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Performance Measurement: Management Information System Assignment

Question

Assessment 2 - Project Report
This is an individual, written assessment, to be completed in report format. You are required to write around 3,000 words (+/- 10%), excluding title page, preliminaries, tables, figures, reference list and appendices. The report requires in-text referencing and a full reference list in APA style, with evidence that you have critically read and integrated a minimum of 20 suitable scholarly references.

The purpose of this assessment is to present the final report of the Professional Project you proposed in Assignment 1. This report should build upon both components of your Assessment 1 and it should be developed with the help of the tutor/co-ordinator feedback.

In order to successfully complete Assessment 2, you are required to carry out the investigation you have proposed in Assessment 1 and produce a professional research report that shows that you have followed through from finding a research question to answering that question and developing recommendations that arise from your findings. The report will follow the typical structure of a research report and will need to include the following:

  • Project title
  • Introduction (which must include some justification of your topic and your project's aim and research question(s))
  • Critical literature review
  • A detailed presentation of how you carried out your project (commensurate with a 'Methods' chapter)
  • Findings from your secondary data analysis
  • Discussion of findings in light of your previously reviewed literature
  • Conclusion, including recommendations and limitations

Assessment criteria (click here for a detailed marking rubric):

  • Title, background, definitions
  • Justification, aim and objectives/research questions
  • Quality and coherence of introduction and conclusion
  • Critical literature review
  • Methods
  • Findings and analysis
  • Discussion
  • Written communication
  • Quality and appropriateness of references, and accuracy of referencing

Answer

Executive Summary
The primary purpose of the report is to provide a clear picture of Management information system, which has been used by many companies in order to increase their productivity. The research later explained with the research questions. The first question is about what is MIS (management information system). The second is what the impact of the MIS in the organization is. The third is how does the MIS help the organization, and the last question is what is the risk related to the MIS in the organisation. All the data has been collected through the quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the various factor so the MIS. The results later analysed at last to evaluate the topic. Apart from the importance of MIS will be discussed regarding data collection and data analysis to measure the performance of individuals and the organization.

Introduction: In the year 1968, the IBM organisation introduced a new database management system that took care of the transaction also simultaneously. It was named as MIS or Management Information System. MIS has been developed since then and has many changes in the system in order to support the new programming tools and the environment (Snell, Morris & Bohlander, 2015). This system can use all the information, which is related to internal and external resources to provide better data, and information to the end users that can enable them to the correct decision on time. Many organizations and the universities always find it extremely useful to have or use a system like the MIS for efficient and automated feedback or information. Most of the companies require managing all the information related to the organization business in a systematic manner so that they can get all the information whenever it is required for them (Kim, Jang & Yang, 2017).

Justification: The information management system is one of the popular systems that have a growing demand in the market to handle or manage all the company related information. It has been seen that the information management system has a growing demand in both the private and public sector. In which this management system can handle tons of data for the company. Due to this information management, the system the dependency on the inefficient and ineffective time wasting registry has been reduced, and it helps to provide better information is a short time to all the organization and universities. It has also been used at the human resource in many organizations to set appointments and get information. This is why this topic has been chosen as a project report. All the information related to the study has been gathered from the various employees of the organization.

Definition
Human Resource: It is one of the departments of a particular organization, which handles the employees, recruitment and their retirement (Hammer, 2015).

Public Sector: All the industries and the services, which has been run and owned by the government of the country or state

Private Sector: The industries, which have been, own and run by the private companies and individual.

Input: All the data that has been entered to the computer for processing or storage.

Output: The information, which can out after the processing

Information system: It is a system, in which all the related components have been processed, stored and distributed in the company to take the better decision (Naser & Al Shobaki, 2016)

Research Aim and Objectives
The research that is discussed here aims to discover or realize the significance and consequence of a system like the MIS management and transaction system, and it focuses on ways to achieve the aim of this research through certain objectives. These specific research goals or objectives are:

  • To realize the significance of a system like the MIS
  • To evaluate or calculate the consequences or the impacts of this system
  • To calculate or figure out all of the risks associated with this system.

Research Question
Keeping in mind the research goals, we have modelled certain questions that need to be answered in order to realize the goals that we are focusing on. They are as follows:

  • What do we understand by this system MIS?
  • What are the consequences or significance of the system called MIS in the organization?
  • How do the MIS help the organization?
  • What is the risk related to the MIS in the organization?

The primary reasons behind choosing these questions are to acquire the appropriate and dependable information related to this particular topic and to collect the necessary data.

