Project Management Assignment Analyzing Constituents Affecting Success Or Failure Of Project.
Case Study - Who is the Project Manager?
Assigning Project Management Responsibility for Success
By Mike Griffin, PMP, MSP Practitioner
A project manager's prime task is managing a project to success. The products of the project need to be picked up by the line organisation, and if this involves change in the organisation or ways of working, the changes must be made to 'stick'. By ensuring that the responsibilities for project management and business change are well assigned in a project there is an increased chance of success.
In all projects, assigning the correct project manager is crucial. The choice is often not simple. I have experienced this in the form of a dilemma: do we appoint someone who is an experienced project manager or someone who will champion the change? Very often the experienced project manager will come from a technical background, e.g. IT, and will not have authority to make changes in the organisation or processes. On the other hand the change champion will have credibility with the business unit, but often not have the project skills required. If you can always find all of this in one person, then good luck to you; you don't need the rest of this article!
When is This a Problem?
There can be a problem in a project that is not part of a programme. Let's look at the differences between programmes and projects. I'll use MSPTM (Managing Successful Programmes of the Office of Government Commerce) to illustrate. MSP clearly differentiates between projects – that deliver outputs – and programmes – that deliver outcomes. The main difference is that a project that is not part of a programme delivers the output to the line organisation; the line management is subsequently responsible for achieving the benefits (outcomes). A programme, on the other hand, is also responsible for the benefits realisation of the projects within the programme.
I have noticed, in our organisation at least, that projects are expected to deliver the change in the organisation, so the outcome is not achieved if the project only delivers the output.
How Does it go Wrong?
To ensure a good mix of business change and project management, for IT projects, we have in the past staffed projects with a project manager from the customer, a "business PM" or BPM, and an experienced project manager from IT, the "IT PM", reporting to them. This can work well, depending on the individuals and how well they co-operate and complement each other. But if the BPM doesn't have the required project management capabilities there can be a conflict of authority: the BPM is in charge – the "boss" – but the IT PM needs to tell them what to do and how to do it.
Hoping that the BPM and IT PM will complement each other and work well together is not enough, we have seen this go bad a large number of times. Roles and responsibilities, especially for the project management tasks, is the foundation of a project and if that goes wrong it is very difficult to correct. So it's best to get it right at the start. Having more than one person in a project with a role of "project manager" is confusing. There should only be one. This can be resolved by only giving the overall project manager this role and the IT PM is called an "IT work stream lead" or "IT team lead". Some IT project managers have great difficulty accepting this; after all it says "Project Manager" on their business card, and they expect that to appear as their role in every project as well. Of course a project role and a job title are completely different things, but we have found that this "role inflation" has crept into the way people see project roles.
My goal was to ensure that when a project was set up, it had a good foundation to be successful. Of course the project team members still need to work together well to be successful, but giving the team a good foundation allows them to focus on delivering together, instead of trying to work out who they should listen to. I started looking for a solution to this dilemma.
What did I Find?
My analysis led me to the conclusion that we needed a capable and experienced project manager to be responsible for the project management, and someone with the right authority and "organisational credit" to be responsible for the change in the business. As the experienced project managers available for our IT projects are nearly always from IT, they do not have the authority or credit in the customer's organisation. And the main customer contacts, the potential candidates for the BPM role, often don't have the project management capabilities.
Looking at how MSP describes the programme structure, the key players are the SRO (Senior Responsible Owner), the Programme Manager and the BCM (Business Change Manager). The key here is that the BCM does not report to the Programme Manager or vice versa; and that the Programme Manager is responsible for the day-to-day management of the programme while the BCM is responsible for delivering change and benefits. Why couldn't this work in a project as well? With a team of project managers I worked through the roles and responsibilities in a typical project, with the aim of making this work. The project managers were motivated in this too, as they had experienced the problem first hand!
This problem only occurs in projects that are not part of a programme, but in my team we have a large number of these. Having a project manager and a BCM, with clear responsibilities and the capabilities to match, greatly increases the chance of success in the project team. I am aware that this is probably not the only way to solve this dilemma, and would like to hear from people who have other ideas and experiences, even if they are contradictory to mine! Source: Griffin, M. 2012. ‘Who Is The Project Manager?’ http://www.projectsmart.co.uk/who-is-the-project-manager.php
Consider the above case study and prepare a project management assignment addressing the following questions:
Read the case study above and answer the questions that follow.
1.1 Explain the terms “project” and “project management”.
1.2 “Very often the experienced project manager will come from a technical background, e.g. IT, and will not have authority to make changes in the organisation or processes. On the other hand the change champion will have credibility with the business unit, but often not have the project skills required.” In light of the extract above, identify and explain the range of skills that a project manager needs.
