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Psychology Assignment: Critical Review On Depression Anxiety & Stress Scale (DASS)


Task: Psychology AssignmentTask:
The following link will take you to the test: Here are the rules you must follow in order for this project to be best possible – please do read carefully. General information of the test: write each section in detail!

• Title of test (including edition and forms if applicable)
• Author(s) of the test
• Publisher, year of publication (including publication year of manuals, norms, and supplementary materials; especially important for tests whose content or norms may become outdated)
• Time required to administer (in minutes)
• Cost

A brief description of the purpose and the nature of the test
• General type (e.g., individual or group, performance, multiple aptitude battery, interest inventory, and so on)
• Population for which the test is designed (age range, type of person)
• Nature of the test content (e.g., verbal, numerical, spatial, motor)
• Sub-tests and separate scores
• Item types

Practical evaluation! This is where we evaluate the tests practicality
• Qualitative features of test materials (e. g. what is the design of test booklet, what is the editorial quality of content, ease of using, attractiveness, durability, appropriateness for test takers)
• Clarity of direction – (basically, how easy is it to follow the directions of Please describe in detail how psychologists will be able to use this test and if it is good for us to use as a test on the patients. The attached refences should help you determine this. The technical evaluation of this test:
• Type (e.g., percentiles, standard scores)
• Standardisation sample (Nature, size, representativeness, procedures followed in sampling, availability of subgroup norms – for age, gender, education, occupation-, region-based subgroups) – describe in detail the standardisation sample.


General information of the testundertaken in the psychology assignment
Title of test (including edition and forms if applicable)
Manual for the Depression anxiety Stress Scales. (2nd Ed) Sydney:
Psychology Foundation is the test title where the second edition is applied for evaluation of stress, anxiety and depression are mental issues tested through questionnaires.

Author(s) of the test
Lovibond et al. of 1983 formulated the DASS test primarily and Wilson 1980 and 1982 are prime authors of the scale. It is through these authors that the manual for assessment of symptoms of depression, stress and anxiety prone characteristic attributes. They have used the test to assess the individuals showing these traits for mental problem conditions.

Publisher, year of publication
Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. (2nd. Ed.) Sydney: Psychology Foundation. ISBN 7334-1423-0. Is the foremost testing assessment approach that is implemented by Lovibond, S.H. & Lovibond, P.F. in the year (1995) It is through the administration of this self-assessment manual scale that emotional negativity is determined in specific areas of mental conditions. With attributes of anxiety, depression and stress the DASS measure is helpful in manifesting the scale for measure of emotional scales. This is a 42 question embedded questionnaire which is a short version of DASS21. There are 7 items included in each scale (Lovibond, S.H. & Lovibond, P.F. (1995). In reference with the previous version of the DASS scale, the second edition enables the Self Analysis Questionnaire (SAQ) is established for understanding individuals of characteristics of stress, depression and anxiety.

Time required to administer (in minutes)
As each of the three dimensions of mental illness of stress, anxiety and depression are incorporated within the DASS 2nd edition module, there are 14 questions each in three of the paradigms that collectively integrate to 42 questions in total. As a self-administrative test, DASS typically takes a 5 to 10 minutes time to be completed for each of sections. Hence to answer all 42 questions an adult individual is likely to take 15 to 30minutes.

As DASS questionnaire is available in almost all public sites online as global podium, the price for downloading their entire testing scale pdf a nominal charge of $55.00 is to be considered. It is through the minimal amount paid online that entre questionnaire through which nominal fee is established with latest update by 26th July 2018.

Description of the purpose and the nature of the test<
General type
It is with the help of this DASS inventory that a self-report is manifested. It is a self-evaluative and self-administered test of scaling through which 42 items are assessed through negative emotional state in anxiety, depression and stress or tension. It is through the help of division to 2 to 5items that similar attributes and contents are established effectually (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). With scale of depression, the traits of hopelessness, dysphoria, devaluation, self-deprecation, the anhedonia, lack of interest and involvement and inertia is created. This paradigm of depression is assessed in details so that personality trait is managed effectually. With respect to the anxiety scale of emotional scale paradigm, the skeletal muscular effect is manifested, autonomic arousal effect, subjective arousal and situational anxiety is manifested through this scale. It is through the help of relaxation difficulty that nervous arousal in emotional paradigm is created. With the agitation and upsetting attitude along with impatient and irritable and over reaction that emotional anxiety is manifested through the survey questionnaire. As the subject is administered with DASS questionnaire, the 4 point frequency and severity is managed through scaling so that extent of emotional state in those three areas is critically determined. It is through the Self-Assessment or Analytical Questionnaire SAQ that DASS scale is implemented. This helps in creating internal consistency where meaningful discrimination is manifested across varied settings. It is through needs based scale that clinical setting is used by researcher to administer this scale where the subject provides the necessary responses against the three emotional dimensions each of anxiety, depression and stress or tension.