2. Literature Review
2.1 Introduction: Literature review chapter is one of the most pivotal or important portions of the research study as it helps us to collect reliable data and more importantly data that are significant for the research goals that we have set. In this chapter, the related subsystems and the conceptual framework is discussed which are used to collect data that is accurate and reliable for our research and to enhance the knowledge of the researcher in the given topic (Hart, 2018). The following steps or discussions include the complete or exhaustive report or discussion of the significance of the MIS system along with the benefits of the MIS in the organization. After that, there will be a discussion regarding the features of the MIS and its impact on the organization.

2.2 Management Information System: MIS system is actually constructed in such a way that it is an amalgamation of a number of subsystems or subgroups which work together to create a system that achieves a given goal (Mason, 2017). This system can also be used as a helping hand that can support you in making better decisions, and it aids the decision-making process by using strategy and tactical plans in the form of feedback of the organisation (Yu et al., 2015).

2.3 Subsystem in the MIS:

  • Executive Information System: It is used by the executives of the company (Adeoti, Olawale & Oladunni, 2016)
  • Executive Information System: It is used by the executives of the company (Adeoti, Olawale & Oladunni, 2016)
  • Production Information System: It supports the production of the company.
  • Finance Information System: It supports to analyze the financial data of the company.

2.4 Benefits of MIS: If the organization does not have an active, functional MIS, then it will leave the managers guessing in the dark. The employees of the organization will be busy going through all their workdays without any direction or purpose (Karlinsky-Shichor & Zviran, 2016). The management information system can provide the data by which the employees can identify the non-performing area and leads to the following benefits:

  • A higher level of efficiency: The manager of the organization can now have full information related to the company's strengths and weakness
  • Better quality decision: With proper use of the information system, it can now help to reduce the uncertainty and let the management to take better and reliable decisions.
  • Improves productivity: This will help the employees to focus on their work as this will collect the data from the various sources and provide it at one platform

The management information system is essential for any business owner who requires improving the employee's performance (Del Giudice & Della Peruta, 2016).

2.5 Impact of Management information system: The MIS system was developed to help with the various procedures that an organisation faces on a day to day basis like marketing and finance for example. It was observed that by using this system, various processes of the organisation became more efficient and less prone to errors. Whenever this system is used to the max of its capacities, it is observed that the top tier management section of any organisation gets reports about progress, achievements or even the shortcomings of various employees or departmental failures that they can analyse and act upon. This help will able to provide the long-term perspective planning (Lewis, 2015).

2.6 Conceptual Framework

Conceptual framework of Management Information System

From the above figure of the conceptual framework, it can be understood that the implementation of the can help the organization to take a better decision in the company which will be on the basis of the data which has been collected and stored in the MIS system. Due to this, the organization can improve its business performance in the market (Evans et al., 2016).

2.7 Summary: MIS, which is the management information system that has been used by many companies. The MIS system is a system that helps to provide all the data which is required by the employees of the company in a single platform. There are many benefits of using the MIS, in which the employee can get a higher level of efficiency in their work.

3. Methodology
The data collection method is one of the essential parts of any research. Effective data collection process can help the researcher to ensure better success in the research topic. Therefore it is required that the data collection to have the best in quality as it has a great sign on the topic (Ann Sykes, 2015). Authentic journal and article are used to collect reliable data. These data collection methods have been mentioned below:

3.1 Primary Data Collection: To collect data from various on field respondents we use methods like surveys and interviews. The raw data from these surveys or interviews can be directly passed on to the researcher. In this case, this is called or termed as primary data. The advantage of this type of data is that there is no bias from the person studying the raw data that can affect or corrupt the research procedure. Thus, this can be relied on for almost any topic of research. For primary data, collection the Quantitative methods have been used which has been collected by the interviews and questionnaire.

3.1.1 Qualitative Data Collection Methods: When doing research, a researcher needs dependable and accurate data that helps him to understand his topic or field of research better. This is helped by data collection, and we can do it using a method called qualitative data collection. The respondents who make up the data that collected can provide their feedback in a much unstructured form. This feedback is often what they perceive about the matter of discussion and may or may not be informatically correct but it is their perception of the topic. The evaluation or study of this data provides an insight into the topic of research (Le Tran et al., 2017).

3.1.2 Data Reliability: The researcher has collected his data by interviewing the top three organizations manager and employees in the market who is well aware of the topic, which has been chosen for the research. All the respondents are well aware of the topic, and they are expert. Thus, the data, which has been collected, is well reliable.

