s during police custody (HIR, 2022). In this context, it can be mentioned about the aboriginal protection act of 1999 in Australia particularly. The purpose of the aboriginal protection act is to control the reserve and to stop the whites from associating with aboriginals in the society (Buhrich& BRIM SR, 2020).

However, in this psychology assignment, considering the historical fact, it is observed that in many cases, the law has not been appropriately followed, which has increased the aboriginal people's death rates during police custody. The custodial authorities of the country have failed to respond to the responsibilities correctly by protecting the aboriginal people and securing their fundamental rights. However, it is noticed in this psychology assignmentthat the model of direct action against the aboriginal community organisation has worked to expand the medical services and community housing in Australia's different states and territories. These organisations' struggle was also influential in controlling police violence, which is concerned with the fundamental indigenous rights and self-determination. Thus, it is observed that the issue of policing action against the aboriginal people was raised many years ago and continues in the society of Australia. Recently, it has become a burning issue for which proper action is required to take to secure the aboriginal community in the country. In the viewpoint of Serchenet al. (2020), the violence of law enforcement and the criminal justice system interacts disproportionately increasing at high rates. This academic-driven doctrine criticises the regulatory bodies' irrelevant or unethical practices that simultaneously affect Australia's indigenous people's survival. Furthermore, Benoit et al. (2019) claimed that a lack of regard for women's socioeconomic challenges is an insufficient core action that has transformed the dynamics and relationships of indigenous community members. Considering this academic inference in the psychology assignment, it can be determined that an absence of an equal legal framework and the practical decision-making framework of the Australian government are the key contemporary actions that unknowingly contributed to shaping or changing the dynamics of indigenous relationships. As per the Social Learning Theory, people are expected to learn from each other by imitating as well as observing social and behavioural approaches. However, this theoretical approach can be used or personified in a contradictory way as indigenous team members are not privileged to imitate and observe the highly authorised or capitalist groups with the aim of bestowing with critical equal valuable opportunities. This is because the key historical actions have failed to formulate necessary policies for improving indigenous community members socially and economically in contemporary and modern Australian society.

On the contrary, it has been determined in the psychology assignmentby Khalil (2020) in the news article that due to negligence and lack of medical assistance, 400 aboriginal people have died in the past three decades. These aboriginal people are mainly classified as indigenous community members who the civilised Australian society has still undervalued. In the same light, the critical secondary research also indicates that NSW (New South Wales) Police Scheme has targeted in a disproportionate manner the community of aboriginal children under a scheme of a repeat offender monitoring system. Supporting this statement, BBC (2020) reported that the Law Enforcement Conduct Commission (LECC) started looking into the cases of 429 children under the Suspect Target Management Plan (STMP). As per the psychology assignmentthis evidence-driven information about the current actions of the Australian government to change the shape or relationship dynamics of the indigenous community members are well-appreciated and noteworthy in deciphering ethical glimpses for improving the lifestyle and survival of this undervalued socioeconomic group in the modern society of Australia.

The psychology assignmentof Caron, Asselin&Beaudoin (2019) reflects that 23% of indigenous employees in Australian companies are tied to communities by agreements since attitudes and behavioural approaches of some industries towards the Indigenous workforce are the key reasons to ensuring suitable recruitment, integration and retention system for this community group. In association with this academic doctrine, it can be interpreted that current Australian employers are not wholly following equitable employment processes with an ethical context that has resulted in racialising policing poses to Aboriginal community members' access in the civilised society of Australia. On the contrary, Maddison (2019) in the psychology assignmentremarked that white Australia's most considerable dread and rationale for denying Aboriginal prior ownership and brilliance is not only their envious nature, but this capitalist social group thinks that the modern Australian society is not permissible to be called as a true spiritual home for aboriginal people. In this regard, socioeconomic prejudice and the state of high capitalism are assessed as inherent challenges to hinder aboriginal people from gaining justice in the modern society of Australia. In this regard, this evidence-driven data collection method highlights the propensity of challenges that contribute to weakening the survival of the chosen target audiences, such as the aboriginal people of modern Australia.

Systemic racism or racial profiling in policing posed in Australia has envisaged as an ongoing challenge to aboriginal people to access justice according to the psychology assignment. Racist attitudes have been determined as the main factor that leads to conflict between Aboriginal people and the police of Australia (Thurber et al., 2021). Aboriginal people are addressed as vulnerable communities in Australia, which means they are unable to take care of themselves, influencing racist attitudes while accessing policing to gain justice. According to Police Powers and Responsibilities Act 2000,power inequalities between police and Australian aboriginal communities have influenced racism that induces the state of accessing justice (Halliwellet al. 2022). The main aim of PPRA as per the psychology assignmentis to consolidate, as well as rationalise the powers, as well as responsibilities police have for the investigation of the offenses and law enforcement. Further, it provides desired powers vital for the effective modern policing and enforcement of law. It provides consistency in the nature, as well as extent of power of the police officers thereby helps in the standardization and responsibilities of police officers.

The main challenge has been driven due to norms of administration where police follow a socially acceptable standard and are opposed by Aboriginal people in Australia. As one of the dominant cultures in Australia, Aboriginal people have faced incarnation 14 times greater than the non-aboriginal people. Also, radicalised policing enforced culturally biased attitudes, which led to the deprivation of Aboriginal people in Australia to access justice. According to the psychology assignmentracism influences the Aboriginal people's improper knowledge regarding law enforcement, which readily hinders the chances of accessing justice against misjudgment as it increases the state of incarnation in the last decades.

