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Organisational Behaviour Assignment: Comparison Of Communication Channels


Task : Write an essay on organisational behaviour assignment to Identify and describe a variety of examples of communication problems that are known to the team members, drawn from their experience working in their respective organizations.

Q.1 Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of Communication channels, verbal communication channels, and nonverbal communication.

Q2: Describe strategies for changing and strengthening an organization’s culture, including the application of attraction–selection–attrition theory.


The investigation conducted on this organisational behaviour assignment signifies that the lines of communication are critical components of administrative work in today's environment. Superiors benefit from their ability to command and control, while subordinates benefit from their pleasure and productivity. This was always linked to the effectiveness of strategic planning. Organisation and communication are inextricably linked since there is no organisation without interaction and no communication without organisation, and both complement one another when channels of communication are used to boost the organisation performance and production (Maloney et al., 2020, p.22). This essay is based on a comparison of communication channels including nonverbal and verbal communication trails along with organisational challenges. The necessity of a channel of communication management should have been a continuous activity for every small firm since knowledge is the lifeline of an organisation. Communication is essential to successfully transmit information and knowledge regarding business. Communication can perform in many forms, involving verbal, nonverbal, vocal and textual communication. It's critical that the knowledge be delivered in a way that the target receiver can comprehend.


Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of Communication

Channels, verbal communication channels, and nonverbal communication

Communication is an essential component of a fruitful business context that requires a proper business way or channel to deliver knowledge and information in the correct position. In general, there are many communication pathways to communicate with co-workers, colleagues, fellow juniors, executives, leaders and hierarchies. This communication channel includes face to face interaction, email communication, verbal and nonverbal communication, social media communication, digital communication, phone call communication and others. Each communication channel consists of several positive and negative areas that can be helpful or distressful for the company (Št?pánková, 2021, p.127). For intense, many companies focus on massage and phone call communication. On the other hand, some companies prioritise verbal communication for their communication pathway. The type of verbal communication such as,

Face-to-face communication: If communication accuracy is a essential component, face-to-face interaction is still the possible best option. In-person interaction involves engaging in a back and forth conversation with the listener. It also helps people to augment the information with nonverbal movements, body emotions, and individual charm. The main disadvantage is that in face-to-face communication, a disagreement may get more emotional. If the company has a psychological problem with the other individual, you are more likely to experience stress or anxiety.

Advantages: This type of communication is conventional and quick to understand. In addition, this type of communication helps to boost up personal skills and organisational skills. Face to face interaction helps the employees to communicate accurately and can help to reduce organisational consequences.

Disadvantages: The main disadvantage of this communication way is it is not a business communication pathway for exchanging knowledge and information and maintaining correct channels. In addition, face to face interaction does not contain any written or record for future utilizations. Sometime face to face interaction increases miscommunication and misleading transformation of knowledge regarding jobs.

Type of non-verbal communication such as Email communication: In globally distributed company employees or those where workers commute, e-mail refers to widely-used interaction route. Employees can submit a letter one day and get a reply the next day. It enables inappropriate dialogue while still allowing for quick turnaround times. It also denoted that the uploading of documents such as files and photographs (Balconi, and Fronda, 2020, p.29). E-mail is less personalised than face-to-face or telephone communication. Misconceptions or misleading can occur in the statement's background is absent.

Advantages: this type of communication is the easiest and most convenient process that follows the proper trail. In addition, it is considered as the most convenient way to communicate with employees and hierarchies regarding business or other factors, in addition, clients generally use email pathways to communicate with others.

Disadvantages: As email communication is easy and convenient it increases the chances of spamming that can interrupt business communication. In addition, sometimes emailing can be misleading or informal threads lead to business miscommunication.

Telephonic communication: In enterprises where distances and transportation hinder face-to-face contact, conventional or cellular phones have filled the void. The telephony still enables instant contact between the two people involved. Cellular applications also improve individual’s capacity to interact with co-workers or offices that are located in different locations. Because there are no nonverbal or physical gestures, such aspects are absent from the communication (Korcsok et al., 2020, p.9).

Advantages: This might make it difficult to discern a message sender's background or emotions. A phone conversation is also less intimate than a face-to-face conversation.

