Organisational Behaviour Assignment: A Written Portfolio For An Interview Process
Task: Tasks to be addressed in the organisational behaviour assignment: You have applied for a managerial position as a Business Development Manager in a large retail organisation. Following shortlisting you have been asked to attend for interview. Prior to the interview you need to send in a written portfolio which will help the interview panel to establish your suitability for the post.
Task 1 – Written Portfolio
You must prepare a portfolio of evidence which includes:
• an analysis of the characteristics of different organisational structures
• an explanation of how the culture of an organisation can impact on the effectiveness of the organisation
• an assessment of the impact of learning on the effectiveness of employees
• an evaluation of how working in teams can improve employee effectiveness.
You know that questions from the panel will ask for your views on certain management theories. In preparation make detailed notes which:
• evaluate different leadership behaviour theories
• analyse theories relating to work relationships and interactions.
Task 3 – Presentation with accompanying notes You are to make a presentation to the interview panel as part of the selection process. You should prepare a presentation with accompanying notes which shows how organisations can motivate employees in order to improve their efficiency and effectiveness.
In the presentation and the accompanying notes, you must:
• analyse the benefits and issues with involving employees in organisational decision making • explain different ways to motivate employees
Background of Organisational Behaviour Assignment
I have completed my management studies and applied for a business development in a multinational retail chain. In order to apply for the managerial position of the large multinational retail chain, I have to go through all the important steps of the interview process. Major objective of this organisational behaviour assignment is to complete three tasks to go through the overall interview process. First of all, a portfolio of evidence needs to be prepared, which will analyse the characteristics of different organisational structures. In addition, the impact of organisational culture on the efficacy of a particular organisation is also discussed. In this first task, possible impacts of learning on employee effectiveness are also assessed in this first task. Apart from these, importance of working in teams for employee effectiveness is also evaluated in the first task.
Secondly, the task of evaluation of different leadership behaviour theories is also completed in this assignment. These theories will be analysed in this assignment relating the work interactions and work relationships. Most importantly, effective evaluation of the relevance of the organisational culture theory in the development of organisational effectiveness is also done in this second task. Thirdly, a presentation will be submitted to the interview panel in the form of third task in order to demonstrate how an organisation can motivate the employees to improve their workplace efficiency and effectiveness. In this third task, the benefits and challenges associated with employee engagement activities are analysed. In addition, different employee motivational techniques are also explained in this assignment.
This task has created a written portfolio in which the characteristics of different organisational structures and impact of organisational culture are evaluated. In addition, importance of learning and working in team is also evaluated in this task.
AC 2.1: Analysis of Characteristics of Different Organisational Structures An organisation can adopt different kinds of organisational structures. Organisational heads have the choice to develop and follow different kinds of organisational structures. Now-a-days, the organisational heads also can customise their organisational structures depending on the situations. Among those several organisational structures, the business management professionals usually consider three general types of organisational structures. These are functional organisational structure, divisional organisational structure, and matrix organisational structure. Now, the characteristics of these three organisational structures are analysed below.
A functional organisational structure is developed typically so that each section of that particular organisation is grouped as per its purpose. In this type of organisational structure, the organisations may have different organisational departments like sales department, marketing department, production department, finance department, and HRM department (Shafi et al., 2020). The functional organisational structure becomes beneficial for small businesses in which every organisational department can depend on the skill, knowledge, and talent of the employees to enhance good business performance.
A divisional organisational structure is usually followed by the large organisations in which the companies operate in a vast geographic area. A divisional organisational structure is also followed by those organisations, which have several smaller organisations within the umbrella. For example, a large mechanical engineering organisation can follow divisional organisational structure in which small engine division, parts division, and compressor division exist (Wang et al., 2019).
A matric organisational structure is also recognised as the hybrid organisational structure of functional and divisional structure. Matrix organisational structure is usually followed by the large multinational companies in order to gain the benefits of both functional and divisional structure (PANCASILA et al., 2020).
AC 2.2: Impact of Organisational Culture on Organisational Effectiveness
Organisational culture has a strong and positive impact on the effectiveness of the organisations. An inclusive organisational culture can help the organisations to bring benefits in organisational management and workplace environment, which can enhance trust and cooperation. In addition, following of an inclusive organisational culture also helps the organisations to overcome the possibilities of disagreements, which can enhance efficient decision making activities (Graves et al., 2019). Organisational culture also results in informal control mechanism by which a positive sense of identification is promoted. Most importantly, organisational culture helps the organisations to promote a culture and environment of knowledge sharing, which enhanced improved workplace performance. These are important benefits of organisational culture for the operations and business performances of those particular business enterprises. The example of Google and Amazon can be considered here. Both of these companies appropriately follow decentralised organisational culture, which promotes innovation and creativity in the operation management process.
