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Organizational Culture Assignment: Analysing The Issues Encountered By Hydro Generation


Brief introduction to module
This module develops your knowledge of the issues involved in managing a diverse workforce, working in different cultural environments and managing in a multi-national organization. Throughout the module the concern will be both about organizational effectiveness and also about ethics and social responsibility in the management of culture. The module will also give the opportunity for you to develop your knowledge of management and organizational practices in different parts of the world.

How the module develops Business Readiness
I am developing my understanding of business and management knowledge and can apply this to organizations in cross-cultural environments. I am developing my self-awareness and understanding of what I am thinking and why. I am developing how I will manage other people in a culturally sensitive way and adapt my communication styles appropriately. Through the assessment I am developing my self-confidence in communication using digital media.

Formative Assessment – Group Podcast planning document to be submitted in week 8 to enable feedback which will enhance the final submission. One document should be submitted by each group – maximum 300 words.

  • Summative Assessment – Group podcast which responds to a single case study (but students choose the focus) (50% of assessment). Also, you will be required to submit a short reflective report and engage in peer review (50% of assessment).
    In your group podcast, you should choose 2 or 3 related topics based on the lecture materials. You should investigate these topics by discussing relevant theories and applying them to the problems in the case study. You will work in groups of 5 (or maximum 6) to produce the podcast. This podcast will present your group’s analysis and recommendations. It will include approximately 2.5 minutes of input from each group member. It will receive a group mark ie. all members of the group receive the same mark, which is 50% of the assessment for the course.
    Additionally, you will write a reflective report – maximum 1250 words. The report will identify the sources used to support the argument of the podcast, including references in Harvard style. You should discuss how you applied the theories that you chose to the issues you identified in your podcast. It will also include a short analysis of what went well in the group task and what could be improved if you were to be involved in a similar task in the future. The report receives an individual mark which is 50% of the course assessment.

For students who are offered a re-sit you are required to improve and resubmit your original work as well as adding a further reflective commentary discussing what you have learned from the process. You must resubmit your work using the specific re-sit Turnitin link on Moodle. The re-sit will be in the form of an individual reflective report. You should take into consideration the feedback given to you by your tutor both from the group podcast and reflective report and write an individual 2500 word reflective report.

You should:

  1. Review your previously submitted work and read carefully the feedback given by the marker.
  2. Use this feedback to help you revisit and rewrite your work, improving it in the areas identified as weak in the original marking process
  3. Include with your resubmission an additional reflective piece (up to 500 words) on what you understand was weak, how you set about addressing this and what you have learned from this that may help you with further assignments. You should address the following specifically:
  4. i) Identify tutor feedback points on your original work and identify where/how the re-sit work has changed (give page number) in response to feedback
  5. ii) Identify the lessons you have learnt from doing the re-sit

iii) Reflect on how your feedback and this process will help you improve future assignments

If you did not submit work at the first opportunity you cannot reflect on your feedback. However, you are still required to submit a reflective piece in which you identify your reasons for non-submission, the implications of non-submission for your future success and how you propose to address this in the future.

If you were deferred at the first assessment opportunity you do not need to include the reflective piece as this is a first submission at a later date, not a resit.

The original marking criteria will still apply except that the 10% weighting for presentation will be awarded instead to your reflective piece.


Formative Assessment
Group Podcast Planning Document
Host: (to be filled)

Episode Focus: This episode examined in the organizational culture assignment will be focused on evaluating the cross-cultural issues experienced by a US organisation Hydro Generation. The reasons due to which these issues are arising and the different theories and methods that can assist in resolving the identified issues will be discussed in the podcast episode.

The segment of the podcast
The role of cross-culture illustrated in the organizational culture assignment is an important part of an organisation as it plays a vital role in influencing the employee behaviour and operational activities of a business. It is evident that when companies expand to new regions they encounter several cross-cultural issues such as communication, organisational practices and more. It is observed that as Hydro Generation is expanding to Tanzania the firm is experiencing certain organisational cultural issues. As per the case study used to develop this organizational culture assignment, it was inferred that Steinberg set up a flat organisational structure in Tanzania due to which workers were experiencing issues of interaction and communication they were unable to understand whom to contact during any queries. Due to this, the management ability of Steinberg was being questioned by his superiors at the US. To overcome this issue identified in the context of this organizational culture assignment, the theory of organisational culture by Charles Handy was considered by us. As this theory helps in identifying four dimensions with the assistance of which power is defined in an organisation and the firm is experiencing the issues of power management so, based on the dimensions of the theory it can be suggested that HG should adopt Role culture and in order to adopt role culture they must modify theory organisational structure to tall structure so that power is defined as per the role of a person so that employees of Tanzania can understand regarding the person in charge. These were the issues associated with organisational culture now the next issue of leadership style will be discussed by Dragos.

