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Psychology Assignment: Cross-Cultural Study of Mental Health Beliefs


Task: Psychology Assignment Task:
Carefully read the paper provided:
Sheikh, S. & Furnham, A. (2000).A cross-cultural study of mental health beliefs and attitudes towards seeking professional help. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 35(7):326-334.

Then write an essay to include the following:
Drawing upon appropriate sources of information, and using theories from this module, critically evaluate differences in psychological perspectives between the case study cultures, provide explanations of behaviour and experience across cultures and evaluate the significance of this. Evaluate the methods used for carrying out the research by Sheikh and Furnham (2000), including ethical considerations.


Background of Psychology Assignment
Culture is that critically contributing agent which has a strong role to play to define one’s identity. The beliefs and core values attached with cultural norms have a deeply engraved manifestation in the form of an individual’s behaviour and attitude. As a result of supportive as ocean, multiple theorists are analysed for non-western cultures. On a conceptual level, the mental distress emerging out of Western culture gets determined. When the lower mean score is acknowledged, the British Asian groups are compared with the Western groups so that categorisation of Western physiological causes can be analysed on the basis of behavioural pattern and response orientation. It is the culture specific distinctive nature that western or non-Western scores are compared. The inter-relationship between psychological issues represented through mental distress caused through cultural beliefs and norms becomes the premise of present discussion. As hypothesised from distinguished group of psychologists, a meaningful relationship between the two variable constructs, mental distress and cultural belief are studied as interrelated impact out of cause and effect relationship (Sheikh & Furnham, 2000).

There are several ethnic groups which practise ritualistic behaviour out of cultural background as a strong foundation of their identity. This conceptualise is in the form of mental distress in certain specific issues which are highlighted through multiple case study events. The empirical study over different models of distress tends to create an influential impact upon mental health condition of the individuals. It is out of seeking help that each of the models of distress are tried to be interrelated which gradually orient towards certain mental disorders. Understanding mental health and the distress or disorder associated with the same has a strong and intrinsic relationship with the cultural health models. The relationship between beliefs systems derived out of ethnic groups has a conceptual bearing towards the mental distress that one encounters. According to the anthropological perspective, an integral diagnostic validity is determined through the mental distress and attitudes manifested as a part of cultural beliefs and norms. When the people of United States are analysed on their Demonstration about attitudes and mental capacity, the congruence with various conceptual models are idealised. When the predictive analysis about the mental configuration is tried to be stated about each individual, the symptoms are represented to have a deep-rooted association with cultural norms and beliefs (Mónico et al. 2020). Every culture has a predominant Trait that reflects from the group of people who practise those rituals and behavioural norms. As a result of these cultural differences, the individuals or groups differ greatly on an attitudinal level. In terms of scientific therapy, the traditional ways of seeking help are possible to be modified on traditional or modern basis. When people belonging from Asian culture reside in the geographical location of the United Kingdom, The psychological problems brought up as a part of mental status gets reflected as determined by the health practitioners. Hence, it is the perspective of a healthcare professional or medical care giver which significantly differs from that of an anthropologist. In order to create research study examination, a direct relationship between mental distress and cultural beliefs can be configured and established. In order to seek help, the behavioural manifestation leads towards a significant point of mental distress.

In terms of cross-cultural psychological research, the researchers and scientists indicate that cultural clarity leads towards a positive state of mental health. In case of suggested theories, the investigation and testing requires cultural groups to prevail in a comparative paradigm so that the differences are made evident and vivid (Kumar, 2019). As a result of the inherent cultural problems, the psychological variables act as significant and strong variables to impact the person‘s lifestyle. As a result of the functional standpoint, deriving equivalence is one of the fundamental areas of comparison when it comes to result oriented commonalities to be identified.

