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Organizational Change Essay Evaluating Case Of Vodafone Plc

Question

Task:
Write an organizational change essay to Identify and describe a variety of examples of Reframing as a Strategy for Improving Organizations that are known, drawn from your experience working in your respective organizations.

  1. What Is a Frame? Explain the example of how Mental map is used to read and negotiate a “territory” map, (a map of Beijing won’t help in Chicago)
  2. Explain the difference between the two main types of motivation theories — content and process, while Outline the major theoretical contributions from the content theories of motivation of Maslow, Alderfer, McClelland and Herzberg

Answer

Introduction
The present organizational change essay would critically evolve through the certain areas of organisational changes in context to Vodafone Plc. Fundamentally, organisational changes refer to the actions within which a company might alter a crucial component of its organisation, whether it is culture, structure or infrastructure. Thus, the study would focus on frame and the aspects of mental map in a way being used for reading as well as negotiating territory map. Therefore, focus on mind map can be assessed to explore organisational changes as mind mapping could be used as a communication tool to facilitate any sort of organisational changes in Vodafone Plc. On the other hand, the study would further focus on some of the major motivational theories and assessing the differences in between two of the major motivational theories and the way it would facilitate the Vodafone Plc while working as Strategic Manger. The major emphasis on these theories of motivation and their evaluation would certain help in understanding how motivating employees would help in embracing any organisational changes while maintaining workforce and organisational morale. The overall methodology in this context would be based upon context of organisational behaviour. Henceforth, the detail evaluation throughout the study is presented below in detail.

Critical Discussion

Question 1
Objective

The objective of this following discussion is to identify the way mental map is used to read and negotiating territory map in context to Vodafone Plc.

Methodology
The methodology that would be used is defining the frame in context to organisational behaviour and mental map of Vodafone Plc.

Scenario: Definition of Frame and Explanation of Example
The definition of frame varies from one area or aspect to another area or aspect. In context to organisational behaviour, a frame would refer to the way people perceive the world. As per the theoretical framework of Bolman and Deal that has been “Bolman and Deal’s Four Frame Model” leaders in an organisation are bound to look at the end approach of issues that might incur in organisations from four core aspects, which have termed as frames (Feuer, 2020). Moreover, while working as Strategic Manager in Vodafone Plc, the overall organisational behaviour of the company has reflected that frames are required to embrace the changes that might occur. Four frames are; “structural”, “human resource” as well as “political” and “symbolic”. Certain view on frame can become to maintain leadership open by not restricting within one frame. And, as a leader in the organisational environment the frames as a whole would help in making own judgements with appropriate behaviour in that moment (The Guardian, 2021). Hence, leaders in Vodafone Plc are required to read the changes occur in the organisation and input the frames accordingly to the situation. Thus; the four frames are defined as follows;

  • Structural Frame
    This particular frame would focus on the way or “how” of change. It is majorly considered as the task-related frame that widely concentrates on strategy and setting certain goals that are measurable. Followed to that, the structural frame would also involve strategies and structures related to clarifying tasks, reporting lines as well as responsibilities, agreeing deadlines as well as metrics and developing procedures and systems (Zahariadis, 2019).
  • Human Resource Frame
    Human Resource or HR is another frame that places more focus on individual’s need in organisational context. It fundamentally emphasises on providing employees the power as well as the required opportunities in order to execute or perform their tasks or jobs effectively. While at the same time this particular frame would help in addressing their needs for personal growths of the individuals and their satisfaction of job.
  • Political Frame
    This frame further would address individual’s certain problems and related groups that might face conflicting agendas, specifically during the times of budgets most likely to be limited and organisations are most likely to have difficult choices. Through this frame, building of coalition as well as resolution work of conflict and power-oriented building for supporting the initiatives of the leaders. (Moen, 2017)
  • Symbolic Frame
    Furthermore, in context to symbolic frame, it could be said that this frame would address individual’s need for certain sense of purpose as well as meaning in their tasks. It would focus upon influencing people through making direction of the organisation to feel distinctive and significant. This frame would certain include creating a vision that would be motivating and recognising excellent performance through organisational celebrations.

Hence, as a whole, it can be said that within the organisational environment of Vodafone Plc frame helps in outlining the strategy to improve the organisations and leaders are required to adopt multi-frame perspective prior to choose how to act.