1.3 Discuss the ten project management knowledge areas.
2.1 “To ensure a good mix of business change and project management, for IT projects, we have in the past staffed projects with a project manager from the customer, a ‘business PM’ or BPM, and an experienced project manager from IT, the ‘IT PM’, reporting to them.” From the extract above it is evident that there are various types of projects, including IT projects. To understand which members you need in a project team you need to understand that there are different types of projects. Discuss five different types of projects.
2.2 Discuss the stages of developing a project team.
3.1 “To ensure a good mix of business change and project management, for IT projects, we have in the past staffed projects with a project manager from the customer” Refer to the extract above. Besides customers, there are many other stakeholders of a project. Explain the difference between internal and external stakeholders. Be sure to provide examples of each.
3.2 “My goal was to ensure that when a project was set up, it had a good foundation to be successful.” With regard to the extract above, project goals and objectives are developed once the project has been identified and analysed. What are the differences between goals and objectives?
3.3 Explain the meaning of a WBS (work breakdown structure) as one of the most common project planning tools.
3.4 What should be reflected in a typical Gantt chart?
3.5 Which tools can assist the project manager to plan for quality?
4.1 “Of course the project team members still need to work together well to be successful.”
The importance of competent team members for the success of a project is highlighted in the extract above. Discuss other factors that can contribute to the success or failure of a project.
Introduction to project management assignment
Project management is a procedure of directing the activities of the team for attaining very project objectivesin the mentioned constraints. The data is generally depicted in project documentation, generated at the initial time of the procedure development. The main constraints are revered as budget, time, and scope. The responsibility of leading the project management effectively is on the project manager who should be capable enough of executing the tasks and activities based on the type of project. The essay will be producing enough knowledge on the deliverables, element contained in the project management and factor that affect the success or failure of the project. Project management is seen as the process of change that needs to be identified suiting the goals and objectives of the project that will ensure project completion effectively.
Projects are identified as a temporary effort for creating value by an individualistic product, service or result. Every project comprises of beginning and an end. They consist of a team, a schedule, budget, as well as the list of expectations the team require to attain. Every project is revered as unique and is distinctive from routine activities, the continual activities of the business as projects meet a conclusion as soon as the goal is acquired (Morcov, et al. 2020).
Project management is referred to use of particular tools, skills, tools, knowledge, and techniques for delivering value to individuals. Project management is depicted as an applicable methods, procedures, experience, knowledge, and skills, and experience for attaining particular project goals as per the project acceptance basis within the mentioned parameters (Heagney, 2016). Project management encompasses last deliverables being constrained for a determinate budget and timescale. The vital factor distinguishing the project management compared to management encompasses the final deliverable and a limited period, as a continual process. Due to such, a project professional requires a broad range of skills; often technical skills, and certainly individual management skills and optimum business awareness.
1.2 Characteristics of project manager
The project manager should be capable of managing and bringing change within the project manager to make it unique. The skills of project manager should be
Leadership:Being a project manager one is not only responsible for watching the project ensured to complete it successfully, but they also lead in achieving the specific goal. This needs motivation and mediating when important. Project leadership is the role of the manager not only in managing tasks but also in managing people.
Communication:Project managers need to possess clear and precise communications by very stakeholdersinterlinked to the project, from vendor to project manager to customers and other stakeholders. It also helps in connectingindividuals within the group settings, like presentations and meetings.
Scheduling:There is a need of implementing a realistic schedule and the project manager requires to manage the resources by keeping on track the project so that it can be concluded successfully can be successful on the time (Alvarenga, et al. 2018).
Risk management:Before executing the project, there is a need of identifying the work, evaluate and control risk. There can be unanticipated issues that may come; the need is of putting the risk mitigation procedure in place for handling the challenges.
Negotiating:There can be inevitable conflicts arising among team individuals or other members entailed within the project. If the project manager gotpowerful; negotiating skills it can help in resolving such disputes before it affects orthreatens the project.
Critical thinking:it is revered as generally objectiveas itrequiresassessing and executing the situation or situation for the project manager for forming an unbiased judgment.The project manager should make the impartial decision that should be best for the project.
Task management: Task management is a vital skill possessed by every project manager as every tool and technique ensures control of managing the tasks. The list comprises viewing the assigned work, setting priorities, adding tags and attaching files for directing team members.
Quality management:This feature of Quality management is observing the tasks and activities needed for delivering the product or service as on the indicated level ensuring activities are on track and effective.