When the traditional culture gets derived, usually the inclination towards non-Western societal beliefs gets manifested through their attitudes and interests. It is the essential requirement of distinction between the western culture and the Asian culture that the level of medical Pluralism comes into existence (Furnham & Swami, 2018). Mental health as well as distress is parallel constructs with multiple options of treatment range. As the belief system of an individual is solely constructed as a configuration of inherent cultural norm, a strong determinant about the British Asians within UK can be identified. This not only Helps the home culture to be practised and greatly defined, but also enables the host society to be strengthened in terms of health system. The traditional cultures and the deep-rooted structures deeply associated with the western societies. It is as a result of investigation upon the cultural role upon a person‘s attitude that helps in seeking professional attribute towards mental distress and understanding.

Variables versus Processes Theory
When a psychological perspective He is considered, the cross-cultural operations are carried out by taking multiple independent variables into connection. When the socio-cultural nature is predicted, the different beliefs and value systems are determined as a cross-cultural comparison. It is considered as a label that serves on a simultaneous layer to indicate about variety of behaviours. For an independent variable like cross-cultural comparison, the behavioural variety as a dependent variable gives result to multiple manifestations. When it comes to cultural contrast, the psychologists indicate towards an independent variable where the complex city across cultural processes gets determined. It is the complex structure and function of cultural processes that leads towards an independent variable construct (Iran, Geiger & Schrader, 2019). As a result of cultural activities and social interactions, the theory of variables and processes gets to intrinsically associate the culture specific behavioural outcomes.

When the dependent variable indicates a quantifiable or qualitative measurement, the functions are possible to be summarised. This indicates the process where the theoretical justification lies As a result of the correlation and introduction of variables. In terms of cultural toolkit, the methodological dimension gets analyzed as a discourse. On an Ethnographic perspective, it is possible that a social and cultural interaction gets indicated through the behavioural manifestation and processes involved. As a result of the dependent variable, a measurable quantification can be indicated. It is out of the cultural psychological attempt that different purposes are developed. This not only helps the discourse or ethnographic analysis to be adapted but a typical anthropological perspective can be determined. Out of the leadership development taken place as a psychological discipline, the process stands out to become the central theme of the present theoretical framework discussed. This enables the cultural.

When the theory suggests about Variables and its interaction as the core idea, there is need for a specific construction of meaning to be identified. Taking the cultural notion as the measurement context, the interpretation is evaluated towards the worldly response in terms of mental distress and disorder. The behaviour manifested as a result of cultural Variables operating upon them is denoted as the process ingredient as a part of the variable versus process theory (Kotera, Van Laethem& Ohshima, 2020). This not only helps in stemming up the symbolic quality of cultural ingredient but also leads towards growth in the number of social psychologist. With the help of cultural psychologist and their interpretations reflected as a part of variables vs this process theory that the determination of the privileged outcomes is tried to be developed on a societal level. As a result of development of socialisation, the cultural psychologists derive a direct relationship between the cultural characteristics and the behavioural outcomes denoted in the form of mental distress. It is the attempt of diachronic process that helps in socialisation process under effective development orientation. This constitutes the cultural learning and apprenticeship to be denoted. When the cultural habits get created in an adult individual, the participants tend to socialise as a significant part of the next generation.

When development and socialisation becomes the criteria of analysis and evaluation, there is need for human development field to be cultivated effectively. It is another representative of cross-cultural manifestation that various indigenous psychology constructs emerge out as a social psychologist perspective. Various cultural psychologists tend to symbolise the quality of Culture in terms of the mental distress or disorientation derived (Worthen, Lingiardi&Caristo, 2017). On a theoretical dimension, there are multiple challenges in the mainstream psychology among which cultural ingredients are indicated to be the fundamental ones. It is the data variation that leads to words universalistic challenges that contribute to words culture. There are multiple groups’ level differences that create a dramatic or exciting impact in the level of differences in mental construct. When the in-depth structure of culture gets determined, the principles of culture get manifested in the form of behaviour and interpretations of human nature.

