Organisational Behaviour Assignment And Its Different Theories
Task: The purpose of this assignment is to get you to prepare for the Organisational Behaviour group assignment
Your task is to analyse two (2) key organisational behaviour theories, concepts or frameworks you intend to use in your group assignment. You may pick any theory, concept or framework covered in MGT5OBR Organisational Behaviour, either from the same or different modules. (If you are unsure, please discuss with your workshop facilitator).
This assignment requires you to do research. Your task is to draw on organisational behaviour theory to critically analyse your chosen theories, concepts or frameworks.
You need to analyse you chosen theories, concepts or frameworks in the context of organisational behaviour. Think along the lines of how these concepts may be used to help people and organisations achieve high performance levels and help ensure all organisation members achieve satisfaction from their task contributions and work experience.
Organisational behaviour can be termed as the investigation of behaviour of human beings in various settings of organisation. Organisational behaviour can be divided into three parts namely, the employees in the firm at micro-level, the groups or teams for work at meso-level and the behaviour of organisations at macro-level. The main aim of the principles of organisational behaviour is to improve the efficiency of the organisation. The investigation of organisational behaviour involves enhancing the performance of employees, enhancing the satisfaction they derive from the job they do, endorsing innovation along with motivating leadership. Every aspect or organisation has its own method of analysis.
In this organisational behaviour assignment, tow concepts like motivation or content and power has been chosen. The theories on the chosen concepts have been explained in the essay namely, Maslow’s Law of Hierarchy and Mintzberg’s Theory. Maslow’s Law of Hierarchy is a theory on motivation that defines the needs of an individual based on which a person is motivated while Mintzberg’s Theory is a theory on power that determines the conditions on which power is assigned to a person in an organisation. The theories on motivation and power has been thoroughly analysed and the connection that exists between the theories have been described in the organisational behaviour assignment.
Analysis of first concept
Motivation can be defined as the stimulation to do something. In terms of organisational behaviour, motivation can be defined as the stimulation that the workers have for the work they do or in order to attain the goals and objectives of the organisation (Psychologytoday.com, 2019). In case of organisational behaviour, the motto behind motivation is to understand the forces that encourage the employees and the management of the organisation can motivate the employees such that the goals and objectives of the organisation can be met effectively. Maslow’s Law of Hierarchy is a theory on motivation that relates to psychology that was developed in the year 1943 in the paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” by Abraham Maslow. The theory on motivation portrays five needs of human beings that are shown in the shape of a pyramid (Simplypsychology.org, 2019). As per Maslow’s Law of Hierarchy model, the needs at the bottom of the model needs to be satisfied in the beginning before the needs at the higher levels of model are satisfied.
The needs that have to be satisfied of an individual from the bottom are physiological needs, safety needs, love as well as belongingness needs, esteem needs along with self-actualisation needs. The model that illustrates five stages of needs can be divided into two sub-parts namely, deficiency needs that can also be termed as D-needs and being needs that can also be termed as B-needs. The levels at the bottom of the pyramid shaped model are referred as deficiency needs while the topmost level of the model is termed as being needs. The needs of an individual as per Maslow’s Law of Hierarchy from the bottom of the pyramid have been described below:
- Physiological needs: This level of need of human behaviour represents the biological needs or requirements of human beings such that they can survive. The examples of physiological needs of human beings are drink, air, food, clothing, warmth, shelter, sleep and sex. This level of need of human beings is most important needs of human beings that fall into D-needs or deficiency needs of the model (Bassett, 2016). If this level of need of human beings are not satisfied then the person cannot work or function in a proper way. The other needs of the model are considered secondary as compared to the lowest level of the model.
- Safety needs: This level of Maslow’s Law of Hierarchy represents the second level of needs of human beings that has to be satisfied. This level falls into the category of D-needs or deficiency needs. The needs of human being, that is, protection or safeguard from various components or elements, security and safety of a person along with stability, law, order and independence from fear or being afraid (Bouzenita & Boulanouar, 2016).