AC 3.1: Impact of Learning on Employee Effectiveness
Learning and skill development sessions generally have positive impact on the effectiveness of the employees. Now-a-days, the business enterprises in this competitive era focus on experiential and technical learning for the employees to improve their skill level and competency in the workplace. In this contemporary era, use of technology in learning, skill development, training process of the employees has become havoc. First of all, the advantages of technology-based learning for the employee effectiveness have been assessed. It helps in ensuring higher employee engagement and positive employee retention, which is important for positive workplace performance. In addition, technology-based learning also enhanced easy deployment and easy scheduling, which improves the level of flexibility within the employees. Most importantly, it strengthens core competency and competitiveness of the employees, which are important for improved workplace performance of the employees. It is a time-efficient learning method. Hence, technology-based learning actually helps the organisations to improve the skill and knowledge level of employees in limited time compared to the manual process (Kalsoom et al., 2018). This is also considered as an important benefit of contemporary technology-based learning for employee effectiveness.
Experiential learning is also considered as an important and contemporary learning method for the employees. Effective experiential learning enhances deeper understanding within the employees. As a result, the capacity of effective reflective judgement, effective critical thinking, and improved application of knowledge in complex scenarios is enhanced through this experiential learning method. Overall, experiential learning method allows the organisations to improve the ability, skill level, and problem-solving attitude of the employees. Overall, it promotes life-long learning along with positive workplace outcome on continuous basis (Prabowo et al., 2018).
AC 3.2: Importance of Working in Team for Improvement of Employee Effectiveness
Working in teams actually helps in improving the employee effectiveness. First of all, effective team work ensures appropriate delegation of responsibilities. Most importantly, the employees can work in supportive atmosphere and with additional authority. This ensures improved and strong motivation for the employees. Apart from these, it is also important to discuss that good team work allows the professionals to develop strategies as per the skill sets, knowledge level, and expertise of the employees. Effective team working helps in overcoming the possibilities of miscommunication or errors in communication as team work improves the degree of employee interaction and knowledge sharing. The decision-making tine, strategy development time, and strategy implication times are also reduced through effective team work (Stollberger et al., 2019). Overall, these help in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the employees. Now, it is also important here to acknowledge the challenges associated with team working, which can hamper the effectiveness of the employees. First of all, personality conflicts can be considered as a possible challenge for team working. Secondly, it is also important to share the possibility of trust issues within the team can hamper the effectiveness of the efficacy of the group workplace environment. Inter-group competition among employees is also can be considered as a possible serious challenge of team working, which can affect the employee effectiveness (Nguyen et al., 2020). Thirdly, presence of excessive employees in a group can create a possible communication gap, which can hamper the effectiveness of team environment. Most importantly, lack of team-working skills in some employees also can hamper the quality and efficacy of group performance. These possible challenges need to be overcome in order to ensure effective performance of the employees in a group.
1M1: Impact of Different Leadership Behaviours
Organisational leaders or managers have different kinds of learning behaviours, which can have a direct and strong impact on the organisations. In order to assess the impact, different kinds of leadership theories need to be analysed in this section.
Behavioural leadership theory states that the success of an organisational leader or a manager strongly depends on the behavioural traits of those leaders rather than their natural attributes. There are three types of behavioural leadership styles, such as autocratic leadership style, democratic leadership style, and laissez-faire leadership style. All of these leadership styles are discussed and evaluated below.
In autocratic leadership style, leaders try to gain a strong and authoritative individual control on decision making activities. In this leadership style, leaders do not consider advices from team members and other followers. In terms of impact, too much centralisation and authoritative approach can hamper employee motivation and efficacy of workplace environment (Araujo et al., 2020).
In democratic leadership style, organisational leaders or the managers allow participation of employees in decision making process. In this leadership style, leaders play active role in decision making activities but accept the advices from followers and other team members. Most importantly, exchange of idea and engagement of employees are major characteristics of this decision-making process. In terms of impact, it improves productivity of the employees because positive employee engagement motivates employees. In laissez-faire leadership style, leaders welcome the employees and other group members to play an important role in decision making process. The leaders do not give too much guidance and instruction to the followers in this decision-making style. Most importantly, team members and sub-ordinates take the real lead in strategy development and decision-making style. In terms of impact, it motivates employees and encourages innovation, which is important for fast-decision making activities.