Individualism and Collectivism Theory
When the concept behind the individualism and collectivism is tried to be differentiated, the independence and the interdependence can be classified on the principles of psychological explanation. Language is one of the deep structural and cultural components that generate understanding about interpretation and behaviour. It is the rationale behind the individualism orientation that leads towards the initiatives of value concerned to be maximised on an independent level. However, when collectivism needs to be held high, level of interdependence and mutual coordination between self and others are tried to be strengthened (Ferraz et al. 2017). It is depending upon the cultural orientation that helps to determine the maximisation of which strategy is emphasised. When the aspect of individualism is highlighted, the strategies are maximised to create a sense of independence and strength of self. On the other hand when collectivism is highlighted, the optimisation of unity and multiple contexts by acceptance of diversified perspective takes place. By the definition of self, work, relationship with parents or marriage is concerned, the concept of individualism versus collectivism gets deter mind inevitably. This relates to the fact that culture has a strong impact upon the person‘s behavioural outcome.

Hofstede Model of cultural diversity
When the Hofstede model of cultural differences ones are concerned, the diversity witnessed among the Asians or the Chinese particularly can be determined in their home country and across the host country as well. It is the power distribution structure that helps to determine how the cultural component influences the particular country. As a result of psychological understanding, both individualism and collectivism get practised across multiple nations. When some countries try to keep a concentration of power in one hand like in the Asian countries of China or Japan, the functions of decentralisation get manifested through the physical distribution (Agüera et al. 2017). It is the cultural orientation that leads towards following of one leader by the rest of the followers. As a part of the psychological impact, excessive pressure and stress leads to words a perpetual state of mental distress and disorder.

Cultural uniqueness and individual differences
When the migrant communities across the British Asians are analysed as a case study point of view, the population in the UK is found to be heavily under the influence of home culture and values. As the host society derives, the perpetuation leads towards a health system that has an evident belief system related to the traditional cultures. Taking the psychological perspective into consideration, multiple Chinese case studies and work level organisational performance can be determined on the basis of individualism rather than collective wisdom theory. It leads towards the understanding that Chinese psychology faces differences in terms of unification and contrast in value (Pelzang& Hutchinson, 2017). The American psychology believes in indigenous logical matters. Taking the relationship between prioritisation and handling the relationships, a standard psychological theory needs to be established on an individualist set of priorities. When there is need for differentiation, the collectivist priority gets theoretically determined. It is due to the cultural uniqueness that the individual differences get prominent. In relation with collectivism approach, the cultural uniqueness can be established with a prominent emphasis upon their importance towards individualistic cultures. As a result of cultural differences, there is need for a distinctive mental health and behavioural distension to be identified.

When the cross-cultural psychology is comprehended about various exposures and experiences, it usually relates with the development of independent variables and ambiguities. It is the cross-cultural psychology that contributes directly towards the process of examination and the relationship between culture and organisational experience and development. It is the difference prevailing between Western and Oriental culture that the Chinese effectiveness and appropriateness gets communicated during various conflicts (Koç&Kafa, 2019). On the contrary, the mental health distress and disorientation gets indicated through the communication competence taken place by other people in Singapore. It is the trend identified across the effective judgement that four different conflicting styles get emerged. By improving the post-conflict Structure, the appropriateness and the post-conflict prediction helps to maintain the mental health balance. It is due to the cultural difference that a cognitive theory relates with the communication of interpersonal conflicts. As a result of empirical studies related to cross cultural factors, it is possible that a significant behavioural contradiction gets implied. Culture has a significant predictive and analytical outlook to be determined (Van Tongeren et al. 2021). As a result of seeking professional help, the mental distress needs to be reduced with the help of cultural beliefs and findings. When the Asian evidences and Western sample are compared, the amount of mental distress gets collectively oriented towards cultural casual behaviour. It is on the basis of physiological explanation that not just the contrast but also the community that helps the attitude to be effectively identified. It is the expression of attitudes by the British Asians that helps to seek professional help for significant mental disorders. It is the underutilisation of health services that creates a sense of mental distress. When the understanding and people’s beliefs get distinctively categorised, the problems are effectively classified.

