Performance Management Assignment On Contemporary Business Organisations
Chapter 11: This chapter approaches organizational behavior dynamics from the perspective of the group—both informal and formal—and the popular team concept and practice. The first section examines the way groups are formed, the various types of groups, some of the dynamics and functions of groups, and the findings of research on groups. The next section explores the dynamics of informal roles and organization. This discussion is followed by an analysis of the impact of groupthink. The balance of the chapter is devoted specifically to teams. The distinction is made between work groups and teams, and specific attention is devoted to self-managed and cross-functional teams. The way to make these teams more effective through training and evaluation is discussed.
Chapter 12: In a sense, this whole text on organizational behavior is concerned with the what and how of managing and leading people for high performance in today’s organizations. Certainly many of the chapters (e.g., Chapter 4 on reward systems, Chapter 6 on motivation, Chapter 7 on positive organizational behavior, and all of the chapters in Part Three) are directly, or at least indirectly, concerned with how to manage oneself and human resources more effec- tively. The same could be said of popular techniques that have strong consulting advocates such as the late Edwards Deming’s “Total Quality Management,” Steven Covey’s “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People,” or Peter Senge’s “Learning Organizations.” As was pointed out in the Chapter 1 discussion of the evidenced-based approach taken by this text, purely academic approaches may not be directly applied enough, and the popular writ- ers’ techniques tend to be “quick fixes” and “fads” without research backup that come with a splash and then, unfortunately, go. In contrast, this last part of the text again takes an evi- denced-based (theoretical foundation, research supported and sustainable, effective appli- cation techniques) approach to managing and leading for high performance. In particular, this chapter on behavioral management meets the evidence-based criteria. As one behav- ioral management advocate strongly points out:
- Behavior Performance Management is not a good idea to be tried for a while and then cast aside for some other good idea. It is a science that explains how people behave. It cannot go away anymore than gravity can go away. In a changing world, the science of behavior must remain the bedrock, the starting place for every decision we make, every new technology we apply, and every initiative we employ in our efforts to bring out the best in people
- The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of learning theory and evidence- based principles and guidelines that serve as a foundation and point of departure for pre- senting the behavioral management approach. The first section summarizes the widely rec- ognized theories of learning: behavioristic, cognitive, and social/social cognitive. Next, the principles of reinforcement and punishment are given attention, followed by a discussion of both monetary and nonfinancial rewards. The last part of the chapter is devoted specifi- cally to behavioral management. Both the steps of organizational behavior modification, or O.B. Mod., and the results of its basic research and application are given attention.
Work groups are an inevitable part of the contemporary business organisations in order to ensure that individual tasks are completed with required and desired result. In every working group, all the individuals have their own working style and personal interests and there is a high possibility that the performance of some of the members would be lesser than that of others. Such behaviour is called social loafing (Simms & Nichols, 2014). The performance management Assignment emphasizes upon explaining the concepts of performance behaviour and social loafing and also analyses the relationship between the two.
Chapter 11: In the direction of the common objectives of an organisation, a concept that has been emerging in the recent times, where a group of individual employees start making the minimum of what they can do, or they cannot do at the specified or desired level, is known as social loafing (Shiue, Chiu & Chang, 2010). In business organisations, social loafing is often encountered where group work is important and required. It is being discussed in this performance management Assignment that the overall decrease of the motivation for making efforts by individuals who are working in a group, in the processes within which they work and in comparison with other people of the group is known as social loafing (Huguet & Monteil, 2013). It is basically the conscious or unintentional decrease of social awareness of an individual where they use lower level of efforts than the levels which they usually use.
Chapter 12: The sum of the invisible as well as visible actions of an individual, a group of individuals or an entire organisation is known as behaviour (Wilson, 2017). The behaviour of a department discussed in this assignment for performance management might deviate from the behaviour of an employee or vice-versa and the behaviour of an organisation might not be necessary equal to the behaviour of a department.
The result or outcome of all the combined efforts, whether desired or undesired results are all together known as performance (Jones & Jones, 2013). In this performance management Assignment that distinction between personal performances and organisational performances is made by performance behaviour. Personal performances are related to the performance of an individual or a person where as the performances of a group of workers or employees within a company is referred as organisational performance.