Contingency theory of leadership assumes that effectiveness of a leader is contingent on whether the leadership style of a leader suits a particular situation or not. There are four types of contingency theory, such as Fiedler’s Contingency Theory, Situational Leadership, Path-Goal Theory, and Decision-Making Theory.
The Fielder’s Contingency Theory states that effective leadership approach not only hinges on the leadership style of an organisational leader, but also on the ability to have control over the situation. In terms of impact, this particular contingency leadership style allows the organisational leaders to become effective task-oriented leaders and charismatic relationship-oriented leader (Ma & Jiang, 2018).
Situational leadership style is a type of contingency leadership approach in which leaders are allowed to adopt leadership style depending on the demands of the situation. There are four types of situational leadership styles, which are discussed in the next section. In terms of impact, situational leadership style helps the organisations to influence the staffs in three possible ways for better improved performance, such as across, upwards, and downwards (Paais & PATTIRUHU, 2020).
Path-Goal theory of leadership depends on two popular theories, such as expectancy theory and goal-setting theory. The principle of Path-Goal Leadership Theory states that leaders need to make sure that the sub-ordinates have sufficient support, resources, and information to achieve developed goals. In terms of impact, this particular leadership style helps to determine the characteristics of sub-ordinates and characteristics of the associated risk factors to determine whether the developed goals will be achieved or not (Guterresa et al., 2020). Decision making theory of leadership states that leaders of organisations need to size-up situations, assess those situations, and assume the necessary supports and resources to achieve the developed goals appropriately. In terms of impact, this particular leadership style helps in hindering or facilitating the job satisfaction, goal achievement, and overall employee effectiveness (Razak et al., 2018).
Managerial leadership approach is a particular leadership style, in which the organisational leaders effectively develop goals; conducts need analysis, and set achievable priorities as well as necessities to become successful. In terms of impact, managerial leadership style helps in enhancing adequate planning, successful budgeting, resource-based application, and effective evaluation of the organisational performance (Nugroho et al., 2020).
It is already discussed above that Situational leadership style is a type of contingency leadership approach in which leaders are allowed to adopt leadership style depending on the demands of the situation. There are four types of situational leadership styles, such as directing, coaching, supporting, and delegating. Directing is a one-way situational leadership style of the organisational leaders, which require little input or contribution from the followers or employees (Jensen, 2018).
Coaching is an important situational leadership style. It can be applied when the employees or followers are highly motivated but require lots of guidance.
Supporting is an important situational leadership style. It can be applied when the employees or followers are capable or skilled to do the task, but face limited motivation related challenges (Abadiyah et al., 2020). Delegating is an important situational leadership style. It can be applied for those employees, who are motivated, confident, able, and skilled to complete a task.
Participative leadership style is a style of leadership in which all the employees or staffs in an organisation work together to make decisions. It is also known similar as democratic leadership style in which the leaders of the organisations encourage the staffs to participate in the decision-making process (Wolor et al., 2020). According to the principles of this leadership theory, exchange of idea and engagement of employees are major characteristics of this participative leadership style. In terms of impact, participative leadership style helps in improving the productivity of the employees because positive employee engagement motivates employees.
3D1: Process and Outcomes of Change on Employee Effectiveness
It is important to determine the appropriate steps or processes of change regarding employee effectiveness. The organisations can adopt five important steps to adopt change regarding employee effectiveness. First of all, preparation for change on employee effectiveness is important. Secondly, crafting of a vision and planning for a positive change is essential. Thirdly, implementation of change with the help of effective employee engagement is also important. Fourthly, embedding changes within the organisational culture and workplace practices is also important (Lolowang et al., 2019). Lastly, reviewing progress of the change regarding employee effectiveness and analysis of the results of the changes are also important.
After determining the process, it is important here to discuss about the outcome of the changes. First of all, it can enhance a positive and competitive edge within the employees. Secondly, it will allow the employees to get encourages and adopt innovative orientation for workplace performance. Overall, it can improve the morale of all the employees working for the company (Priarso et al., 2019). The outcomes of positive changes can be analysed below with the help of participative leadership theory.
Situational Leadership Theories
In situational leadership style, leaders are allowed to adopt leadership style basis on the demands of the workplace situation. There are four situational leadership theories, such as directing, coaching, supporting, and delegating. Directing is a one-way situational leadership style in which leaders require little input or contribution from the followers or employees. Coaching is an important situational leadership style in which employees or followers are effectively trained because the employees are highly motivated but require lots of guidance. Supporting is an important situational leadership style in which employees or followers effectively supported because the employees are capable or skilled to do the task, but face limited motivation related challenges (Wolor et al., 2020). Delegating is an important situational leadership style in which the employees are highly delegated because such employees are motivated, confident, able, and skilled to complete a task. Based on the demands of the workplace situations, the leaders generally adopt changes and consider one of the above situational leadership style to enhance employee effectiveness.