As a result of supernatural causes, the artificial and criticism left the world effective Afghans can help determine the balance in harmony. It is believed that an individual ‘s karma is responsible for the holistic belief and dichotomous cultural categories. When the nature of ambiguity gets depicted, it can be predicted as the attitudinal deformation (Sahithya et al. 2019). As a result of different meanings of cultural groups, the total score leads towards seeking professional help for psychological problems identified set up with the help of study-based findings, the generalizability gets depicted in the form of socio-cultural differences and minimisation. It is under their real cultural differences that casual attributes of mental distress get indicated. By the application of culture, the independent variables and findings are illustrated. It is suggested that cultural belief act as a health precursor so that the illness leads towards operationalized cultural configuration.

When further research is investigated in the area of mental distress among the Asians while residing in the United Kingdom, it can be reported that and the utilisation of mental health services leads towards challenging consequences. There is need for higher level of healthcare support functions to treat and care mental distress among people from different cultural value system. There is need for indicative predictive value to investigate about the cultural differences (Romero et al. 2018). In addition, there is need for high level of mental distress to be communicated so that social awareness is possible to be grown as an indication of cultural difference related investigation. This helps in conceptualising the mental illness. As a result of minority group concentration, the disadvantage of community and socio-economic terms are possible to be overcome and other mental distress set of beliefs. By the ways of illustration and development, the cultural appropriateness can be determined as a way of service and ethnic minority group for indicating the mental health condition of the people in the UK. When the attitudes of different individuals are analysed with a definite sample into pilot study and in-depth research analysis, it can be configured that no significant relationship is associated between attitudes and cultural prominence. Professional help towards mental distress is identified, there is a usual positive attitude determined by seeking professional help. As a result of mental distress, there is need for reflection upon issues related to sampling (Ameen et al. 2021). In case of British Asians, the impact of seeking professional help upon mental distress gets predominantly identified. It is on the basis of seeking mental distress health that an increasing level of understanding through globalisation can be determined. In some of the recent studies, the growth and development in the globalisation power has indicated in the form of life as well as health indication. This reflects how seeking psycho therapeutic solution can act as a positive attitude towards seeking professional help.

As a result of differences in positive and negative attitude, the professional help needs to be taken at a measured quantity. It is the dimensional measure upon which the three cultural groups are categorised. It is upon the positive attitude that one needs to seek help about. As a result of traditional illness configuration, the variety of pathways needs to be determined as a result of treatment service. This not only helps in seeking professional help but also derives therapeutic understanding (emojtel Piotrowska et al. 2018). For establishing professional and community-based effectiveness, the mental health issues are tried to be oriented in the appropriate nature. By considering the British Asians, the belief and value system across the culture of society is radically transformed no no geographical platform. When the prevalent health status becomes a predictive analysis measure, the differentiated cultural systems practised in the United Kingdom are possible to be determined.

By seeking for globalization growth, and increased acceptance towards psycho therapeutic techniques as a significant way of finding solution can be determined. In order to establish a positive attitude, effective and professional help can be established. As a result of and dimensional measurement, the three cultural groups of equivalent nature can be evaluated on the positive attitude level. It is the differentiation of the treatment on the level of cultural background and belief system that the illness and attitudinal changes and determined by each human cluster (Lucchetti et al. 2018). By seeking professional help, a range of therapies are administered and suggested under the professional or clinical environment. In context with the British Asian community, the mental healthcare problems and tried to be overcome with the help of appropriate talks to establish healthy social network. When the community and professionalism gets a stab list, the British Asians are tried to be influenced on value and belief dimension. As a result of the prevalent conditions of healthcare society, the United Kingdom acts as the healthcare services. Under the National Health Service care provision, the attitudes of seeking psychological solutions to problems can be determined. On a medical model treatment, the availability of being free becomes a significant predictor. In terms of attitudinal growth, seeking help from clinical professionals becomes a point of contact.