3.1.3 Validity: All the data has been collected from authentic online sources. Besides book or journals can also be used. However, before examining the data in the MIS system, the validity must be rechecked by the MIS executive.

3.2 Secondary Data Collection Method
Sometimes the data that we receive is already analysed by experts beforehand. This is what we call secondary data. That means the data has been collected from various sources such as the newspaper, journals, websites and some of the magazines or books. The previous researcher, which is very much relabelled, has made these data and it has been analysed in order to process further research. The effectiveness of the data depends on the authenticity of the sources from where it has been collected. In the secondary data, the collection has been done with the help of the quantitative data collection method.

3.2.1 Quantitative Data collection method: To collect data, we can use many methods, but here we will discuss particularly about the quantitative method of data collection. Why do we need this data? This data and its accurate collection help the researcher to study the field of research and the upcoming trends that have been observed by the various respondents from whom we collect the data. It helps to understand the underlying reasons and motivations. This kind of data collection can be processed by face-to-face interviews in which a researcher asks questions related to the topic directly to the respondent (Curtis & Allen, 2018).

3.2.2 Data Reliability: the researcher has collected all the data, which has been used in the research work, with the help of the quantitative method. In which the researcher collected data for various books and journals. These books and journals were the research of the previous researcher. Thus, it can be said that the data is reliable for use.

3.2.3 Validity: The researcher has done all his research from the various books and journal and all the data has been gathered from these sources which are reliable to use and thus the research is valid (Mishra, Kendhe & Bhalerao, 2015).

3.3 Data analysis methods and tools: To conduct the research, all the data regarding the topic will be collected from a large number of respondents. There are various tools, which have been used such as the case analysis, which has been taken from the various book resources, which has been available on the internet, this data has been facilitated by the quantitative method. To analyze the primary data MS EXCEL has been used. Moreover, the collected data will be analysed with the help of graphic statistics. These data have been analysed on the qualitative method.

3.4 Probability or Non-Probability sampling: In this research, the data sampling which has been done is Non-probability, as because the method of sampling the researcher does not know that an individual from the population will be selected as a sample. All the research has been non –random sampling.

MIS Sampling method

4. Findings and Analysis
4.1 Data analysis: The research, which has been conducted between 150 people who are working in the organization. In which 35 people have submitted their answers incorrectly, 5 people did not provide incomplete answers, and 10 people sample has made some mistakes. Therefore, 100 samples can be evaluated. All the data has been collected from these respondents in structured and unstructured form to ensure a better evaluation of data (Hussein, 2015).

4.1.1 Quantitative Analysis

  • Number of Respondents
  • MIS Number of Respondents

  • From the collected data, it can understand that out of 100 respondents there are 60 males, and 40% of people are females. Therefore, it can be said that the majority of the respondents are males (Hussein, 2015).
  • Implementation of MIS in the organization
  • MIS-Implementation

  • The chart shows that there are 95 % of people, who are aware of the implementation of MIS in their company. It was then observed that a small percentage of people did not even realise the implementation or the impact of the MIS system or the results that it can bring about in their organisations.
  • MIS has a positive impact on your Organization
  • MIS impact Organization

  • With the help of the chart, it can understand that 75% of the respondent thinks the MIS has a positive impact on the organization. However, 15% of people think that the MIS has a negative impact on the organization and the remaining percentage of respondents who participated did not realise whether the impact on their respective organisations was good or bad.
  • MIS help organization

  • With the help of the chart, it can be understood that the around 85% respondent think that MIS helped the organization and rested 10 % thinks that MIS does not help the organization and rest 5% do not know it helped or not.

4.1.2 Qualitative Analysis

  • What are the key benefits of implementing MIS?
    On this question, the Respondent has replied positively and said the MIS that is the management information system has many benefits to the organization as well as the employees (Gomez et al., 2015). After implementation of the MIS, it has provided a better outcome of the projects, which they are handle and provide a better decision on work.
  • What is the disadvantage that has been faced by the company after implementing MIS?
    On the question, the respondent has provided his answer by taken a pause. In which the respondent said that the implementation of the Management information system is costly if the case of the large organization. It is required continuous support and upgrades fees. Apart from that, the companies need to hire the maintenance individual to keep the system function smoothly (Van Dooren, Bouckaert & Halligan, 2015).
  • Are the people more dependent on the MIS?
    On the question, the respondent has replied that the people are very much dependent on the MIS to gather information as it is one of the easiest ways to get information. The person does not want to gather the information by going to the other department and do it manually, which can have the risk of getting the wrong data.