- Love as well as belongingness needs: This is the third level of needs of human beings that has to be satisfied in a human being and motivates an individual to perform better. The need for feelings or emotions of belongingness and love such that a person is socially connected motivates him or her to work or act for that (Anwar et al., 2018). The level of need also falls into the category of D-needs or deficiency needs. The examples of this level of needs are intimacy, friendship, trust, love, acceptance and affection. The need of a person to become a part of a group falls in this level of needs.
- Esteem needs: This is the fourth level of needs of Maslow’s Law of Hierarchy that demonstrates the need of regards or admiration of an individual. The esteem needs of an individual has been divided into two categories namely, the regards or admiration that an individual has for oneself, that is, independence, achievement, or dignity and the desire that an individual has for respect or reputation from others in other words a demand of prestige or status (Harrigan & Commons, 2015).
- Self-actualisation needs: The ability of a person to realise his or her own potential from experiences in order to seek personal development or growth and self-fulfilment is defined as self-actualisation needs. This level of need is the topmost level of need of Maslow’s Law of Hierarchy that falls in the category of B-needs or being needs.
Analysis of second concept
The second concept is power where power may be defined as the ability of a person or a group of people to influence the decisions that have been taken or affect the behaviour or actions of other individual or group. There are people or individuals who urge to have power however, the term power must not be confused with the word status as each has different meaning. Status can be defined as admiration or respect that an individual expects from others in a society. Status is different from power as it does not involve influencing the decisions or actions of others.
Henry Mintzberg is considered as a management expert who firmly believes that skills are learned through experience and skills’ cannot be taught in a classroom. Mintzberg suggested breaking down the role and responsibilities of management in order to assist the organisation in simplifying the complex concepts (Mintzberg, 2017). This assists in organising the firm’s into a more simplified culture so that each member can develop their skills. Mintzberg identified five popular organisational structures that have been mentioned below:
- Simplified structure: These types of companies have a few executives or managers and consist of multiple subordinates.
- Machine bureaucracy: In this structure the workers of an organisation operate as parts of machines. Each department has a significant responsibility of their own tasks and the decision making is centralised.
- Professional bureaucracy: In this organisation each professional work in an independent manner, without any centralisation on the tasks based upon their skill sets.
- Divisional form: Diverse work is generally delegated among the divisions. Each division is completely focused upon its own functions and activities.
- Adhocracy: In this organisation there is no appropriate structure, rather the firm has highly qualified employees that form various teams in order to complete the tasks and adapt to different industry changes.
In addition to the organisational structure Mitzberg revealed that though every manager is different with different skills and qualification however, it is suggested that every management should master and practice these decision making, interpersonal and informational role:
Figurehead: A figure head represents company in a professional manner and is responsible for legal, ceremonial and social matters (Laud, Arevalo & Johnson, 2016).
Leader: All managers are required to be an efficient leader that is able to guide, support and motivate their employees in difficulties and help them in enhancing their performance.
Liaison: They are responsible in order to network outside the organisation and relying on necessary information.
Monitor: A monitor is responsible to collect information from outside as well as within the organisation in order to assist the company by identifying the issues and the areas that require improvement to enhance performance.
Disseminator: Disseminator is required to provide valuable information to the employees and assign them duties accordingly.
Spokesperson: Managers are required to relay information externally and act as a spokesperson for their own brand.
Entrepreneur: If manager are acting as entrepreneurs they are required to inspire innovation and change. They are responsible for creating as well as implementing new ideas for the success of the company.
Disturbance handler: Any internal or external issue are required to be handled as well as resolved by managers.
Resource allocator: Managers are supposed to allocate and oversee different resources initiating from funding to equipments.
Negotiator: The negotiator has the responsibility of directing and participating negotiation within their organisation.