In this segment of the podcast mentioned in the organizational culture assignment, we will discuss the various problems related to the concept of leadership styles that were adopted by the management of Hydro Generation. We can observe that the leadership style followed at HG in the US is democratic and the employees have an opportunity to participating in the decision-making process of the company. This also assisted the company in gaining creative ideas and the performance of the firm enhanced. However, the leadership style sat Tanzania was complicated and issues were observed to arise. For instance, employees of Tanzania complained that they do not have any leader to whom they can interact and ask for support during problems due to the flat structure of the organisation. As the employees were unable to receive appropriate guidance the turnover rate was increasing which affected the performance of the firm. To overcome this issue, we can make use of the Life cycle theory of leadership, according to which leadership style should be selected based on the needs of a situation. So as in this situation, employees need authority and guidance an autocratic leadership style should be adopted by the leaders so that proper instructions are provided to the employees so that they can understand their task and do not experience any confusion. Appropriate leadership style is necessary for enhancing employee performance. In the next segment of the podcast the issues of national culture, its significance and the theories to resolve the issues will be discussed by Laura.

In this segment of the organizational culture assignment, I will discuss the concept of national culture and its impact on business. National culture is considered as a set of belief, norms, behaviours, values and customer that is shared by the local population of any sovereign nation. This can also refer to certain specific characters such as ethnic and racial identity, religion, language, traditions and culture. As per the case study utilized to prepare this organizational culture assignment, it is analysed that Jones to gain clearance near the dam the company had to pay and Jones was also offering higher wages to the employees of the company. This practice can affect the brand image of the firm and other organisations are also worried that this might change the labour rate soft eh region as everyone will start demanding increased wages. So the brand can experience a negative image in the industry. To overcome the issues, Hofstede's dimensions of national culture can be used as with the help of this theory the national culture of Tanzania can be explored ad it will allow us to understand the way national culture is influencing the organisational behaviour. As per this model, it can be analysed in this organizational culture assignment that the traditional culture of the pace will affect the company and the firm will have to modify its practices as per the needs of the nations to gain the support of the public. We can say that Places with high unemployment rate such as Tanzania often such practices are adopted by firms. In the next segment, the issues of communication and negotiation in the context of HG organisation will be discussed by Alexandra.

Communication and Negotiation illustrated in the organizational culture assignment is a vital part of business as it assists in reducing errors and problems increasing the efficiency of a business. Communication is important so that employees can understand their tasks and duties and the performance of the firm is well maintained. As inferred from the case study investigated to conduct this study on organizational culture assignment, it can be said that Hydro Generation is currently experiencing the issue of communication in Tanzania. Due to the flat organisational structure by Steinberg employees are finding difficulty in communication. Also, the majority of the workers speak Swahili which can be considered as another significant factor that acts as a barrier in communication. To overcome this, we have considered making use of Edward T Hall's model which helps in minimizing the cultural differences and helps in enhancing communication as well as negotiation. If the cultural difference can be reduced employees as will easily understand the workplace practices and environment and can work accordingly which will improve the organisational culture. The company will have to develop adequate training practices for its employees so that they can understand the business practices and work accordingly. Increasing communication efficiency will help in improving the outcome of the business positively so we have considered this issue and tried to provide appropriate solutions. The next topic of the podcast explored in the segment of organizational culture assignment is regarding CSR and ethnic issues encountered by HG organisation in Tanzania. These issues will be discussed in the next segment by Andrei.

Ethnic and CSR are vital factors that help in ensuring that the operational activities of a firm are well maintained. As we can note in the case study that Jones was offering bribes as well as higher pay wages in Tanzania to ensure smooth business activities. These practices outlined in the section of organizational culture assignment proved to be efficient and were generating beneficial results for the company however, in the context of ethical terms these practices were illegal and unacceptable as per the work culture of Hydro Generation. Also, these practices can cause hamper to the brand image of the firm on an international level, therefore, improving these practices are vital for the company. Maintain ethnicity is important and to do so, we have chosen to make use of justice ethical theory. This theory has been selected as it assists in describing the moral obligations that helps in acting on a fair adjudication between the competing claims such as equality, fairness and more therefore, this they will help in building principles so that HG is able to work as per the national standards and regulation and is fair in its practices so that employees, as well as stakeholders of the firm, do not have any issues. The employees will be able to understand the norms and principals as per which they are required to shape their behaviour and practices to work as per the needs of the organisation. This will also help in maintaining the brand image of the company on an international level.