4.2 Data findings
4.2.1 Quantitative Findings: Research and analysis were made to determine quantitatively whether the respondents of the research were aware of the uses or advantages of the MIS system (Williamsson, Dellve and Karltun, 2018). It was found out that most of the respondents were well informed and knowledgeable about the areas of impact of the MIS system and the implementation of this system in their organisations. Most of the respondent thinks that the implementation of the MIS has provided a positive note to the organization in which the company is able to perform better (Evans et al., 2016).

5. Discussion
The analysis that has been conducted has to lead to some clear findings of the use of MIS. As it has been discussed in the review of the existing literature, MIS systems have proven to be effective for the growth in the performance of a number of organizations. The service has improved the way in which the employees of the companies work (Zheng et al., 2018). It has helped in making sure that a lot of their time is saved and they are able to perform work that is more productive at this time. Apart from this, the increase in the use of MIS technology at work has also helped in the reduction of human error (Scheyvens, Banks & Hughes, 2016).

The literature review section defines the MIS and the related subsystems, which are used to measure the performance of the employees. Further, the benefits are elaborated. The topics mentioned in the literature section are formed as questionnaires and asked to the respondent regarding their opinions (usefulness or benefits). Thus, the data are collected and analyzed based on various day-to-day questions or interviews. A similar study that was made in order to research or figure out similar goals gave similar results that workers of many varied organisations are actually pleased with the system. They find MIS very useful to complete their day-to-day tasks and like to implement it for their tasks or assignments. They have accepted that it has helped them perform their job with increased efficiency. Simultaneously the key points from the respondent’s opinion are obtained as a finding of the research through which research objective is accomplished. Apart from this, the study has also revealed that many organizations and professionals are using these services to collect data and analysis the operational statistics. The professionals using the MIS system must have proper awareness of regarding the system to enhance benefits after implementation (Dongo Reed & O'Hara, 2016).

The supporting figures are displayed in the study to highlight the data collection statistics and frameworks. It is mentioned below:

Sl No

Figure

Description

1

The conceptual framework of the Management Information System

The figure defines the execution procedure of  a typical MIS system 

2

The sampling method used in MIS

The data collection methodology used to gather reliable data 


Sl No

Chart

Description

1

Number of Respondents

It focuses on the qualitative analysis regarding the respondent’s opinions

2

Implementation of MIS

The respondent's viewpoint regarding the implementation of MIS

3

Impact on the Organisation

It focuses on the respondent's viewpoint regarding the influence  of MIS on an organization

4

MIS helped the organisation

It displays the opinions of respondents regarding the advantages of MIS on an organization

6. Conclusion
The study is based on the evaluation of MIS in the organization. From this study, it can be evaluated that the Management Information System helps the organization to provide the data together in a cohesive manner. The workers of an organisation integrate the data into a single entity or platform, which is easily accessible. Further, the various consequences of wrong data collection are also examined. Along with this, the risks related to MIS is also analysed. It has been highlighted throughout the summary. This system has many impactful consequences because of which it has steadily garnered interest and appreciation. It is recommended to use various advanced software to collect and evaluate data in a concrete manner.

6.1 Limitations: MIS is one of the best solutions available for the management of the accounts of a company. It has not only eased the way in which accounts managers and other employees of the commerce departments of an organization works but has also helped in the easy and fast organization of the business transactions that a company make. However, even in spite of its increasing usage and popularity, there are a number of limitations to the usage of MIS systems.

The primary disadvantage of the system is the cost. MIS technology is usually very expensive, and hence, it is not possible for a small or medium scale organization to afford it. Besides, MIS technology is relatively new, and there is not enough skilled labour that knows the way in which the systems can be used. As a result, if a company has to implement MIS technology into their routine operations, the company will have to spend a large number of resources to get the technology. Further, the company will either have to hire new workers or will have to train the existing ones to use MIS technology. If not implemented properly, the system can prove to be a great expense for the organization.

Besides, MIS is a technology that does not permit an organization to work flexibly according to the needs of the organization and its specific operations. Further, MIS technology is also on a very primitive stage, and there are many instances when it has been reported to give false or faulty information. In business, such mistakes can lead to major losses and also affect the performance of the company negatively.

