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Psychology assignment on the integration of practicing night patrols in Australia’s legal framework


Task: Select a specific practise examine the integration of Indigenous law and practices into Australia’s legal framework. Explain how integration occurs, its goals, and its effectiveness in your psychology assignment.


One facet of politics is policing. One of the longest-lasting and most deeply rooted legacies of British colonialism is the State police's role as the guardians of the criminal justice system in the Australian legal framework. This is especially true when the State police conduct routine activities without a formal treaty with Indigenous Australians, even though contemporary Australian society is legally pluralistic. Thus, this psychology assignmentaims to understand the reasons behind night patrol in Australia's legal framework, the goal as well as the effectiveness of night patrol.

The occurrence of night patrol in Australia’s legal frameworkin the psychology assignment
The “Native Title Act of 1993” is a significant piece of legislation in terms of indigenous law. It is the formal admission that since the common law system gave rise to Australia's laws, Indigenous people there have had and continue to maintain complex legal systems.As per the findings in the psychology assignment the integration of night patrol into Australia’s legal frameworks occurs when one of the key concerns for “criminologists, juvenile workers, social workers, policymakers”, and the “criminal justice system” itself is the reality that indigenous people continue to be overrepresented at all levels of the criminal justice system in Australia, both as victims and offenders. As stated by Maluleke (2018), even though just 2% of Australians over the age of 18 identify as indigenous, 28% of adult convicts in Australian jails were indigenous. Indigenous people are twelve times more likely than non-Indigenous people to be incarcerated, and this rate is the rising year. Similarly, Georg & Manning (2022) stated in the psychology assignmentthat in 2018, “only 5% of Australians aged 10 to 17” in this age range identified as Aboriginal, however, this cohort made up 56% of people in jail or prison and more than 50% of people under the control of the legal system. “Young Australians of Indigenous” descent had a 17 times higher likelihood of being imprisoned than other Australians.

Due to their earlier crimes, Indigenous teenagers eventually got harsher punishments as adults. Compared to one in “two non-Indigenous” offenders in 2019, three out of four adult Indigenous prisoners were already serving a sentence. On the other hand, Vaarzon Morel (2022), stated in the psychology assignmentthat the considerable levels of adversity that Indigenous Australians face across several “social, economic, and health indices” is one of the primary causes of the high rates of Indigenous victimisation and offending. These include historical elements such as colonisation, expulsion from one's country, and crime, physical environmental elements such as inadequate housing and crowded households, social elements such as residing in an area prone to crime, child abuse and neglect, “family disruption and dissolution”, and a lack of “social support, and physical environmental elements” such as child abuse and neglect. Poor academic performance and retention concerns are educational factors. Economic factors include things like “unemployment, poverty, and low social status”, instance. Likewise, Kennedy et al. (2021) stated in thepsychology assignmentthatthese problems cause Indigenous people to be victimised and act criminally. They also act as the underlying causes of risk factors for health such as substance “abuse, smoking, a poor diet, obesity, and inactivity”. Young people in rural and remote areas don't have a lot of options for “employment, entertainment, or recreational activities”. However, Maluleke (2018), stated in thepsychology assignmentthatyoung people frequently engage in theft and damage as a means of breaking up the monotony of a very restricted lifestyle. Thus it can be seen that for preventing these problems the practice of night patrol occurs in the Australian legal framework.

Goals of the integration and understanding of whether the goals are met
The indigenous law and practices of Australia’s legal framework has helped the integration of night patrol into Australia’s legal framework was based on the achievement of the following goals:

Preventing Burglaries and Break-Ins
Retail burglary—breaking into a shop to steal goods—often results in costly construction damages and the loss of irreplaceable items. As stated in the psychology assignmentby Blagg& Anthony (2019), these crimes typically take place at night or during regular business hours since it is possible to enter the building unobserved. In addition to installing exterior security protocols like strengthened windows and doors to dissuade criminals, many businesses also depend on night patrol services. When there are trained security agents on duty, burglars are less likely to attempt a break-in and burglary.

Instantaneous Reaction
When a security incident takes place either within or outside of a business, it is essential to have a person on-site to handle the situation as quickly as feasible. Similarly, Scott et al. (2021) stated in the psychology assignmentthat “Thieves, vandals, and other criminals” can be rapidly captured with a dedicated patrol officer on the premises, minimising or even eliminating any losses or damage. Another possible benefit of night security services is the prompt reaction to commercial alarm systems. As soon as a break-in attempt alert sounds, a security officer on-site will confirm it and reset the alarm. If a crime occurs, they will also contact the local police.

Protecting Communities
Community protection is just one of the many services that modern security officers do. A security officer may decide to patrol a community “on foot, on a bicycle, or by car”, according to the size of the area. Conversely, Porter (2018) added in the psychology assignmentthat those working in security who have undergone training are aware of the circumstances that call for action and know when to do so. Because criminals like to remain hidden in the shadows, crimes are frequently committed while people are asleep. Communities that use night patrol services can rest easy knowing that a trained security officer is keeping trespassers at bay.

The consequences of neighbourhood patrols in “indigenous communities” are not well studied empirically. Likewise, Barclay et al. (2018) stated in the psychology assignmentthat other forms of evidence, such as statistics from case studies, evidence from outside, and official acknowledgement by “commissions, investigations, and awards”, however, demonstrate the value and effectiveness of patrols. Additionally, research on how citizens view safety in their neighbourhoods reveals that both service providers and citizens believe patrols improve the safety of their town or community.