Hydro Generation is used to prepare this paper on organizational culture assignment. It is a specialised power plan organisation that is currently functioning in the US. The company has built plants in around sixteen countries and has retained ownership shares in those pants. However; the company is taking up the construction of a dam in Tanzania so it needs to expand in the new region and this is their first venture in Africa. The workforce of the company consists of a diverse group of employees from different societal and communal backgrounds which encourages the company to adopt policies and strategies to manage the cross-cultural aspect of the firm. This report on organizational culture assignment is focused on understanding the issues and problems of cross-cultural management that is being experienced by the firm in Tanzania. As the company is expanding to a new region the culture and practice of the region will be different and the organisation will have to adopt certain policies to deal with the issues of cultural management. Based on the identification of the problem within this organizational culture assignment appropriate solutions will be provided to resolve the issues and increase the efficiency of the workforce. The importance of national culture, leadership style, organisational culture, communication, ethnic and CSR will be explored in this report in a detailed manner.

Reflective report: Organizational Culture
It is analysed in this organizational culture assignment that Hydro Generation is a US-based organisation that is expanding its business to Tanzania. The organisational culture consists of values, beliefs, policies and the ways of communication and interacting that helps in developing a positive psychological and social environment of a business. Organisational culture also plays an important role in defining the mission and vision of the business. It can be stated that organisational culture is an essential aspect of a business and it influences the cross-cultural management of employees in a significant manner (Rauteret al., 2017). Presently the organisational culture of the organisation is based on the values and beliefs of the CEO of the company and similar missions and values are expected to be followed in the new region of expansion.

As we can note in the case study that is used to develop this organizational culture assignment the present CEO and the founder of Hydro Generation Lawrence Bertelet is a devout Christian and is observed to attend the National Prayer Breakfast regularly, which assists in understanding that he follows Christianity devotedly and strictly. He thinks that his business values should be shaped in a manner so that it encompasses the various values of Christianity. It is analysed in this case scenario of organizational culture assignment that he is in support of the fact that all the formulation, as well as the implementation of the policies and strategies to increase the organisational performance, should be given to the employees of the firm and they should be considered accountable for results or outcome.

The critical analysis of the case study done in this organizational culture assignment signifies that one of the most significant issues experienced by the Hydro Generation organisation was that the vice president of the company Steinberg was receiving several accusations regarding his management abilities in context to the Africa operation. His superiors were questioning his abilities on handling the operational activity. Steinberg set the original organisation in Tanzania with a flat structure but it was analysed that some of the local employees complained that the organisation was disorganised and that they feel that there was no one in charge. A flat organisation structure is the one which has a few or no middle management better the executives and staff members. This structure is usually developed to ensure that clear communication is maintained and the work is completed promptly. As inferred by the case study, it can be noted in this organizational culture assignment that HG was not good at managing the local general. The turnover rate of the local population was high and there was no explanation for this issue. It was analysed that all the employment contracts were developed from the experts working at HG and the terms of the employment contacts were comparatively generous however, the company was still experiencing the issue of increased turnover.

As per the model suggested by Charles Handy, it can be analysed in the context of this organizational culture assignment that culture and values can be defined with the help of four dimensions Power, Person, Task and Person (do Carmo Silva and Gomes, 2015). As per the dimensions of this theory, role culture can help HG organisation in improving their cultural issues that are occurring due to organisational practices. Organisations that have a role culture define power as per the designations, responsibility or role of an individual. To adopt a roe culture, the firms must have a tall structure so that powers and roles can be defined. Adopting this culture can help in resolving the identified issue as employees will gain an understanding of the individual that holds power and authority and they can interact with them and resolve their queries and troubles easily. As per the case study, it can be inferred that the problems of organisational culture that are experienced by HG in Tanzania are internal. In other working, the company is experiencing issues of power management and due to lack of power definitions the employees are facing experience in Tanzania and Steinberg is experiencing questions at his ability in the US as the power culture of the firm is not well defined. The theory proposed by Charles Handy is completely focused on enhancing the powers and the impact on the organisational culture of a firm. So as this theory helps in understanding the way power shifts can occur in an organisation this is the best theory that can be applied to resolve the issue of power distance in the segment of organizational culture assignment.

There are some other theories of organisational culture such as Schwartz theory that helps in identifying ten basic personal values that are considered to be recognised across various and also helps in explaining where they are coming from (Lee et al., 2019). This theory has not been considered for the above situation as this theory is self-defining that helps in defining independent thoughts, goals and actions. This theory explored in the context of this organizational culture assignment is focused on the basic values of human that have been developed through intercultural interactions. This can helps in changing the organisational culture through the thought process of the employees. However, as per the situation, the employees were only experiencing the issue of management which can be addressed by considering the power dimension of this theory. However, this power intention of the theory highlights the social status of a person and control or dominance of power. It does not specify power as done in the Charles Handy theory of organisational culture. This theory defines the different impact of power and also helps in understanding the way organisational structure or person influence power. The critical analysis of the case study is done to prepare this organizational culture assignment which suggests that due to a flat organisational structure the company is experiencing the issue of mismanagement and therefore, as suggested in role culture it can easily be modified. Therefore comparing the two theories it can be concluded in this organizational culture assignment that the Schwartz theory is more focused on personal goals and development however, Charles Handy theory is focused on maintaining organisational powers. Therefore applying this theory can help in defining the power within the organisation. Therefore, this theory has been selected for the particular issue identified in the organizational culture assignment of organisational culture in HG at Tanzania.