This task is all about evaluation and analysis of different leadership behaviour theories. The relevance of organisational culture theory is also analysed in this task.
AC 1.1: Different Leadership Behaviour Theories
First of all, it is important to define behavioural leadership theory. The principle of this theory state that the success of an organisational leader strongly depends on their behavioural traits. There are three types of behavioural leadership theories, such as autocratic leadership theory, democratic leadership theory, and laissez-faire leadership theory. Characteristics, strengths, and weaknesses of these three leadership behaviour theories are discussed below.
As per autocratic leadership theory, leaders focus on gaining a strong and authoritative individual control on decision making activities. In this leadership style, leaders do not consider advices from team members and other followers. In terms of strength, decisions are made quickly due to a transparent chain of command. In terms of weakness, too much centralisation and authoritative approach can hamper employee motivation and efficacy of workplace environment.
As per the democratic leadership theory, organisational leaders allow participation of employees to share their views in decision making process. Leaders play active role in decision making activities in this leadership style but accept the advices of employees and other team members. Exchange of idea and engagement of Staffs are major characteristics of this decision-making process. In terms of strength, it improves productivity of the employees because positive employee engagement motivates employees to perform well. In terms of weakness, it can create negative emotions and promote poor emotional intelligence, which are not good for the flexibility and sustainability of the workplace environment. As per laissez-faire leadership theory, leaders of the organisations welcome the employees to play important roles in decision making process. The laissez-faire leaders do not give much guidance to the followers in this decision-making style. Most importantly, team members and sub-ordinates take the real lead in strategy development and decision-making style. In terms of strength, laissez-faire leader motivates employees and encourages innovation, which is important for fast-decision making activities. In terms of weakness, this leadership style can affect the workplace discipline as the degree of chain of command is very much low in this leadership style.
AC 1.2: Analysing Theories Relating to Work Relationships and Interactions
Now, it is important here to analyse these theories related to real-life working practices, relationships, and interactions.
Military Organisations of all the countries follow autocratic leadership style in which the authority of the organisation takes decisions and make strategies. In this leadership style, the lower-level staffs or military personal are not entitled to share their views regarding tactical strategy making process. The degree of discipline is high in such organisations.
Example of Tesco Plc can be considered here, which has adopted democratic leadership style in strategy development and decision-making process. The employees are participated for sharing their views during strategy development activities and employees’ voices are considered by the leaders to make decisions. Due to these democratic leadership styles, majority of the employees feel motivated and satisfied.
Example of Google can be considered here, which has adopted laissez-faire leadership style. The employees of Google are entitled and self-motivated to make strategies. Most importantly, the employees of Google seek for the advice from leaders when they feel for it. In this case, employees are authorised to make strategies.
2M1: Relevance of Organisational Culture Theory in Organisational Effectiveness
Organisational culture theory is a system of shared values, assumptions, and beliefs, which governs how human resources behave in an organisation. The principles of this organisational theory are based on shared customs, shared beliefs, and shared attitudes. Now, this particular organisational culture theory is highly relevant for the organisational effectiveness.
It will be important to acknowledge that organisational culture ensures improved employee participation, which enhances wider agreement on shared practices, shared values, commonly developed goals, and commonly crafted mission. On the other hand, the principles of organisational culture theory are also based on these specific aspects. Hence, application of organisational culture theory significantly assessed whether a particular organisation promotes shared values and shared beliefs or not. These discussions and analysis can significantly indicate that use of organisational culture theory is highly justified to determine the organisational effectiveness.
This presentation has discussed the benefits and challenges of employee engagement approach in decision making process. Different approaches of employee motivation are also analysed in this presentation.
AC 4.1: Benefits and Challenges of Employee Engagement in Decision Making
Employee engagement approach in decision making activities helps the organisation to improve morale and motivation level of the employees. The needs of social recognition of the employees can be satisfied very easily through this employee engagement approach. In addition, more valuable inputs in strategy development activities are also important benefits because more brains work together due to employee engagement, which results in differentiation of ideas. Apart from these, good team working environment can be created. A good team working environment is good for employee motivation and decision-making activities. Most importantly, positive employee engagement ensures more responsible approach from employees, which is good for organisations in the decision-making activities. Lastly, it helps in enhancing time efficacy in the decision-making process as complex problems can be resulted very easily through the involvement of motivated employees.