Disadvantages: This communication increases miscommunication and misleading information 6transfer between the employees and leaders.

Verbal communication uses languages, different words, phrases whereas; non-verbal communication includes body language, postures, expressions, feelings, voice tone, and communication which define a person's character. In addition, verbal communication helps the listener to understand body language, voice, body posture face to face; on other hand in nonverbal communication the listener is not able to face to face understand body language and other expressions. Verbal communication is a very casual way of communication that is not considered as a prop trail of business communication. On the other hand, non-0verbal communication is a proper business way of communication that helps to interact with others and deliver communication information and knowledge in a proper pathway. Nonverbal communication is a never-ending cycle. While a company such as sport directs a UK based company that learns nonverbal communication to utilise it even more consciously, it's not very well and primarily instinctive. Nonverbal communication is non-sequential like verbal communication. This is highly dependent on individuals responds to environmental stimulation using body posture along with other clues.

Verbal communication is defined as communication wherein the producer sends a piece of information to the reader through speech, either spoken or writing. It is the most efficient method to communicate since it allows for the fast exchange of data and response. There are fewer risks of miscommunication since the participants' interaction is unambiguous, i.e. they use words to express themselves (Jiang et al., 2021, p.249). Verbal communication can be performed in two ways, written and oral consists of proper communicating language, word choices. In addition, verbal communication can be performed by maintaining two different business protocols, informal and formal communication methods.

Formal communication: Formal communication, also referred to as official communication, is a sort of interaction wherein the transmitter uses which was before the route to deliver data to the receiver. Formal verbal communication is performed by the leaders to communicate with the employees regarding job urgency, job requirements or other job retention methods. In-formal communication: Informal communication, often known as passive communication or casual communication within the office, is a style of communication in which the originator does not use any which was before routes to spread information. In addition, informal communication is generally used by the employees to communicate with each other and share information or knowledge regarding any issue or job. This type of verbal communication is restricted to use for official purposes, communicating with hatcheries and clients (Sharma and Vyas, 2021, p.2).

Advantages: The verbal communication method assists in effectively dealing with the task quickly. This communication method saves time and assists the employees to perform within the deadlines with high efficiency and productivity. Non-verbal communication is a lengthy and time-consuming method that needs complex steps before transmitting any information. In case of urgency, the leaders used verbal communication to save time and reduce conversation timing to complete the job in time (Ilie, 2019, p.266). In addition, through verbal communication employees can easily convey their opinion, thoughts and creativity to the instructor making the job process easy and efficient. Moreover, verbal communication helps the leaders to communicate with the employees easily without risk of miscommunication and misunderstanding and help them to follow up the interactions. In addition, every social situation involving conversation necessitates the use of feedback. Leaders can be able to provide a speedy response to the responder's initial message by using verbal communication. In case it comes to uncertainties or concerns, verbal communication is far more effective than any other mode of communication in resolving them. In addition, it is very important to understand the responses and feedback for maintaining fruitful open organisational culture (Pirju, 2018, p.153).

Describe strategies for changing and strengthening an organisation’s culture,
Including the application of attraction–selection–attrition theory

Organisational culture is the reflection of the environment prevalent within an entity, irrespective of its operating arena. The organisation culture is created through a joint effort and collaboration among the team members and the management. As defined by Edgar Schein an organizational culture can be defined as a composition of several features including the shared pattern of basic assumptions that the team members have adapted overtime to cope with the dynamics of the internal and external environment (Mayfield et al., 2020, p. 20).

According to Chams and García-Blandón, (2019, p. 110) organisation or business culture denotes the correct way of behaving, communicating and transforming knowledge within the organisation. Organisational culture includes different shares, beliefs, perspectives and values denoted by the leaders or hierarchies along with different communication methods. In general, leaders define organisational culture as a shaping tool of employees’ attitude, behaviour, work efficiency, understanding, communication and confidence. Organisational culture refers to the context of everything the firm or company does because of the significant changing mode of industry and sector. There is no such specific template or framework of organisational culture that can be used by every organisation; it is differentiated by the organisation's culture, values, goals, objectives and future aspects. There are several cultural theories applied by the leaders to maintain a fruitful and happening organisational culture that helps to boost up employees’ proficiency.