Reflective report: National Culture
National culture is the set of behaviour norms, values, customs and beliefs that are shared by a particular population (Griffin et al., 2017). It is evident in this organizational culture assignment that Hydro Generation is currently operating in the US and therefore, they are accustomed to the national culture of the US and practice the work culture of the place. As the company is expanding to Tanzania it will have to collect information regarding the national culture of the region so that business practices can be modified to ensure smooth operations. Our research helps in analysing that majority population of Tanzania is Christian along with a significant Muslim population. Swahili was considered as the official language of Tanzania however many people knew English as well. it was analysed that the country's economic condition was quiet weak and in job search was everywhere, it was observed in the organizational culture assignment that to gain clearance on import Jones adopted hiring close relatives of Custom officers and other officers at superior positions. This practice was helpful however; it was unacceptable as per the anti-corruption law of Tanzanian government. Apart from that, it was also a matter of concern that of the economic situation of the nation is low then government officers with power can demand enhanced money for services and this would increase the expense of Hydro Generation and also cause negative international publication. Also due to extra pay, other firms were worried that labour will start demanding additional pay for work and this was increasing stress and tension for Hydro Generation at Tanzania However, as mentioned in case study these practices are considered normal in Tanzania. Low employment opportunity and low literacy rates were two of the major problems that were being experienced by the public. It is evident that word of mouth was considered as the best advertisement method and it was often used by Jones to convey vacancy for a position. However, due to these practices, the news only reached too few members of a family and the rest of the population was unaware regarding the vacancies. According to the cultural theory proposed by Hofstede, it can be noted in this organizational culture assignment that the national culture of a nation can be measured with the assistance of 6-dimensional factors (Beugelsdijket al., 2017). The six-dimensional factors proposed by him included

Power distance index, individualism versus collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity versus feminist, long versus short-term orientation and indulgence versus restraint. Tanzania has a score of 25 ions the individual index devised by Hofstede, which categories the country as being a collectivist one. I found the collectivist tendency to be manifested in the long-term commitment of the members of the society, and nepotism could be implied as something associated with the collectivistic tendency. The collectivist culture considered loyalty to be paramount, be it to family, extended relationships (Beugelsdijket al., 2018). The culture in Tanzania effectively focuses on fostering greater long-term relationships with each member of the society taking responsibility for the other members.

However, society is inherently feminine, with valuing equality solidarity and quality in working lives. The conflicts could be resolved with negotiation and compromises (Kim, 2017). The focus should be one where the nepotistic tendencies are minimized. It is important for ensuring that the nepotism is reduced, as since the culture being collectivistic could be having the tendency for demonstrating loyalty for the family members but there could be certain negative implications as well. The employees will be demanding equality in the workplace and harboring nepotism in the workplace could backfire.

The other issue mentioned in the organizational culture assignment which I found from analyzing the case study was the inability of the management to retain the local employees. The rate of turnover among the local employees was very high and the organization was failing to retain the local employee. There was criticism that the organization was seemingly disorganized with no one at a charge. Steinberg had devised a flat structure for governance at the organization, seeking help for professionals for devising the terms of the contract, which they stipulated to be generous. However, still, there was a high rate of turnover, which raised questions regarding the governance, and Steinberg’s competency in ensuring that the business operations are running in a seamless manner.

The superiors at the head offices of the organizations had drawn Steinberg’s attention to the particular problem. Upon investigation, Steinberg had noted that Jones was adept at dealing with the problem. Steinberg will have to devise a strategy which ensures that the local employees are satisfied with their employment and the organization is not facing a staff shortage.

This particular issue identified in the context of this organizational culture assignment could be assessed withdrawing in Trompennars' model of Culture. Trompennars' model, unlike the EPG model, was not confined to only three dimensions and factored in greater variables which will be more significant for the research.Trompenaars’ model of national culture is a framework, which is used for assessing the cross-cultural communication. The model has seven dimensions, Universalism versus Particularism,Achievement versus Ascription, Individualism versus Communitarianism, Neutral versus Emotional, Specific versus Diffuse, Internal direction versus External direction, Sequential versus Synchronous time (McSweeney, 2016).

From my research on organizational culture assignment, I could attest that the differences in culture could be the primary reason behind the seemingly disorganized organizational structure as stated by the local employees. Tanzania belongs to a particularistic culture where the status is important as it is signifies the origin and reputation of an individual... Personal obligations and relationship come into play when considering ethical decisions. Therefore, the leader at an organization should be befitting the status of a ‘benevolent autocrat’, having a particularist tendency will be helpful.The ascribed culture in the country stipulates that the position be to be derived for the person's position or career along with other factors. Deploying a more experienced individual who has more experience regarding manners and customs will be a successful strategy, as seen in the case of Jones. 