However, there are different kinds of challenges of employee engagement. First of all, personality conflicts can be considered as a possible challenge for employee engagement. Secondly, possibility of trust issues within the team can hamper the effectiveness of the efficacy of the group workplace environment. Thirdly, Inter-group competition among staffs is also can be considered as a possible challenge of employee engagement, which can affect the employee effectiveness. Fourthly, presence of excessive number of employees in a group due to employee engagement can create a possible communication gap, which can hamper the effectiveness of team environment. Fifthly, lack of team-working skills in some employees also can hamper the quality and efficacy of employee engagement. These possible challenges need to be overcome to capitalise on the positive results of employee engagement in decision making activities.
AC 4.2: Different Ways to Motivate Employees
The top-level management professionals of organisations adopt different techniques to motivate employees and boost their performance level. Effective incentives on workplace performance, standard salary-structure, performance-based unbiased appraisal, effective training and skill development sessions, effective employee engagement, and improved employee retention are considered as some important ways to motivate employees in the organisations for better workplace performance.
4M1: Analysis of Motivational Theory that Informs Employee Motivation
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory can be applied here to detail the types of employee motivation in workplace.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
This motivational theory is comprised of five important need elements, such as physiological needs, safety needs, social recognition needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualisation needs. A leader of an organisation should satisfy these human needs of employees to boost their motivation and performance level in the workplace.
Physiological needs include needs for shelter, food, water, clothes, and good health. Organisations can satisfy these needs of employees by recruiting them depending on their qualification. Safety needs of employees include job safety and security. Organisations can satisfy these needs of employees by retaining them successfully. Social recognition needs of employees include needs for love and belonging in the workplace. Organisations can satisfy these needs by giving neutral and unbiased performance appraisal in front of other group members. Self-esteem needs of employees include need for power and affiliation. These needs of employees can be satisfied by the organisations by promoting them to the next level of hierarchy of organisational structure depending on their workplace performance. A self-actualisation need of employees is nothing but the needs of employees regarding reaching to his or her full potential. Organisations can satisfy this need of employee by offering incentives like free holiday package for the employee and his or her family members in foreign countries due to exceptional workplace performance. These are some examples through which an organisation can satisfy differentiated needs of employees in workplace.
4D1: The Employee Motivation Strategy of Apple
Apple Inc adopts different kinds of techniques to motivate employees and boost their performance level. First of all, Incentive Compensation System is an important motivational technique for improving the motivation level of employees. Differentiated incentive structure for bonus payment has helped the company to boost the motivation and performance level of employees.
Apart from incentives and rewards, the management of Apple Inc also has developed a policy for the employees that they can buy new and technologically advanced gadgets at 25 percent discount annually. This is another important motivational technique, which helps the organisations to retain the employees successfully. Effective employee engagement is another important employee motivation technique, which allows the employees to share their vision, values, and knowledge. These activities help in improving the degree of social recognition of the employees in workplace. Hence, this is another important technique for employee motivation adopted by the management of Apple Inc.
The contemporary global business environment has become highly competitive. Different companies are adopting different kinds of competitive strategies to become successful. Effective leadership strategies and managerial practices are become important for the contemporary organisations to become competitive and successful in the competitive global business environment. The organisational structure is an important aspect for the management professionals. It is the responsibility of the management professionals to select an appropriate organisational structure depending on the needs and demands of the situation. Similarly, it is also an important aspect for the management professionals of the contemporary organisations to adopt an appropriate leadership style. Effective leadership style depends on some important aspects, such as demands of situations and behavioural traits of the leaders. The organisations need to consider situations of the workplaces and market conditions before adopting the leadership styles. Organisational culture is another important aspect, which can help the firms to improve the effectiveness of the employees in the workplace. Motivated employees are considered as important assets for the contemporary staffs. Most importantly, the level of employee motivation depends on some important aspects. Effective workplace environment, adequate leadership style, favourable managerial approaches, relevant organisational structure, and appropriate organisational culture help the organisations to boost the motivation level of employees. It is the responsibility of the management professionals of the organisations to satisfy all the human needs of employees in workplaces. In order to do these, the organisations need to consider some important motivational techniques to boost the motivation, job satisfaction, and workplace performance level of the staffs. Some of common employee motivation technique includes incentives on workplace performance, standard salary-structure; performance-based employee appraisal, effective training and skill development sessions, adequate employee engagement, and improved employee retention. These are considered as some important ways to motivate employees in the organisations for better workplace performance.
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