1.3 Project management knowledge areas
A project management knowledge area is a sphere of the vital realm of knowledge every project manager is acquainted with and ensures several spheres in view to complete the project successfully.
1. Project integration management
Project integration management is revered as a safeguard encompassing every project management knowledge area. It makes collaboratively the individual procedure and activities into a single project designated deliverables and goals (Hayajneh, et al. 2020).
2. Project scope management
Project scope should be adequately designated and shielded among the procedure. By ensuring scope management, it helpsin defining, validating, and controlling scope. Such procedure wouldensureto remain on task and encompassing everyone, acknowledgesthe designation of tasks involvedfor preventing unmet suppositions and frustrating changes.
3. Project time management
Projects depend ondistinctive schedules and timelines as per requirements. The estimation of time taken to finish the project can be estimated or overestimated. The plans should be determined as per tasks and then should be shifted and on the allocation of projects resources and taken care within the project effectively (Dumrak, et al. 2017).
4. Project cost management
Ensuring the costs is low, or at least on a reasonable level, it is vital todepict ROI on the project. The portrayal in cost management is not only the task of developing a budget. There is a requirement of evaluating the costs continuously for avoiding any type of surprises in the completion of the project.
5. Project quality management
In project management, quality is not about perfection andit is not practical to acquire perfection by resources and time. The objective of project quality management is to attain continuality among the projects. Theassumptions made by the stakeholder’sresults in creating reasonable discussionsbetween project manager and the team. Quality control helps in ensuringthe effective work is delivered every time.
6. Project resource management
Effective resource management needs to know and performby the bandwidth of the team, recognizing the individual weaknesses and strengths, and synergy with different teammembers (Nguyen, et al. 2017). It is about supporting the team members to grow and alsoidentifying the knowledge gaps. It recognizes opportunities for continual training for individualistic team members and a full team formed on trending andfurther projects
7. Project communications management
There revers a fine line within over and under communication as well as the communications management plan. The communication management plan is crucial for identifying theneeds of individualsfor knowingwhen and what before the starting of the project.
8. Project risk management
By identifying and sorting major project risks and solving approaches interlinked to it, the team and project requesters would be dealing and more forgiving to deal with the rising issues in the project (Behera, et al. 2018). It will be the benefit of energy and time upfront rather than aiming to troubleshoot when there is pressure on the teamagainst a tight deadline.
9. Project procurement management
such project management knowledge area procures the design for activities and services finished through external contractors. It also creates the planning of the lawful framework and collaborating procedure being in front and is incredibly valuable when there is a need.
10. Project stakeholder management
A stakeholder is not only, but a part of team members working on the project, such as vendors, contractors, customers, and many other individuals internal and external to the business. Every stakeholderis equally required in the project and recognizing the stakeholder in the project and their involvement in the procedure would ensure everyone gets the right information they need.
2.1 Types of projects
Apart from IT projects, several projects require effective project management as:
Projects in the concerned category are the ones developing a new structure or infrastructure within an area. Another general feature is of the fulfilment phase that is conducted on the site exposing to the elements and is remote from the contractor's main office.
These types of projects generally incur particular problems and risks for an organization. This type generally needs massive capital investment, and deserve rigorous management of development, finance, and quality.
Management project proves a point for the company, irrespective of size expecting the need of project management expertise in the meantime. The need for management projects rises when companies change headquarters, introduce a new system, launch a marketing campaign, prepare a trade exhibition, procure feasibility or another study report, reshuffle the organization, or engage in the operation that requires the management and co-coordinating the tasks for producing an end conclusion that is not recognized principally (Mossalam, 2018).
Manufacturing projects is aimedat producing equipment or machinery, textiles, steel or any other item. The finished product is revered as e purpose created for an individual customer, or the project generated and funded by the company as designed and developedfor a fresh product considered forsuccessive manufacture and sale. Manufacturing projectprovides the ability to exercise on-the-spot management and provide an adequate environment.
This refers to a new operation to be introduced within the business operation for a particular service or product or any other. This generates the layout of how to move ahead taking the support of design, operation and sub-components of operations to finish it effectively. It requires the project manager, operation experts and teams to make it finally ready so that they are ready to operate for the product or service.
Procurement project is revered as the process of obtaining supplies, goods, and services. Therefore, a procurement project is about acquiring every type of materials and service needed for the project. Procurement Project management entails the procedure utilized to make sure the t procurement of every material and service is successful.