Similarly, the communitarianism culture of Tanzania also highlights certain aspects of the issues. Unlike the US, the culture is not predominantly individualistic and there are greater preferences for considering members of a society as essentially a unified group (Suzuki and Pheng, 2019). The expatriates from the organization will be likely to demonstrate a highly individualistic culture which could have raised significant disparities in between the two culture. Similarly, it has also been noted in this part of organizational culture assignment that the expatriates will be more drawn to a diffuse culture, unlike the people from Tanzania who will be more accustomed to a specific culture, where the public and personal spaces are essentially interwoven, this explains why Jones’ strategy of intermingling with the local population by residing in proximity to them was a success. The expatriates, however, are more likely to be residing in areas which are designated for the employees of the organization, which will create boundaries, as to their preferences. The culture of Tanzania is also leaning towards the outer direction with the population seeking to live in harmony with each other and any external occupant will be categorized as a threat.

To bridge the divide and ensure that the organization can retain the local employees. The organization will have to ensure that the leaders can accommodate the culture, formalities and subscribe to the differences with a rational mindset. The cultural differences should be considered with a tolerate mindset and the aim should be, as Jones' describes it “Don't draw attention to yourself and, above all, learn and respect the culture.”

Reflective report: Leadership Style
The reading used to prepare this organizational culture assignment sheds lights on the concept of leadership style which is considered as an approach or a manner of providing guidance, motivating people, and implementing plans (Girma, 2016). In the context of employees, it is considered as an implicit and explicit action which is performed by the leader. As per the case study, it is evident that as the company has its headquarters located at the US it follows a flexible and democratic form of leadership in which the employees are provided with the freedom of participating in the discussion and the decision making the process of the firm. Involving employees help organisations to promote employee engagement and the employees can give new and latest ideas that help in improving the performance of the company. As the company is expanding to Tanzania the local people of the region will be recruited to complete the jobs therefore, the company must have strong leadership to guide the new employees with the working practices and principals of the company in an efficient manner. It was analysed that the local people of Tanzania were not very experienced and the unemployment rate was high, and due to low knowledge they failed to secure high designations in the company. Also, the flat organisational structure was another reason due to which the staffs were unable to contact higher authorities to resolve their queries which influenced their performance and working environment of Hydro Generation. The staffs thought that there was no proper authority with whom they can talk and communicate regarding their problems. They felt unvalued and their performance was significantly reducing. As per the case scenario used to develop this organizational culture assignment, it is evident that due to the lack of inappropriate leadership style the issues among employees of Tanzania are increasing. Also, Jones the project head was living in a middle-class Tanzanian neighbourhood and he isolated himself from the fellow expatriate community due to which they will be unable to adjust to the new environment, lifestyle and culture of Tanzania as they will not have appropriate guidance from Jones. The salary which was provided to Jones was enough to support a better neighbourhood and most of the expatriate was located at a better location. As he isolated himself the expatriate manager was unable to receive support and guidance of Jones to adapt to the new culture. 

According to the life cycle theory of leadership, it is analysed that the style of leadership appropriate for a particular situation depends on the employees and the leaders. As per the changing situation often the leaders are expected to change their leadership style to support their employees. Therefore to overcome the issue of inappropriate leadership, the company must modify its leadership style and adopt an autocratic leadership style as it is the need of the employees. Autocratic leadership mentioned in the organizational culture assignment is considered as an authoritarian leadership style in which the leaders have control on the decision-making the process and the employees are expected to follow the orders and complete their tasks. This leadership style will allow the leaders in ensuring that the employees of their organisations are well guided and directed towards the outcome and goals of the company (Asrar-ul-Haqand Kuchinke, 2016). As we researched for the project we analyzed that in an organization such as Hydro Generation in which the employees are expected to conduct laborious task they must be provided job roles based on their skills. This recommendation is based on the fact that majority of the population in Tanzania is not so educated and they are unable to think about their benefits, therefore, leaders are required to make better decisions on behalf of the employees. The leaders will have to instruct and guide the employees regarding their job roles and task associated with the dam project. 