Example of the Way Mental Map Being Used To Read and Negotiating Territory Map
Fundamentally, in context to behavioural geography, mental map is an individual’s viewpoint perception of their interaction area. Mental map shows that the perceived foreign nation’s geographical dimensions might often be highly influenced by amount of time or relative coverage of news that news media might have spend to cover news event from that foreign region. Now, the point would come to main area of how mental map is used for reading and negotiating territory map. Fundamentally, it is seen that mental map is being used in certain collection of spatial research (Branch, 2017). The first type mental maps are those formed within personal experiences of individuals. In order for better understanding the way mental map is being used to read following example is given in addition to organisational context of Vodafone. For example; Disneyworld in Florida may have conjured up the images of fun rides and Mickey Mouse. This example deals more with individual’s own perception of the place’s attributes. Thus, in context to the way mental map is used for reading and negotiating a territory map it can be said that it might become easier to observe that individual minds are efficient in storing location and attributed information. A mere mention of certain place or seeing a territory map of Disneyland Florida would not help in Disneyland Hong Kong. This is because; individual with frame of references in their mind from knowledge of the place or past experience would restrict in overlapping the map. And, as mental maps are highly attributable in stirring up cognitive thinking, therefore, it helps in reading and negotiating any territory map (Jász, 2018).

Question 2
Objective

The objective of the following discussion of this study would be to identify differences between two major types of motivational theories in context to their content and processes. And, the objectivity is also to outline the major theoretical contributions of motivational theories in context to Vodafone Plc.

Methodology
The methodology in this context would be used through theoretical frameworks of motivational needs theories in context to Vodafone Plc.

Scenario: Outlining Major Theoretical Contributions from Motivational Theories
Content theories of motivation is seen to be focused upon what individuals need in their lives, whereas, process theories focuses upon psychological as well as behavioural processes that might impact motivation of an individual. The organisational environment of Vodafone Plc has also reflected the need of motivational theories and its implementation. However, before identifying the major differences between two major types of motivational theories in context to their content and processes, it is necessary to outline the major theoretical contributions from the content motivational theories. Hence, methodology in terms of motivational theories has been discussed below:

  1. Theory of Motivational Needs Hierarchy by Maslow
    This motivational theory comprises five step models of human needs, which according to Maslow fulfil the needs of an individual and motivates them. It is often shown as hierarchical levels, where, from bottom to upwards the needs could be; “physiological”, “safety” “belongings”, “self esteem” and “self actualisation”. Maslow in his theory stated that at first human requires physical needs including food, shelter, clothing etc. After fulfilment of physical needs, they would need to fulfil safety needs involving security, employment as well as health and property. When, safety needs are also fulfilled, then, human would need belongingness needs that include friendship, family etc. Again, after fulfilment of this need, human would require fulfilling their self-esteem needs that include respect, self-esteem, recognition or status (?tefan et al. 2020). And, at the very last stage; human requires self-actualisation needs fulfilment, which involves desire to become the most that anyone can be. And, until the needs from physiological aspect to self-actualisation level are not being fulfilled, no individual would be motivated as these needs would work as their driving force. Thus, in case of Vodafone Plc, it can be said that the major contribution from Maslow’s motivation theory is that individual’s actions are motivated for achieving certain needs.
  2. ERG Motivation Theory of Alderfer
    Clayton Alderfer’s motivation theory is built upon Needs Hierarchy by Maslow and has separated into three core factor model of motivation that is known as ERG model. According to Alderfer’s motivation content theory human are required to have three needs type that could be; “Existence” alongside “Relatedness” and “Growth”. Three needs might be distinguishable priorities for several individuals. And, the organisational behaviour of Vodafone Plc has exhibited that relative significance of three needs might vary over time for an individual. However, for every individual each of these three motivational factors is required to be fulfilled in order for motivation as all humans are motivated by these three needs. Therefore, theoretical contribution from this content theory is that individuals might be motivated through several levels of needs at same time. And, that level that is most significant to them may change over time in organisation like Vodafone. This theory as a whole contributes that when certain need category is not being met, individual would redouble their efforts for fulfilling needs in lower category (Acquah et al. 2021).
  3. Needs and Motivation Theory by McClelland
    On the other hand, needs and motivation theory of McClelland has outlined that any individual have three aspects needs based on human emotion. That could be such as; “achievement”, “affiliation” and “power”. And, humans might have different mix of this need. In organisational context of Vodafone Plc, behaviours as well as motivations of individual are most likely to be shaped based on strength as well as blending of their particular needs. Therefore, the main contribution of this content theory is that every individual has certain driving motivators that are achievement need or affiliation or power need. And, those having strong urged to gain affiliation would not be willing to take risk or stand out and would value relationship above anything (Osemeke and Adegboyega, 2017).
  4. Theory of Two Factor by Herzberg
    This motivation theory reflects that there might be two factors certainly cause job satisfaction within workplace. Two factors could be; “factors of hygiene” and “factors of motivation”. If factors of hygiene such as; working conditions, workers’ relationship, supervisor quality or basic wages and salaries and status are not met or poor then there would be job dissatisfaction observable among employees. On the other hand, motivating factors such as; achievement, recognition, growth and advancements would bring job satisfaction among employees. Thus, the working environment in Vodafone Plc has reflected that this two factor content theory has the contribution of attempting to define factors that would motivate individuals by identifying as well as satisfying their individual needs (Alshmemri et al. 2017). And, it also explains aims also to pursue for satisfying the desires.