Population for which the test is designed
With the help of applying DASS 2nd edition self-analytical survey questionnaire, the definite population criteria is targeted. Although DASS as first edition was primarily targeted towards 14 year old adolescents, the second edition is administered upon the typical population of adult age group. The age group where the test is possible to be applied ranges from 17 years to 69 years of individuals. With the help of norm as sample, there are 1044 males as well as 1870 males are incorporated as the entire adult population towards which the DASS questionnaire survey is tested. It is through three emotional dimensions of Depression, Stress and Anxiety scales that a standardized threshold is created of the value of 0.9. Hence, the application of Manual of Depression Anxiety Stress Scales under 2nd edition that survey test is created. The emotional states of the females and males within this age group are addressed with the three distinguished mental assessment areas. This helps the characteristics details of the depressive individuals, stress or tension oriented states as well as anxiety orientation is maintained. The contents across each of three dimensions include within the 42 items of DASS 2nd edition.

Nature of the test content
There are test contents included across the DASS survey of the 2nd edition that specific natures of three emotional states across dimensions are manifested in this scale. It is the self-analytical scale which is administered to test towards subjects or individuals where critical characteristic traits are identified having such inclination. There are three broad natures that are determined across the DASS scale of 2nd edition in areas of Depression, Stress and Anxiety. Each of the dimensions include following detail of criteria incorporated.

Depression Scale:
With the administration of this DASS survey the subjects are individually assessed on the internal criteria elements where symptoms of depression would get collectively implied. The individual is analysed on the areas whether the person feels self-disparaging in nature or not. The feeling of gloominess, sense of blue or dispirited sets in is assessed. The belief that life has no meaning or value with conviction attributes to presence of depression within the person. Having pessimistic thoughts about future or the incapability to experience satisfaction and enjoyment is manifested as tested paradigm. For the lack of interest, unwillingness in involvement and slow level of initiative directs towards depressive traits in the individuals.

Stress Scale:
With the help of administering DASS scale across individuals who are open to feelings of stress or tension the indicator agents are characterized. DASS is administered to indicate whether the person is open to tension or over arousal (Brown et al. 1997). When the individual is subjected to incapability to relaxation touchy or feeling of upset the stress arousal is managed. It is through irritation, nervy, fidgety or jumpy nature that easy startling is managed for the stress feeling. There is a sense of intolerance to delay and interruption that level of stress present in the individual is managed and assessed through the DASS scale of survey measure.

Anxiety Scale:
With the help of predicting anxiety scale that individual is manifested across assessment in effective areas. It is through the anxiety scale of the DASS survey that characteristics of assessment are managed. There is panicky nature through which apprehension is created across the individual in effectual manner (Ruiz et al. 2017). There are feelings of trembling hands and shaky nature that residue and trace of anxiety gets implied upon the person effectually. When the person indicates response in favour of dry mouth experience or shortness of breath and heart pounding frequently the person is likely to be categorized as anxiety prone. With the help of understanding the extent of individuals’ palm sweatiness the level to which the person is anxious in emotional nature gets implied effectually through the administration of the DASS module. Moreover, with this scale the person’s inclination of showing performance related anxiousness and the loss of control possibility is also assessed that integrates to the overall understanding of anxiety present within the person.