It is analysed that another leadership theory such as the trait theory of leadership has not been considered to resolve the mentioned issue as this theory suggests that leaders are born and as per the belief the individuals that possess the appropriate qualities, as well as traits, are considered to be better leaders. The theory discussed in the segments of organizational culture assignment focuses on the behavioural characteristics present in a leader (Yang and Lim, 2016). It can be analysed that although Jones has proven to be a beneficial for the company as he has maintained all the deadline and ensured that work is not delayed by adopted and modifying his practices to improve the development of the company. The choices of Jones were increasing the concerns of management at the HG office and the reputation of the new project was also at stake in the market as most of the stakeholders might not like the attitude of Jones. However, as per the company's policy personal lifestyle was not considered much of importance. Therefore, as per this theory, it can be stated in this organizational culture assignment that he might not be considered as a good leader who does not improve the present situation of the company. So if theories life cycle there is considered then it will allow Jones to understand the needs of the employees and it will help him in modifying his practices and leadership style so that he is more supportive towards his staff members and he can help them with their adjustments. Leaders often enhance their knowledge through experience but the trait theory focuses that leaders are born with the skills and characteristic. However, in the particular incident applying life cycle theory will be convenient for the company as Jones is well aware of the culture of Tanzania and he can help the expatriate to adapt to the new environment. According to the trait theory if Jones is not recognised as a good or efficient leader then new people with appropriate leadership quality must be recruited which will increase the cost of the company and it may not be a beneficial idea as the new person might also face the difficulty of the understanding work environment of Tanzania. On the other hand, it is also clear in the context of this organizational culture assignment that Jones has conduct great business and efficiently managed all the tasks and therefore he only needs to change his leadership style which is being suggested by the life cycle theory and therefore, this theory is comparatively more appropriate. As per the analysis performed in this organizational culture assignment it can be noted that leadership plays a vital role for an organisation and employee behaviour is significantly influenced by the leadership style so as per the situations leaders are required to work on their styles in order to support their employees so that employees performance is enhanced which in turn helps in improving the performance and outcome of the firm (Murphy and Johnson, 2016). Also, selecting the most appropriate strategy to decide the leadership style is very important so that most efficient styles can be selected for a given situation.

Reflective report: Communication and Negotiation
I found that there need to be three perspectives considered for developing intercultural competence (Janet, 2017). This report on organizational culture assignment is mainly concerned with the communication and negotiation issues, which arise in the business operations with recommendations on how to minimise or avoid them.

The organisational structure explored in the organizational culture assignment, which has been established by Steinberg, was flat, but there were accusations from the locals that the organisation was being run in a disorganised manner theatre were seemingly no one at the charge of the business operations. The organisation was not adept at dealing with the locals, which had resulted in a high rate of turnover among the local employees. The experts there were devising the employment contracts at the HQ of the organisation, but there was still a low retention rate.

The cross-cultural analysis will be conducted with the application of different analytical models, namely Edward T Hall’s and Hofstede models. However, the emphasis will be primarily on Edward T Hall's model for cultural analysis will be sussed as it helps in understanding how the communications and the interactions in between the cultures essentially differ, in the terms of context, space and time. Trompenaar' analytical model would not be used since it is mostly focused on culture creation, and here we need to analyse the variables associated with the national culture. The research conducted on the organizational culture assignment signifies that Edward T Hall was an anthropologist who highlighted that there are several contextual elements in a culture, which has to be examined for achieving futility in traction with individuals from other culture. He formulated the low and high context culture concept, which is a measure of how to exploit the exchanged messages in a particular culture are. He stated that the high context culture were the ones which stemmed from less direct verbal communication, utilising the small gestures and reading the direct messages with greater meaning. Whereas, on the other, the low context culture is the one where direct verbal communication relies for explicit communication.

It could be deduced that since the organisation essentially origins from a low context culture, and the region of operation has a high context culture, there could be significant differences arising in between the two. From applying Edward T Hall's model of high and low context culture, it could be ascertained that the culture prevalent in the region was essentially a high context culture. There was more focus being denoted on nonverbal communication with many implicit and covert messages, which unlike low context culture was not clear or simple. There was a more focused on long term relationship in the culture, with greater focus being denoted on strong bonds with the community and family. The reactions were mostly inward and reversed (Piller, 2017).

The organisation aims to embrace the culture of the country in a manner, which helps them in making allies among the local citizen. There will have to be certain cultural considerations to be made for ensuring that there is effective communication (Hofstede, 2011). Since the culture in Tanzania looks up to the leader with great regards and respect, it is imperative for ensuring that the leadership of the organisation is strong and explicit. These cultural differences are the reason why the organisation has been subjected to a lack of success while dealing with the locals in general. The organisation has had a low retention rate among domestic employees because the organisation has not been able to bridge the cultural disparities. AS shown from Edward T Hall's model provided in the organizational culture assignment, there have to be certain steps taken for understanding and negating the disparities. The organisation should focus on being collective in its approach, rather than being more individualistic. ‘We' would be more preferred in this scenario more than ‘I' would and since the culture of the region is less territorial, the organisation will have to make the employees feel like a part of a collective unit. They also have a polychromic tendency, which emphasises the need for putting the relationship first and valuing human interaction more (Neuliep, 2017). The organisation should organise workshops and seminars with their local and expatriate employees for ingraining a feeling of unity, the organisation will have to focus more on valuing human interaction. Valuing human interaction more will help retain employees, as the culture does not endorse individualism unlike the culture of the US and reduce the differences in culture. Also according to Herzberg's two-factor theory for motivation, the poor hygiene factors such as nepotism and bribery have contributed to an increase in employee turnover rate.