A study of psychology assignmentreveals that Queensland Police Service is the symbol of the White Authority (Dwyer,Scott& Staines,2021). The state of racialism in police service has grown with the underlying influence of political as well as legal systems. In the case of Aboriginal people in Australia, inequalities in accessing legal services have made it challenging to move with the way of achieving justice. Due to a lack of socioeconomic support, cultural behaviours have influenced personalised attitudes that lead to complex situations for Aboriginal people in Australia. Radicalized policing in the psychology assignmentimposed a critical burden on Aboriginal people by abusing power resulting in long-term imprisonment. Due to lack of cultural adaptability by the Aboriginal people has diminished the chances of negotiation by the White Police authority, which lead to a challenge to access justice. Engaging in social violence has entrenched the acceptable behaviour of racism while Aboriginal people come into contact with Queensland Police (Mccarthy, Trinkner&Atiba Goff, 2021). Prior to ranks of police service that state of racialised behaviours has led to challenging Aboriginal people while differing the perspective on criminal activities. In this context, institutional racism as per the psychology assignment has impacted the behaviour or attitudes of police that contracted the chances of accessing justice by the Australian Aboriginal people. Concerning the explanations mentioned above, it has been concluded that Aboriginal people belong to an unprivileged group due to social as well as dominance. Socio-cultural as well as the political system legitimised the activities of the police service system in Queensland, Australia. This psychology assignmenthas explained the historical background of police toward indigenous communities that defines a current relationship. In this context, the historical background of Police authority in Australia has indicated a crucial impact on Indigenous people due to long-term incarnation as well as conflict in police custody. Irrelevant as well as unauthorised policing action has affected the relationship between police and indigenous communities, which is the primary segment of Aboriginal people. In addition to this, challenges that racialised policing poses to access justice for the Aboriginal people in Australia have discussed in thepsychology assignment. In response to this, a critical understanding has developed with regard to the Australian White Authority and Aboriginal people. Racialized policing behaviours and attitudes have been highlighted through this psychology assignmentas it has been exercised as a crucial aspect of affecting the judicial system in Australia. Challenges due to cultural influences, lack of knowledge regarding law enforcement, and lack of cultural adaptability have underpinned the critical aspect that racialised policing poses and affected the accessibility of justice for Aboriginal people.

BBC. (2020). Australia: NSW police scheme 'targeted' Aboriginal children. BBC News. Retrieved 8 July 2022, from
Benoit, A. C., Cotnam, J., O'Brien-Teengs, D., Greene, S., Beaver, K., Zoccole, A., &Loutfy, M. (2019). Racism experiences of urban indigenous women in Ontario, Canada:“We all have that psychology assignmentthat will break your heart”. International indigenous policy journal, 10(2).
Buhrich, A., & BRIM SR, W. I. L. L. I. E. (2020). Looking after bulurru: Protecting the scientific and cultural values of an Aboriginal rock art complex in northern Queensland. Archaeology in Oceania, 55(2), 93-105.

Caron, J., Asselin, H., &Beaudoin, J. M. (2019). Attitudes and behaviors of mining sector employers towards the Indigenous workforce. Resources psychology assignmentPolicy, 61, 108-117.
Dwyer, A., Scott, J., & Staines, Z. (2021). Strangers in a strange land: Police perceptions of working in discrete Indigenous communities in Queensland, Australia. Police practice and research, 22(1), 208-224.
Halliwell, S. D., du Plessis, C., Hickey, A., Gildersleeve, J., Mullens, A. B., Sanders, T., ...&Brömdal, A. (2022). A Critical Discourse Analysis of an Australian Incarcerated Trans Woman's Letters of Complaint and Self?Advocacy. Ethos.
HIR. (2022). Police Violence Against Aboriginal People in Australia. Harvard International Reviewpsychology assignment. Retrieved 22 July 2022, from
Khalil, S. (2020). Aboriginal Australians 'still suffering effects of colonial past'. BBC News. Retrieved 6 July 2022, from
Maddison, S. (2019). White Australia can't solve black problems. White Australia is the problem | Sarah Maddison. the Guardian. Retrieved 18 July 2022, from
Mccarthy, M., Trinkner, R., &Atiba Goff, P. (2021). The threat of appearing racist: Stereotype threat and support for coercion among Australian police officers. Criminal justice and behavior, 48(6), 776-790.

Pearson, O., Schwartzkopff, K., Dawson, A., Hagger, C., Karagi, A., Davy, C., ...&Braunack-Mayer, A. (2020). Aboriginal community controlled health organisations address health equity through action on the social determinants of health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia in psychology assignment. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1-13.

Serchen, J., Doherty, R., Atiq, O., Hilden, D., & Health and Public Policy Committee of the American College of Physicians*. (2020). Racism and health in the United States: a policy statement from the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine, 173(7), 556-557.
Thurber, K. A., Colonna, E., Jones, R., Gee, G. C., Priest, N., Cohen, R., ...&MayiKuwayu Study Team. (2021). Prevalence of everyday discrimination and relation with wellbeing among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults in psychology assignment. International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(12), 6577.


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