Difference between Two Main Aspects of Theories of Motivation
Prior to implementing any certain motivation theoires, it would be necessary for Vodafone Plc and its leaders to assess the differences between process and content theories;

Theories of Content

Theories of Process

Theories related to content of motivation emphasises on causes for changing human needs

Process theories of motivation emphasises on psychological processes that would impact motivation with regards to goals, expectations and equity perceptions.

It outlines the reasons to motivate an individual (Barreto et al. 2017)

However, process theories underline behavioural pattern’s impact to fulfil individual expectations.

Crucial theories of content motivation would be; “Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs”, “Alderfer’s ERG Theory of Needs”, “McClelland’s Theory of Needs” and “Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory”.

Crucial theories of process motivation would be; “Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory”, “Vroom’s Expectancy Theory”, “Adam’s Equity Theory” alongside “Locke’s Goal Setting Theory”.


Conclusion and Recommendations
Conclusion

Based on the above discussion and critical evaluation it can be implied that Vodafone Plc’s organisational environment requires implementation of solid framework of frame that would be helpful. That is also in terms of outlining if it is seen that there is any sort of uncertainty across the future direction in the organisational environment. Additionally, it is also to be said that implementing motivation theories both in terms of content and process would help the leaders of Vodafone Plc in understanding need for motivation and the way motivation within organisation can be maximised.

Findings
Thus, in accordance with the above critical discussion in regards to the definition of frame, it has been found that if leaders perceives that greatest issue in organisation is due to lack of motivation as well as commitment, then they would certainly stress the symbolic and human resource frames. On the other hand, if there is observed confusion across responsibilities as well as priorities being the major organisational issue, and then structural and political frames would be recognised as most significant. On the other hand, the differences between content and process theories of motivation has revealed that both of these motivational theories are highly crucial in organisational context as content theories teaches what is required for motivation, whereas; process theories shows how motivation can be seen. Thus, both of these would complement each other in organisational environment.

Reference List
Acquah, A., Nsiah, T.K., Antie, E.N.A. and Otoo, B., 2021. LITERATURE REVIEW ON THEORIES OF MOTIVATION. EPRA International Journal of Economic and Business Review, 9(5), pp.25-29.

Alshmemri, M., Shahwan-Akl, L. and Maude, P., 2017. Herzberg’s two-factor theory. Life Science Journal, 14(5), pp.12-16.

Barreto, M.A.M., Vasconcelos, S.S. and dos Santos, E.F., 2017, July. Motivation and work: A survey of the motivational aspects in industries. In International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (pp. 319-328). Springer, Cham.

Branch, J., 2017. Territorial Conflict in the Digital Age: Mapping Technologies and Negotiation. International Studies Quarterly, 61(3), pp.557-569.

Feuer, E., 2020. Hazing Definitions of Students and Administrators at Two Institutions Using a Four Frame Approach. Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors, 14(2), pp.38-49.

Jász, B., 2018. Mental map of the city: elements of visual argumentation and creativity in modern city planning. Organizational change essay Creativity Studies, 11(2), pp.284-293.

Moen, D., 2017. The leader-investigator: Using leadership studies as a model for conscientization through adaptive leadership, the four frames approach, giving voice to values, and the competing values framework. Journal of Thought, 51(3-4), pp.22-37.

Osemeke, M. and Adegboyega, S., 2017. Critical review and comparism between Maslow, Herzberg, and McClelland? s theory of needs. Funai Journal of Accounting, Business and Finance, 1(1), pp.161-173.

?tefan, S.C., Popa, ?.C. and Albu, C.F., 2020. Implications of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory on healthcare employees’ performance. Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, 16(59), pp.124-143.

The Guardian, (2021), Do businesses care about sustainable behaviour change? Accessed from https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/businesses-sustainable-behaviour-change-research [Accessed on 05.08.2021]

Zahariadis, N., 2019. The multiple streams framework: Structure, limitations, prospects. In Theories of the policy process (pp. 65-92). Routledge.

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