From the overall analysis done in this organizational culture assignment, I found that there were similarly several negotiations issues surrounding the business operations of the organisation in the country.. The resettlement package was valued at a million dollars. However, the negotiations were disrupted with tribes in the region claiming the spot to be their mecca and proclaimed the river home to their sacred spirits. Jones had to pay $10,000 for appeasing the spirits of the river after the appeasement ceremony failed the first time, incurring the total expense of $17500. Jones participated in the ceremony, which is considered a sham and pagan practices by Steinberg. Steinberg is concerned that the participation of Jones as the representative of the organisation could damage the image of the organisation and offend the majority Christina and Muslim population in the belt.

BATNA stands for Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement., essentially implying the best alternative, which the negotiating party should take if there is no negotiation or the negotiation fails. It was first described by William Ury and Roger Fisher in their 1981 book entitled “Getting to Yes: Negotiating Without Giving In”. 

BATNA is of great use when engaging in intercultural communication, as a negotiation tactic. It provides an alternative if the negotiations fail through, providing the negotiating party with negotiating power and determines the reservation point (Koester and Lustig, 2012). To ensure that the intercultural negotiations are being conducted efficiently, the organisation could opt for BATNA strategy. From what we can deduce, the resettlement package worth 1 million is an adequate amount. However, the act of appeasing the river sprits twice was included added expenditure. The organisation examined in the context of this organizational culture assignment should aim at ensuring that the zone of a potential agreement is reached and which will help in ensuring that either party are not incurring any losses. The organisation will also have to ensure that they can distance themselves from any practices; the resettlement package could be changed to accommodate the demands. The professionals in the respective field will have to be consulted for reaching an agreement. The organisation could instead opt for refusing to participate in the activities, draw the government’s attention to increased settlement package, and seek government aid in business operations. In the research study by Liuet al., (2018), it is discussed in the organizational culture assignment the negotiators are found to rely overly on the cultural stereotypes when managing the differences in between the culture, which has often-negative repercussions.

From reading the case study in order to develop this organizational culture assignment, we found that there are two issues. The first being that the organisational structure, which has been established by Steinberg, was flat, but there were accusations from the locals that the organisation was being run in a disorganised manner theatre was seemingly no one at the charge of the business operations. For the first issue, I found that valuing human interaction more will help retain employees, as the culture does not endorse individualism. The organisation should focus on being collective in its approach, rather than being more individualistic. Similarly, for the second issue, I recommend that the organisation will also have to ensure that they can distance themselves from any practices. The settlement package could be increased, including various options for developing social amenities in the region as a negotiation.

Reflective report: Ethics and CSR
The organizational culture assignment analyzed the words of Crane et al., (2019) that the business ethics are essentially a set of different rules and corporate values, which the company for evaluating their business, related decisions and the ethics follow. The business ethics are used as criteria for hugging whether the action is good or bad. The good business ethics essentially involves adhering to a strict code of moral conduct, which places the expectations and rights of the individuals over the profit motive of the business. Although the goal of a business is to make a profit, how the organization gains project should be considered and if the manner is found to be compromising the rights of human beings, it should be stopped (Bowie, 2017). Henceforth business ethics is considered an important part of the business jargon, considering how the result is always profitable for the company if business ethics are adhered to.

There were certain practices of Jones, which could be considered an ethical issue. Jones followed a policy of handing out tips or bribes to speed things up. The high unemployment rate and the lower standard of living meant that Jones was prone to handing out bribes to different officials to get things done. However, there were negative implications for the activities. Everyone demanding tips for every other work, which could further pile up on the expense incurred by the organization. I also found that any of the activities are leaked; any publicity would severely hamper the credibility of the organization in the international market.

Bribery is considered unethical practices as it results in an increase in wealth inequality and effectively supports corrupt practices. Since Bribery is considered an immoral act, it is subjected to prosecution in countries even where it is a prevalent practice. There are arguments raised on the organizational culture assignment, which support bribery with using cultural relativism and support the argument with ethical imperialism. However, as stated in Rawl’s Social theory, accepting or giving bribery is considered an unethical practice since it places a burden on the population who are worst off in society (Buchanan, 2017).