The goal of integrating night patrols of the Australian legal framework has been met which is evident from monitoring data on community patrols in two remote towns in “Western Australia” which shows that in some communities, the frequency of admissions to police detention facilities has been dramatically reduced. However, Blagg & Anthony (2019) stated in thepsychology assignmentthatadditionally, reports have indicated that patrols have improved cooperation and intercultural communication between “indigenous and non-indigenous communities”, reduced “youth crime rates”, and increased “community empowerment”. There is some evidence that programmes for neighbourhood safety, such as “community wardens”, which are present in many countries, reduce victimisation and crime rates. Patrols provide communities with two advantages which are “local employment” and the “growth of community” capacity to address local issues.

The overall effectiveness of the integrationin thepsychology assignment
The overall effectiveness of the integration can be understood by the success of integrating night patrols into Australia’s legal framework. The ability of night patrol services to adjust to various local situations and to promote effective working relationships among “patrol officers and other local service providers” will have an impact on the achievement of community safety goals. As per the view of Pappalardo et al. (2018) in thepsychology assignment, night patrols were generally expanded as necessary. Despite changes made by the department to the way the programme is run, there is still a need for “improvement” to allow for greater adaptation and response to local circumstances as well as an improvement in referrals to other community services. Administrative benefits would come from updating grant process components, like the annual order to make a “successful cycle”, to allow for consistency with the program's long-term objectives and the model for providing services.

On the contrary, Staines et al. (2021) stated in thepsychology assignmentthathow successful night patrols are depended on the extent to which “night patrollers” can influence clients to pursue a course of action and successfully access support services. Even though the setting for service delivery may occasionally make it difficult, coordination with other providers is a key element of the “program's goals” and “achieving community safety results”. Shortly, the community members of Australia would still gain from the type of assistance offered by night patrols, but it's crucial to maintain an emphasis on creating integrated community solutions to solve local issues. In the same way, Höglund & Bruhn (2022) commented in thepsychology assignmentthat what historically has made night patrols successful in delivering community safety results are the “cultural authority of patrollers” and the attention to issues of community safety. Measuring the effectiveness of “preventative and diversionary initiatives”, such as night patrols, where success is determined by the absence of undesirable outcomes, such as “police arrest or jail”, presents unique obstacles. Moreover, Blagg & Anthony (2019) stated in the psychology assignmentthat in addition to having several consequences for night patrols as a “diversionary service”, information is required to link night patrols to the larger environment.

The psychology assignmenthas helped to understand that the implementation of the practice of night patrol into Australia’s legal framework has occurred due to the increase in the crime rate on nights like burglary, break-ins as well as an increased rate of child abuse. The occurrence of night patrol in Australia’s legal framework occurred due to the risk factors associated with health. The main goal of implementing the night patrol into Australia’s legal framework is to reduce the rate of crimes that happened during the night. The goals have been properly met allowing the effectiveness of the practice to be a success. However, some improvements are required to enhance the effectiveness as mentioned in the psychology assignment.

Reference List
Barclay, E., Scott, J., Sims, M., Cooper, T., & Love, T. (2018). Critical reflections on the operation of aboriginal night patrols. In The Palgrave handbook of criminology and the global south (pp. 1031-1053). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. Retrieved from:

Blagg, H., & Anthony, T. (2019). Hybrid Justice (ii): Night Patrols and Place-Based Sovereignty. In Decolonising Criminology (pp. 279-318). Palgrave Macmillan, London. Retrieved from:

Blagg, H., & Anthony, T. (2019). Roads to freedom: Indigenous mobility and settler law in Central Australia 1. In Justice alternatives (pp. 144-157). Routledge. Retrieved from:
Georg, S., & Manning, M. (2022). Safety in Indigenous communities: identifying gaps and opportunities in Australian crime prevention policy. Policy Studies, 43(2), 144-163. Retrieved from:
Höglund, F., & Bruhn, A. (2022). Sport-based interventions’–A tool for suburban social integration.Nordic Social Work Research, 1-13. Retrieved from:
Kennedy, B. P., Brown, W. Y., & Butler, J. R. (2021). Causal loop analysis can identify solutions to complex dog management problems in remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Animals, 11(4), 1056. Retrieved from: Maluleke, W. (2018). The integration of conventional and technological methods in combating stock theft by selected stakeholders in the KwaZulu-Natal Province. Acta Criminologica: African Journal of Criminology & Victimology, 31(4), 123-146. Retrieved from:

Pappalardo, K., Suzor, N., Douglas, H., Walsh, T., Tania, S., & Yates, R. (2018). the sydney. Retrieved from:
Porter, A. (2018). Non-state policing, legal pluralism and the mundane governance of" crime". Sydney Law Review, 40(4), 445-467. Retrieved from:
Scott, J., Sims, M., Cooper, T., & Barclay, E. (2021). Night Patrols. In Crossroads of Rural Crime (pp. 45-60). Emerald Publishing Limited. Retrieved from:
Staines, Z., Scott, J., & Morton, J. (2021). ‘Without uniform I am a community member, uncle, brother, granddad’: Community policing in Australia’s Torres Strait Region. Journal of Criminology, 54(3), 265-282. Retrieved from:
Vaarzon Morel, P. (2022). Hope in a time of world shattering events and unbearable situations: Policing and an emergent ‘ethics of dwelling’in Lander Warlpiri country. The Australian Journal of Anthropology. Retrieved from:


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