Factors or strategies that shape organisational culture are,

Implementing values: At the heart of the organisation's culture are the values that represent the organisation's future scopes and objectives. These values are shared commonly by all the employees, leaders and managers in the same business context. This value strategy helps to boost stability in hazardous conditions, flexibility, team orientation, work orientation and innovation within the organisation. In addition, values help to emphasise productivity and results.

Degree of hierarchy: The degree of hierarchy indicates how much the company regards conventional leadership routes. The multiple levels of hierarchy are "high," which has a well-defined institutional framework and expects employees to work through formal communication channels; "moderate," which has a defined structure but accepts that people frequently work outside formal channels; and "low," which has vaguely defined position description and expects people to consider executive power (Meng, and Berger, 2019, p.70). Degree of urgency: The urgency degree emphasises the quick need for innovation, creativity and key drivers of decision making within the organisation. This strategy helps to understand the present state of the organisation along with understanding the present situation of the market. Big enterprises such as apple, amazon, and tesla select their degree of urgency strategy as per the leader’s choice, but SMEs such as sports direct and others go with the flow of the competitive marketplace and work on the degree of urgency.

Employee orientation: People and tasks are often valued in organisations in a certain way. While making choices, a company with a strong people orientation prioritises people and thinks that people influence the company's effectiveness and efficiency. When making choices, a task-oriented organisation prioritises tasks and processes, believing that quality and reliability promote organisational performance and productivity (Lysova et al., 2019, p.376).

Subcultures: In contrast to the prevailing culture, each organisation might have a mix of subcultures. Subcultures occur among groups of people who have their particular rituals and customs that, while not recognized by the benefit of the industry, can help to strengthen and reinforce the company's essential principles. Subcultures may wreak havoc on a person's life.

The organisational structure of a company or an entity reflects the mood within the organisation and directly impacts the productivity levels of the organisation. A positive environment inclusion in the culture nurtures the scope of enhanced cooperation and heightened levels of individual performances. The culture of an organisation is a heterogeneous attribute and encompasses several distinct components. The management here is tasked to figure out the common variables in those components and use them as a medium to promote inclusivity and cooperation within an organisation. To analyse the several attributes that contribute to the development of an organisation's culture, a discussion on the attraction-selection-attrition model can be made.

As evidenced by Oh et al., (2018, p. 1350), this model was introduced by Benjamin Schneider to view organisational behaviour as a psychological perspective of the components that interact with each other. The theory emphasises human perception and their individual contributions, processes and behavioural patterns within a group. The ASA model coherently integrates micro (individual) and macro (organisation) objectives to enhance and strengthen the organisation’s culture. This theory utilises the three-step process of attraction, selection and attrition to recognize the kinds of members in the organisation as their individual behaviours are the collective behaviour that reflects in the processes and culture of the organisation. The attraction part depicts that individuals tend to move towards organisations that are similar to their personality traits, while the selection process describes the procedure organisations adopt during the hiring and selecting candidates that are best suited to their organisation’s vision, culture and behaviour. Lastly, the attrition process states that a person adapts to the prevalent culture in the organisation after being part for a longer period of time.

Sports Direct adopts a similar model for strengthening its organisational culture and ensuring optimal collaboration among the team members. The use of this model helps it choose the appropriate individual that aligns with their organisational motto of enhanced collaboration and cooperation to achieve the company's goals (

Another important theory that proves beneficial in the comprehension of organisational culture is the MARS model of Individual behaviour. This model focuses on the individual perception, reaction and their contribution to the entity’s prevalent culture (Kruglanski et al., 2018, p. 165). The study of individual behaviour in organizational culture is vital as people are the basic constituent elements of the entity and their processes and reaction individually is what we see as collective behaviour in the organisation. The attributes used under this model are ability, motivation and role perceptions which are then incorporated with the behaviour and culture of the entity to understand the processes behind the organisation’s prevalent culture.