Jones’ action could be categorized under ethical egoism. I chose ethical egoism for assessing Jones' action and forming a synopsis because ethical egoism essentially views human life as the general standard of moral evaluation. It helps in establishing a greater sense of identity of an individual in a community and ensures that the basic needs are being met using one’s construct of morality. Ethical utilitarianism, on the other hand, states that the moral action would be the one, which will maximize the good while minimizing the harm to others. Similarly, ethical relativism is the belief that there is no objectively right t or wrong action as the definition of the action being right to wrong would depend on the prevailing circumstances. Ethical egoism states that whether actions serve the best self-interest of an individual should be considered the morally right action. Jones aims to maximize the efficiency of the project, which has prompted him in taking certain practices, which include bribery and nepotism. Although considered unethical in business, Jones has practised these measures probably because he thinks that it will maximize his happiness and hence is a moral action. Egoism posits that the suffering and any social discolouration is essentially the price of progress. Similarly, egoism states that social progress is essentially the unintended side effect of the economic self-interest pursuit (Machan, 2015). Jones’ actions were primarily egoist in nature, the moral conduct could be construed on assessing the maximum good, while there was significant harm being perpetuated to other parties associated, there were certain negative implications.

From the perspective of Steinberg, it is noted in this organizational culture assignment that the practices of paying additional money for a project in which the funds have been already accounted for seems to be preposterous and not ethical. This could negatively affect the project scope.
The reason why Jones decided to pay the tribe leaders without any dispute could be because the society is highly collectivistic and the loyalty is considered paramount.

Resolving the cross-cultural ethical issues could be difficult due to the prevailing tradition and the high context culture of Tanzania. However, as a recommendation for ensuring more ethical practices being followed in the workspace, the organization should introduce seminars and workshops, which focus on employee training. A separate ethics committee could also be set up which would be solely focused on overseeing the business operations of the organization to ensure that there is job satisfaction. The practice of providing bribes to the government officials could be stopped by generating enough awareness regarding the unethical nature of the action.

Another issue discussed in the organizational culture assignment, which I found was Jones has also been accused of practising nepotism in the workplace, conducting the job searchers especially, forms the family members. He had developed a habit of mentioning the job openings to the local people and they suggested their relatives for the job position. Considering the high context culture in the country, which values the collectivistic approach and relationships, this approach could come handy. However, this could also contribute to a low retention rate, as the Steinberg, the vice president of the organization, was not happy with the hiring practice of Jones. There was no reason for doubting the competence of the employees, but harbouring nepotism came with an added risk. The employee's close connection to the government could result in the employees proactively taken part in the extortion process. This could result in the company being forced to incur additional expenses, paying an added amount for every small task. Furthermore, the arguments raised on the organizational culture assignment also signify that there was a possibility that if the operations of the organization came under publicity, the native publicity would hamper the operation of the organization in other countries.

As stated by Max weber, the traditional authority of a society seek to do the things the way they have been done to ensure that there is stability regarding the societal norms (Swedberg, 2018). This could be the reason why certain practices such as nepotism are prevalent in the country, Nepotism is a particular type of partiality where a business organizes contracting a relative over a nonfamily part. The fundamental worry about nepotism in business is that it negates regular traditions in work to procure and advance the most qualified possibility for a vocation. While a non-family relation might be the fittest representative, nepotism some of the time prompts family members landing positions when different applicants have more grounded training and work understanding.

The justice ethical theory discussed in the organizational culture assignment states that the decision-makers should ensure that the actions re fair in all manner to everyone involved. Nepotism severely hampers the chance of other people in securing the job in spite of possessing the required merit. Considering the high unemployment rate in the country along with the low standard of living, it is imperative to make ethical decisions while decision making for recruitment. The ethical decisions should be consistent with the ethical theory (Crane, 2019). The organization should consider that equal access to a better living is an inherent right of every human being and henceforth measures should be taken for ensuring that their rights are being upheld. Rights are stated as the ethical, social or legal principles of enlistment or freedom, the rights are the basic normative rules regarding what is owed to or allowed of the people. As per Mill’s utilitarian theory of justice, everyone has a right to a certain standard of adequate living for wellbeing and health. The right to the different necessities in life should be considered for imparting justice (Fraser, 2016). Rawls’s theory of justice, the economic and social inequalities are to satisfy the two conditions, to provide the greatest benefit to the marginalized population and provide fair equality in all opportunities (Muldoon, 2016).

Since the business operation of Hydrogeneration, is concentrated in Tanzania, It is evident that the workforce of the company consists of a diverse group of employees from different societal and communal backgrounds. However, this has resulted in a breakdown in business operations with several cross-cultural issues coming to the limelight. This has augmented the need for the company to adopt policies and strategies to manage the cross-cultural aspect of the firm. The report on organizational culture assignment deals with presenting a comprehensive synopsis regarding the issues, which are faced by the organization and the management in their business operations in Tanzania. There are several issues outlined in the segments of organizational culture assignment, which are faced in the organization, which has brought forth different questions to the management. We have drawn in on the importance of national culture, leadership style, organizational culture, communication, ethic and CSR with relevant theories and models presenting recommendations, which could be undertaken for addressing the problems. Furthermore, the study illustrated in the organizational culture assignment also presents a detailed view on the issues, drawing on the theories and has explained the nuances associated with each.

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