Performance behaviour implies that a connection which is measurable is made between the behaviour and the outcome which is required for achieving the final result (Snape & Redman, 2010). The behaviour which is required for the achievement of the desired result is specified and measured by performance behaviour. The performance behaviour discussed in this performance management Assignment is said to be secured when such a connection meets equality standard or an outcome which was already defined. There is a guarantee of the result of outcome because the behaviour of performance is secured. Performance oriented behaviour and performance behaviour are different from each other. The direction of the performance oriented behaviour is clear in this performance management Assignment however the outcome is not secured.
Only group work can help in making most of the important duties of the world. The majority of the significant group tasks are those which required the collaboration of individual input of every group member and are carried out collectively. Committees, Symphony orchestras, administrative working arms, bands, teams which make quality control and juries are all the groups which are known for combining their efforts and work in a group.
The conditions which cause social loafing of individuals discussed in this assignment for performance management emerge due to the cultural values which they hold (Singh, Wang & Zhu, 2018). The behaviour of all the individuals working within a community group obtained from the cultural foundation which they have and all the cultural value held by the other members of the community. Social loafing and performance behaviour are two important concepts in terms of working groups because both of the behaviours have the ability of significantly impacting the performance of the overall organisation. If the performance of a person is not received for being linked with the performances of a group or if the potential results are not valued by the person, people might not work hard. The performance behaviour has generally been accepted for having a beneficial or a positive impact on organizations, whereas social loafing is considered to be one of the behaviour which every organisation wants to eliminate. Social loafing is often caused due to loss of motivation within employees and there are various factors which influence the individual level of motivation within groups of organisations (Smrt & Karau, 2011). A phenomenon where the group members faces degradation of the individual level of motivation is known as social loafing and it often occurs in the form of efforts paid by the individual while working in a group at a level lower than that of the level of efforts the individual would have paid while working individually. There is a direct relationship between social loafing and performance behaviour. Social loafing tends to adversely impact the performance of individuals who work within a group or a team. The individuals who possess social loafing within themselves, do not work seriously while working in a group in comparison to working individually, because while working with others, they think that their work would be handled by other individuals or co-workers. As a result, the performance behaviour of all the individuals within the group is affected. When these individuals work individually, their performance is way higher than working within groups.
Social loafing and performance at Walmart
When it comes to the performance of employees working within the retail giant, Walmart, there have been various issues in the recent years. One of the most significant and common issues of Walmart have been the tardiness and low morale of the employees (Thomson, 2019). The primary reason to this has been social loafing tendencies within the employees. It is widely known that Walmart had been paying less to its workers, who had been working more than the average number of working hours. Since the working group of Walmart is quite large, due to work pressure individuals started to inculcate self loafing within them thinking that their responsibilities would be fulfilled by their co-workers. As a result, the performance of the entire organisation was impacted.
It can be concluded by the above performance management Assignment that there is a relationship between social loafing and performance behaviour within work groups of organisations. Social loafing causes the decline of the productivity and performance of the group. The work motivation of individuals is seriously impacted due to social loafing. Such behaviour can be terminated by building upon the familiarity of group members, commitments of the individuals towards work, creation of a group which includes enough members and evaluation and collaboration among group members. performance management assignments are being prepared by our online management assignment help experts from top universities which let us to provide you a reliable assignment help online service.
Huguet, P., & Monteil, J. M. (2013). Social context and cognitive performance: Towards a social psychology of cognition. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
Jones, G. R., & Jones, G. R. (2013). Organizational theory, design, and change. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Pearson.
Shiue, Y. C., Chiu, C. M., & Chang, C. C. (2010). Exploring and mitigating social loafing in online communities. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(4), 768-777.
Simms, A., & Nichols, T. (2014). Social loafing: a review of the literature. Journal of Management Policy and Practice, 15(1), 58.
Singh, S., Wang, H., & Zhu, M. (2018). Perceptions of social loafing during the process of group development.