The effectiveness of induced motivational factors depends on the organisation’s culture. To better understand the relation between the two factors the theory of four drives can be implemented. The theory states that the mental ability of an individual relies on the social norms of their region, individual past experiences and personal values that are reflected in their behaviour within the workplace. These reactions influence the environment within the organisation and directly impact the motivational factors that are in place at the workplace. To conclude the organisation culture is a dynamic attribute of the organisation as a whole and it is impacted and influenced by several factors of which some are within and others beyond the control of the management. It is a very significant aspect of the organisation and as business leaders around the world believe it is a driving factor for the success of a business. Its maintenance and strengthening are important to adapt to the external work environment for its constant restructuring.

According to the overall discussion in this essay paper, it can be concluded that the comparison of different communication routes, including nonverbal and vocal communications tracks, as well as corporate obstacles, helps to understand better organisational behaviour view. Because information is an organization's lifeline, the need for a route of communication management should have been a continual effort for every new business. In today's world, communication lines are essential components of administrative work. Superiors gain from their capacity to command and control, while followers gain from their enjoyment and productivity. This was always inextricably related to the efficacy of strategic planning. Organization and communication are closely intertwined because there is no company without engagement and no communications without structure, and both supplement others when communication lines are employed to organisational effectiveness and output.

Anon, – the UK's no 1 sports retailer. – The UK's No 1 Sports Retailer. Available at: [Accessed January 24, 2022].

Balconi, M. and Fronda, G., 2020. The use of hyperscanning to investigate the role of social, affective, and informative gestures in non-verbal communication. Electrophysiological (EEG) and inter-brain connectivity evidence. Brain sciences, 10(1), p.29.

Chams, N. and García-Blandón, J., 2019. On the importance of sustainable human resource management for the adoption of sustainable development goals. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 141, pp.109-122.

Ilie, O.A., 2019, June. The intercultural competence. Developing effective intercultural communication skills. In International conference Knowledge-based organization (Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 264-268).

Jiang, J., Zheng, L. and Lu, C., 2021. A hierarchical model for interpersonal verbal communication. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 16(1-2), pp.246-255.

Korcsok, B., Faragó, T., Ferdinandy, B., Miklósi, Á., Korondi, P. and Gácsi, M., 2020. Artificial sounds following biological rules: A novel approach for non-verbal communication in HRI. Scientific reports, 10(1), pp.1-13.

Kruglanski, A.W., Fishbach, A., Woolley, K., Bélanger, J.J., Chernikova, M., Molinario, E. and Pierro, A., 2018. A structural model of intrinsic motivation: On the psychology of means-ends fusion. Psychological Review, 125(2), p.165.

Lysova, E.I., Allan, B.A., Dik, B.J., Duffy, R.D. and Steger, M.F., 2019. Fostering meaningful work in organizations: A multi-level review and integration. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 110, pp.374-389.

Maloney, D., Freeman, G. and Wohn, D.Y., 2020. " Talking without a Voice" Understanding Non-verbal Communication in Social Virtual Reality. Organisational behaviour assignment Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, 4(CSCW2), pp.1-25.

Mayfield, M., Mayfield, J. and Walker, R., 2020. How We Selected the Theories. In Fundamental Theories of Business Communication (pp. 11-21). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Meng, J. and Berger, B.K., 2019. The impact of organizational culture and leadership performance on PR professionals’ job satisfaction: Testing the joint mediating effects of engagement and trust. Public Relations Review, 45(1), pp.64-75.

Oh, I.S., Han, J.H., Holtz, B., Kim, Y.J. and Kim, S., 2018. Do birds of a feather flock, fly, and continue to fly together? The differential and cumulative effects of attraction, selection, and attrition on personality?based within?organisation homogeneity and between?organisation heterogeneity progression over time. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 39(10), pp.1347-1366.

Pirju, I.S., 2018. The Importance on Communication in Project Management Strategy. Acta Universitatis Danubius. Communicatio, 12(2), pp.152-161.

Sharma, S. and Vyas, P., 2021. Enhancing non-verbal communication in online classes: a conceptual framework. Journal of Education for Teaching, pp.1-3.

Št?pánková, A., 2021. Emotions in non-verbal communication at pre-election debates: a review of resources on the importance of politicians’ mimics at TV political debates and other forms of media messages. The Journal of International Communication, 27(1), pp.126-147.


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