2.2 Stages of developing a project team
For teams to be more effective, the individuals within the team should be capable of working together to collectively contribute to the team outcomes. This requires development as a team that works together. When individuals are assigned the task to work together, they start knowing each other, they come to know the expectation from every individual, and also know to bifurcate the assigning and laboring the respective tasks
Team management is the procedure of learning to act collaborated effectively which is also known as team development. The team goes through different and definitive stages in development.
The forming stage is identified as involving a period of inclination and getting familiarized. Uncertainty is very high in the stage, and individuals always look for authority and leadership. A member who contends authority or is knowledgeable may be observed in taking control. Team members ask questions, formulate planningand devising strategy and involve necessary members.
The storming stage is revered as the most critical and difficult stage for passing through. It is depicted as the stageor period indicated by competition and conflict as a merging of the individual personalities. Team performance may generally reduce in the stage as energy is set into unproductive tasks. Members may not agree on team goals and objectives, and cliques and subgroups may generate on every side of strong personalities or spheres of agreement (Sinclair, 2019). For gettingwithin the stage, members should actin overcoming the obstacles, in accepting individual differences, and also work by conflicting ideas on team goals and tasks.
If the team passes through the storming stage, conflict is sorted and, in some stages, unity emerges. In the stage of norming, the consensus is formed around the leader and how they performand the roles of the individual member. A mutual difference is initiated to get resolved, and there is an emergence of unity and cohesion. Team performance is enhancedwithin the stage as members learn to collaborate and start focusing on the team goals and objectives.
In this phase, collaboration and consensus is consideredconservative and the group is organized, well functional and mature. It is a precise, stable and clearly framed, and individuals have been ensured their participation to the mission of the team. Conflicts and Problems generally tend to emerge, but they are dispensed as energetically. The group generally concentrates on solving problems and acquiring the project goals.
In this stage, majorly of the business objectivesis been finished successfully. The forceis placed oncombiningof last activities and registering the endeavor and responses. With the diminishing ofwork pressures, individual members can get reallocated to different teams, and disbanding of the team (Sinclair, 2019). There can be remorse as the end of the group, thereforeritualistic acknowledgement of the activities andteam successfulness can be supportive. If the team is revered as a standing committee accompanied by continualpower, individualscan getshifted through fresh members and the group mayrevertto the storming or forming stage and replicate the development procedure (Willoughby, 2020).
3.1 Difference between internal and external stakeholders
Internal stakeholders generally possess an important influence on the functions of an organization. For example, owners are revered as the individuals responsible for making critical business decisions.Internal stakeholders are generally depicted as primary stakeholders. Such stakeholders provide services to the organization and are importantly influenced by the decisions, outcomes, and performance of the organization (Kuljiš, &Luni?, 2016).Such stakeholders invest their interest in the business and are capable of impacting directly orget impacted by the success or failures dealtby the business.
External stakeholders account for the business environment of the organization. They utilize the financial data and other publicly accessible information concerning the company for becoming aware of the performance and profitability.An external stakeholder generally isnot involved in the daily functioning of an organization; nevertheless, the organizational activities do possess an influence on them. The different types of external stakeholders comprised of are the suppliers providing the raw materials, creditors, clients, competitors, the customers, intermediaries, government as well as the general public.
3.2 Difference between goals and objectives
Goals are referred to as the outcomes that are intended to attain, while objectives are depicted as particular actions and quantifiable steps that are needed for taking to attain the goal. Goals and objectives function in tandem for attaining success. The creation of goals without a clear objective may not help in accomplishing the goals.
Alignment and order: Goals are put for achieving the mission of an individual or an organization, while objectives are put to accomplish the goals. Therefore, Goals is considered higher in order compared to objectives. Scope: Goals are wide intentions and are generally incapable of being sustained in perceptible units. Objectives are narrow compared to goals and are des-cribbed based on specific tasks.
Specificity: Goals are basic statements that are required to be achieved. It is not required to specify activities required to be performed in accomplishing them (No, 2021). Objectives, on the contrary, are specified actions taken within a definite timeframe.
Tangibility: Goals are generally non-measurable and intangible, but objectives are designated as tangible targets.
Timeframe: Goals are put to be attainedwithin a long period while objectives are designated to a short time frame. A goal is generallyseparated into several objectives expanded over different time frames. Language: The language utilized in reportinggoals is more concentrated on notional thinking, while that is utilized in objectives is referred to as more on the innovative side.
Work breakdown structure (WBS) as a portion of project management is referred to as a technique to complete a complex, and multi-step project. It is designated as a route for dividing and conquering bigger projects to obtain things execute rapidly and more effectively.