Connection of the chosen concepts
The two behavioural theories discussed above are closely related to one another, as both the theories are inclined towards improving the organisational culture and helps in developing a positive workplace environment. The theories help in encouraging the morals of employees and allow employees to achieve job satisfaction and in turn improve coordination and performance level of an organisation. If the management makes use of Maslow’s Law of Hierarchy theory, they ensure to fulfil the psychological needs and demands of their employees that help the employees in gaining job satisfaction and in return the workplace environment is positive as employees are satisfied and are encouraged to perform better. For instance, if employees feel secure and safe at their workplace, they will be stress-free and will work with their full potential. Therefore, safety and security is a psychological need of the employees which is fulfilled by the management of the company.
On the other hand, implementing Mintzberg’s theory managers can improve their skills and performance which will help them in displaying a positive and more supportive leadership that will help in gaining the loyalties and confidence of the workforce. This, in turn, helps in improving the workplace environment as employees are constantly motivated to perform better and receive adequate support from their manager and therefore are satisfied. For instance, if employees are insecure regarding their jobs due to any new changes being implemented by an organisation, then it is essential that the managers should assume the roles of leaders and communicate and educate their employees regarding the significance of changes and helps them in dealing with the change.
It is evident that both these strategy helps in influencing organisational behaviour assignment among their employees. For instance, in Maslow’s Law of Hierarchy, the management often makes use of the rewarding approach in order to fulfil the financial needs of their employees (Einstein, Addams & Roosevelt, 2016). They offer a reward to employees based on their performance; this encourages and motivates the employee to perform better. On the other hand, Mintzberg’s theory helps in improving the behaviour of the managers and enhances their skill. This, in turn, allows the manager to motivate and encourage their employees to work and perform better. This theory focuses on job factors and roles that help in motivating employees and increases the efficiency of an organisation.
This organisational behaviour assignment helps in understanding the significance of behavioural theories in influencing behavioural changes in an organisation. The two most popular behavioural approach Maslow’s Law of Hierarchy and Mintzberg’s Theory have been mentioned in order to understand regarding the impact of these two theories on the behaviours of the employees. A comparison between the theories helps in understanding that both theories are beneficial in motivating employees and achieving job satisfaction. Employee behaviours are positive and in turn, the workplace environment is enhancing with the use of behavioural approaches. The theory of needs is focused on the psychological factors while the Mintzberg theory helps in enhancing skill set that assists in balancing power in an organisation. Organisational behaviour assignments are being prepared by our management assignment help experts from top universities which let us to provide you a reliable assignment help online service.
Anwar, M. J., Sattar, B., & Anwar, M. N. (2018). MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS IN “BUTTON BUTTON” BY RICHARD MATHESON. IJOHMN (International Journal online of Humanities), 4(6), 10-10.
Bassett, L. A. (2016). The constitutionality of solitary confinement: insights from Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Health Matrix, 26, 403.
Bouzenita, A. I., & Boulanouar, A. W. (2016). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: An Islamic critique. Intellectual Discourse, 24(1).
Einstein, A., Addams, J., & Roosevelt, E. (2016). Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
Harrigan, W. J., & Commons, M. L. (2015). Replacing Maslow’s needs hierarchy with an account based on stage and value. Behavioral Development Bulletin, 20(1), 24.
Laud, R., Arevalo, J., & Johnson, M. (2016). The changing nature of managerial skills, mindsets and roles: Advancing theory and relevancy for contemporary managers. Journal of Management & Organization, 22(4), 435-456.
Mcleod, S. (2019). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Simply Psychology. Retrieved 6 May 2019, from https://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html
Mintzberg, H. (2017). Developing theory about the development of theory. In Handbook of Middle Management Strategy Process Research. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Psychologytoday.com (2019). Psychology Today. Retrieved 6 May 2019, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/basics/motivation
Get Top Quality Assignment Help and Score high grades. Download the Total Assignment help App from Google play store or Subscribe to totalassignmenthelp and receive the latest updates from the Academic fraternity in real time.