Sub-tests and separate scores
DASS is the module of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale where three typical integrated classifications are managed. As the overall questionnaire survey of DASS incorporates 42 items each of three dimensions incorporate 14 items. With the second edition of DASS there are 7 items for per scale establishment (Ediz, Ozcakir&Bilgel, 2017). The internal capacity creates consistency so that discrimination in meaningful mechanism is created. With the help of discriminated factors in anxiety that relaxation, panic and hand sweating are managed, the depression is understood through traits of anhedonia and abolition along with stress indicators like tension frequently and feeling nervous about matters. For subtest Depression the score of 0-9 indicates normal, 10-13 as mild, 14-20 as moderate, 21-27 showing severe and extremely severe when score is 28 plus. Similarly, in case of subtest Anxiety, the person who scores from 0 to 7 they are considered as normal, from 8 to 9 indicates Mild trace, 10-14 directs to moderate presence and 15 to 19 reflects severe and 20 plus is directed to be extremely high or severe. For Stress as the subtest within DASS second edition scale, the range from 0 to 14 indicates normal person without such instances. Having a score between 15 and 18 is mild presence of Stress, 19 to 25 means moderate presence, 26 to 33 indicates as severe and 34 plus is indicated to be extremely severe in nature.

Item types
The negative feelings and the emotional predictors or behavioural habits manifested by individual people on different situations are embedded as questions of the survey (Nanthakumar et al. 2017). With the rating scale of stress feeling of agitation, terrified, trembling effects and difficulty in working are assessed. In case a person states that they feel difficulty in swallowing or are close to having panic attack, it is indicators of anxiety presence in emotional integration. When the individual is low, feels blue and hopeless for future and acts pessimistic, it is determined as containing depressive symptoms.

Clarity of direction –
The second edition of DASS scale acts as theself-administered test where the scores of depression, anxiety and stress are integrated for individual to precise categorized is a specific quadrant. The researcher is fostered with this scale when the Self Analytical Questionnaire (SAQ) is referred for the identification of the scale characteristics. The meaningful discrimination is created where the scale is used for predicting the outcomes of people having which paradigm of negative emotional attribute. This helps the psychologist or researcher to guide the further dimension of interest and treatment for the person in definite direction.

The technical evaluation of this test:

There are scores calculated for each response provided against each class of questionnaire emotional paradigm (Coker, Coker &Sanni, 2018). The category in which the person is identified after addition of responses indicates the state and extent of experience created. The scoring key helps indicate with definite dimension extent.

Standardisation sample
There is a norm set up for which DASS scale can be applied as second edition module where adults are possible to be administered with the questionnaire. This suggests that standard sample of both females and males are administered with this test where age group of 17 years till 69 years are possible to be addressed using DASS.

Reviewers Comments
It is with the help of DASS second edition scale of emotional assessment that any negative feeling state is possible to be determined by the same. The people showing maladaptive behaviour in varied forms precisely can be tested to be categorized in depression, anxiety or stress class or group (Saricam, 2018). This makes the test score count as indicators of extent of vulnerability and decides the course of treatment or intervention by the person.

With the help of DASS the extent to which severity exactly the person currently lies at in the dimensions of anxiety, stress or depression get indicated. A quantitative value based scale measure helps to evaluate the outcome. However, it has the shortcoming of getting the percentage as compared to normative value with scoring key oversimplification.

Brown, T.A., Korotitsch, W., Chorpita, B.F. & Barlow, D.H. (1997). Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in clinical samples. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 79-89. Coker, A. O., Coker, O. O., &Sanni, D. (2018). Psychometric properties of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). African Research Review, 12(2), 135-142.

Ediz, B., Ozcakir, A., &Bilgel, N. (2017). Depression and anxiety among medical students: Examining scores of the beck depression and anxiety inventory and the depression anxiety and stress scale with student characteristics. Psychology assignmentCogent Psychology, 4(1), 1283829.

Lovibond, S.H. & Lovibond, P.F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. (2nd. Ed.) Sydney: Psychology Foundation. ISBN 7334-1423-0.

Nanthakumar, S., Bucks, R. S., Skinner, T. C., Starkstein, S., Hillman, D., James, A., & Hunter, M. (2017). Assessment of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) in untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Psychological assessment, 29(10), 1201.

Ruiz, F. J., Martín, M. B. G., Falcón, J. C. S., & González, P. O. (2017). The hierarchical factor structure of the Spanish version of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 17(1), 97-105.

Saricam, H. (2018). The psychometric properties of Turkish version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) in health control and clinical samples. Journal of Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research, 7(1), 19-30.


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