6.2 Recommendations
In order to make sure that a company is able to implement MIS systems properly into their organization, there are a number of steps that the company should take on an initial level. The primary need for an organization is to understand the specific need of the operations. Further, it is also very important to ensure that the employees of the company are able to work with the MIS solution that has been implemented. For this, proper training should be provided to them. This can also be done by making sure that the employees who are receiving the training are able to work with the system as well as other people who are using the same system. This will help the organization not only to develop a better communication network and employee interaction but will also ensure that the system of operations in the company is well managed. In order to deal with the mistakes and flaws that MIS makes, the system should be introduced at a smaller scale initially. Once it is successful, the company can expand its usage and make sure that all the employees are using it for the same. Upon a complete implementation of the entire system, it will be possible for the business organization to make sure that MIS can be employed in the company and benefits are obtained from it.

Reference
Adeoti, J. O., Olawale, Y. A., &Oladunni, A. (2016). Impact of Marketing Information System on Product Performance in Nigerian Bottling Company Limited.

Ann Sykes, T. (2015). Support structures and their impacts on employee outcomes: A longitudinal field study of an enterprise system implementation. MIS Quarterly, 39(2).

Curtis, K. R., & Allen, S. (2018). Target Market Identification and Data Collection Methods.

Del Giudice, M., & Della Peruta, M. R. (2016). The impact of IT-based knowledge management systems on internal venturing and innovation: a structural equation modelling approach to corporate performance. Journal of Knowledge Management, 20(3), 484-498.

Dongo, T. A., Reed, A. H., & O'Hara, M. T. (2016). Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors. Journal of Information Technology Education: Innovations in Practice, 15, 223-239.

Evans, S. K., Pearce, K. E., Vitak, J., &Treem, J. W. (2016). Explicating affordances: A conceptual framework for understanding affordances in communication research. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 22(1), 35-52.

Gomez, G., Siegler, T. A., Soule III, R. M., Daddabbo, N., &Sperduti, D. (2015). U.S. Patent No. 9,165,076. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Hammer, M. (2015). What is business process management?. In Handbook on business process management 1 (pp. 3-16). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Hart, C. (2018). Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Research Imagination. Sage.

Hussein, A. (2015). The use of triangulation in social sciences research: Can qualitative and quantitative methods be combined?. Journal of comparative social work, 4(1).

Karlinsky-Shichor, Y., &Zviran, M. (2016). Factors influencing perceived benefits and user satisfaction in knowledge management systems. Information Systems Management, 33(1), 55-73.

Kim, J. K., Park, S., Chen, Y., & Wu, C. (2018). Combining Non-probability and Probability Survey Samples Through Mass Imputation. arXiv preprint arXiv:1812.10694.

Kim, S. H., Jang, S. Y., & Yang, K. H. (2017). Analysis of the Determinants of Software?as?a?Service Adoption in Small Businesses: Risks, Benefits, and Organizational and Environmental Factors. Journal of Small Business Management, 55(2), 303-325.

Laudon, K. C., & Laudon, J. P. (2016). Management information system. Pearson Education India.

Le Tran, M. A., Seymour, J., Riecken, T., & Abbas, R. (2017). Data Collection 1: Observations and Document Analysis: Who is looking?. In Qualitative Research and Intercultural Understanding (pp. 38-47). Routledge.

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Mishra, L., Kendhe, R., & Bhalerao, J. (2015). Review on Management Information Systems (MIS) and its Role in Decision Making. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5(10), 1-5.

Naser, S. S. A., & Al Shobaki, M. J. (2016). The Impact of Management Requirements and Operations of Computerized Management Information Systems to Improve Performance (Practical Study on the employees of the company of Gaza Electricity Distribution).

Scheyvens, R., Banks, G., & Hughes, E. (2016). The private sector and the SDGs: The need to move beyond ‘business as usual’. Sustainable Development, 24(6), 371-382.

Snell, S., Morris, S., &Bohlander, G. W. (2015). Managing human resources. Nelson Education.

Uhlemann, T. H. J., Lehmann, C., &Steinhilper, R. (2017). The digital twin: Realizing the cyber-physical production system for industry 4.0. Procedia Corp, 61, 335-340.

Van Dooren, W., Bouckaert, G., & Halligan, J. (2015). Performance management in the public sector. Routledge.

Williamsson, A., Dellve, L. and Karltun, A., 2018. Nurses’ use of visual management in hospitals—A longitudinal, quantitative study on its implications on systems performance and working conditions. Journal of advanced nursing.

Yu, C. P., Chen, H. G., Klein, G., & Jiang, R. (2015). The roots of executive information system development risks. Information and Software Technology, 68, 34-44.

Zheng, Y., Wang, J., Doll, W., Deng, X., & Williams, M. (2018). The impact of organisational support, technical support, and self-efficacy on faculty perceived benefits of using the learning management system. Behaviour & Information Technology, 37(4), 311-319.

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