The objective of a WBS is to create the project bigger and manageable. Dividing it down into smaller bit means tasks can be executed simultaneously through distinctive team members resulting in optimum team productivity and easy project management (Zecheru, &Olaru, 2016).
Being a project manager, they need to ensure that every critical input and deliverables are accumulated and translucently prioritized. After demarcating the activities and deliverables for necessary completion, there can be assigned of every task to a project team member. It ensures no team member executes the major weight of the projects by expanding responsibilities and duties within the team.
3.4 components of the Gantt chart
Dates: It is a vital component of a Gantt chart, as it allows project managers not only to observe the start and end of project end but when will take place displayed on top.
Tasks: A Gantt chart comprise of several tasks that support project managers keeping track of every task and subtask in a project so that nothing is left over listed on the left side
Bars: as the subtask is listed, bars are utilized for showing the time frame where every task must be completed ensuring every sub-task is scheduled and finishes on time.
Milestones: Milestones are tasks that are influential to a project's finish and success. In the Gantt chart finishing a milestone provides forward motion and a sense of satisfaction and forward motion (Sharon, & Dori, 2017).
Resource: providing names and tasks that are assigned are helpful. Recognizing and allocating resources in tasks help in managing individual, skills, and effectively completing the project on time. Taskbars: The progress is depicted by shading the taskbars for representing the portion of every task is already been finished.
3.5 Tools for assisting the manager
Microsoft Project: Microsoft Project is generally created for helping project managers to plan development, distribute resources, track progress and evaluate work volumes (Martinelli, & Milosevic, 2016). It is an effective concerned software solution that contributes highly to the project's success.
Evernote: Evernote is used by project managers for building a huge knowledge base. It may be used for creating to-do lists and storing every type of information concerning the projects in notes and files. Trello: This tool is created on the Japanese management "kanban" principle, entailing regular monitoring of every production stage and revered as a great tool for projects convenient for individual projects and command directives. Business Skype:This tool enables the project managers for connecting immediately with their colleagues, clients and team, in any place. Itsdifferent typesof conference calls likevideo conferences, web conferencing, telephone conferences, and instant messaging conferences.
Microsoft Visio: MS Visio is broadly utilized by the project manager and is a vector graphics application procured for Windows OS. It is a strong tool that helps in presenting complex information structured asshapes, flowcharts and diagrams.
4.1 Factors affecting the success and failure of a project
The failure or successfor the project is fundamentallybasedupon the project manager. For getting project successful, a project manager requires to be well-accomplished as well as efficient in managing their team, keep observing the daily schedule and tasks ensuring they complete on time with 100% effectiveness.
Resourceful Planning: There is a need for all-inclusive planning as it prepares a project to be successful just from the beginning. Comprehensive planning supports the team members to meet the deadline as conducted by the project manager (Camilleri, 2016). It also makes project managers well organized alongside as focused keeping every team member aiming towards the goal of the project.
Persuasive Communication:Communication is another important element that ensures every minute detail and attention on the project is paid on. Keeping attention to the particulars and keeping an ear towards the external sources of information is vital to make the project a success.
Incompatible Communication: For being successful in the project communication is considered by deflecting the maximum of project failures. The major reason being projects fail is because of inconsistent communication, and therefore revered as the chief crucial reason for the failure of the project and this requires creating excellent communication skills. Ineffective Planning:Weak planning can fail the project and requires effort and effective layout to conduct the project. It requires detail and to exclusively concentrate on planning to provide efficient layouts that can lead the project towards success.
Unrealistic expectations:Several projects had the failure due tomeeting the impossible deadline as well as unrealistic expectations. Being a project manager, it is required to keep in mind the capability of the concerned team memberand their potential (Catalano, et al. 2019). The project manager should be smart enough for setting a deadline based on the potential and hardworking team members who worked hard
The essay has concluded vital views on the project management and significant sphere related to it as well as presenting their importance. It provides knowledge on the on-project nada project management representing its importance. The characteristics or skills required by the project manager is discussed vitally as somewhere the essay was based on it and how are they responsible for finishing the project effectively. The areas of project management knowledge are discussed alongside the types of projects for presenting some knowledge on it. The stages of the project development have also been discussed mentioning the importance of every stage in the project and how it should be achieved. The types of stakeholders as external and internal stakeholders and their interest in the business, the distinction between goals and objectives, the definition of work breakdown structure, components of the Gantt chart as well as the tools that assist the project manager to complete the projecteffectively.?
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Appendix 1: Project Success Factors
Appendix 2: Project Management Operations
Appendix 3: Stages of Team Development