In order to find effective solution, the understanding about specific and significant mental distress at tried to be correlated and evaluated on cultural basis. Due to the traditional value point, the true sense of means core gets determined in the effective way (Jovanevi&Milievi, 2020). In case of Muslims, the score has been found to be significantly low. This shows that cultural religious values and belief system establishes a strong level of affiliation in terms of highest score in case of positive attitude determination. This requires the Muslim community to be increasingly driven towards professional help and psychological or mental health condition treatment. By keeping the Islamic prayer value intact, seeking for mental illness treatment becomes a mandate for such a group of people. This is required to overcome the barriers on a cultural basis which restricts the religious beliefs and creates a stringent outcome. In case of demographic variables, the mental health disorder gets oriented in the form of positive attitude seeking clinical condition. There is need for positive attitude to be developed regarding the crucial aspects of society related to education and sex. In case of the Muslim religious set of believes that the professional help needs to be oriented more upon the male gender than that of the females. It is identified that a strong correlation between mental distress and the two variables get determined (Bouranta et al. 2019). There is a positive attitude reflected in case of finding the levels of education less positive the attitude that drives towards seeking professional help. In case of lower level of education, there is need for higher professional help required so that the positive attitude is possible to be derived and grown. This is not only allowing the differences between men and women attitude to take place but also create supportive findings depending upon research studies. Taking the research indication of British Asians into configuration, the qualitative study material can be identified.

In the form of evaluation of findings, difficult generalised understanding about Asian women can be assessed. It is based upon the testimony that difficulty to express gets reflected in the form of requiring professional help from dental assistants to be established. In the form of self-reliant, the importance of dealing with mental distress needs to be highlighted (Elischberger et al. 2018). For the purpose of analysing the causal believes, the mental distress needs to be overcome for four causative categories of mental distress hypothesis.

Ethical Consideration
Before including psychological perspectives, there is need for permission to be taken from each sample group. As the individual opinion represents the holistic field perception, an ethical responsibility lies in the related subject matter. The methodology selected is highly justified so that effectiveness in bias free and non-confounding data outcomes are derived from this research study. There is need for protection and preservation of rights and information on the Data Protection Act 1998 basis. This helps the ethics to be maintained by preserving the data validity and reliability orientation.

In case of each group of culturally defined people, the will of God is determined to be one of the significant areas. A prime ingredient that creates interfering impact as a cause of mental illness is the belief that culturally prevails in the form of will of God concept. In many of the societal clusters, mental distress is considered at a natural level. When the anthropological viewpoint is integrated, it differentiates between non-western and western culture where the belief and normative behaviour interacts with mental distress. There are multiple dimensions that a social being experiences in the form of supernatural etiological construct.When the reference of Pakistanies are tried to be established about cultural predominance over behavioural manifestation, it can be analysed that British Asians lead to words highest score on Pakistanis to categorise them towards mental health treatment seeking population. This results in the form of truly reflective order so that medical plurality can be determined. As a causative agent, the assimilative characteristics of medical settings are Associated with the compartmentalisation evident towards western cultures. Taking the British Asian group into consideration, the broad manifestation of holistic medical survey indicates towards modification over time. When the Muslims score high as a non-Western cultural premise, the physiological causes lead towards differences between multiple groups. This acts as a supernatural cause for which the alternatives are incorporated in the form of balanced body requirements. From the time of youth, the level of education provided towards the Muslim cultural background leads towards a high score of requirements for psychological treatment and evaluation. Among the emic and etic diversities, the Muslims are categorised in the uniqueness of one culture that conceptually relates towards mental health distress increased score.

The supernatural factors play a dominant causative role to comply with cultural contribution towards mental health illness. It is predominant among the westernised countries and culture believed in those regions that health illness factors are strongly correlated with. It is not just the difference noted in terms of lifestyle but also the explanation of supernatural level that exposes the religious background of Islam to be under maximum mental health illness impact. This leads towards the understanding that culture does not have a significant predictive correlation with that of mental health status or the attitudes manifested by an individual. With the help of individual and collectivism theory the mental distress identified by different groups and case study findings converge towards the independent understanding about to construct. Even after the two variables being involved and correlated, it can be understood that they are not connected in a cause and effect relationship.

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