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Organisational Behaviour Assignment Analysing Complex Organisational Issues


Task: Purpose:
This individual organisational behaviour assignment is an opportunity for students to demonstrate their understanding of Organisational Behaviour in a Global context.
1. From Week 7 Pre Recorded Case Study
(a) Describe rational decision making.
(b) Cite 3 reasons for and 3 reasons against rebuilding Greensburg as a “green town.” (6 marks) 2. From week 8 Pre Recorded Case Study
(a) What is horizontal communication
(b) How is the horizontal form of communication more prominent in Intermountain Healthcare

3. From Week 9 Pre Recorded Case Study
(a) Where does Hewitt’s leadership fall on the Managerial Grid discussed in the chapter
(b) What deficiencies or shortcomings would you identify in Hewitt’s leadership

4. From Week 10 Pre Recorded Case Study
(a) Based on this case study, what issues with China-based suppliers require Numi’s managers to use influence and persuasion tactics
(b) How does Numi get suppliers to comply with its policies

5. From Week 11 Pre Recorded Case Study
(a) Does Honest Tea have more of an organic or mechanistic structure
(b) How can you tell (Justify)


1. Week 7
(a) According to the words of Koechlin(2020, p.5) considered in this organisational behaviour assignment, rational decision making can be regarded as a type of decision-making process wherein decisions are taken on the basis of information availability, logic, and facts. The researcher has further mentioned that during the process of rational decision-making individuals are responsible to analyse a certain imminent issue from various points of views to generate several solutions to the problem. In the opinion of Perkovic and Orquin, (2018, p.40), the feasibility, efficiency, and effectiveness of different solutions that are identified are then evaluated for the selection of a final decision to solve the problem. It has been identified that making rational decisions is highly effective and quite comprehensive. Moreover, the importance of rational decision making is that there is high accuracy in the decision made to solve a particular issue. To make a decision rationally an individual has to follow certain steps that are explained below:

In the first step of decision making, it is important to recognise and define particular issues to be solved.

In the second step stakeholder meeting can be conducted for brainstorming and recognising possible solutions to the issues (Djulbegovicet al., 2018, p.660)
In the third step, it is necessary to carry out the feasibility and effectiveness evaluation of the alternative solutions to the problem
In the final step, most effective and feasible solutions are selected and communicated with the stakeholders for implementation.
(b) The reasons for a green town:
The rebuilding of the village as a green town can help the public who were living in the city before the storm and lost their homes in the Tornado to remain in the city despite moving to other areas.
By rebuilding the town into a green town can enhance the overall sustainability of the town. The energy usage, waste production, environmental pollution, and preservation of biodiversity can be restored with the green project in Greensburg. Moreover, with the rebuilt town, Greensburg residents can access new schools, new museums, new dealerships, new city buildings, new parks and other opportunities. In the green town, people can use green energy resources to power their houses and carry out daily activities.
As the town would adopt a green and sustainable approach the next generation of the town would be more conscious towards sustainability aspects. Therefore in the future, the overall sustainable output of the town would be higher.

The reason against the green town
Building a green town includes a huge budget as identified from the case study. Furthermore, it is also evident that the current situation of the residents of Greensburg is not supportive of carrying out a project of such a high budget. So, the development of a green city cannot be prioritised in the present situation after a Tornado. In the present situation development of the disrupted businesses and the houses that have disappeared is more important for the authority.
Another major reason behind the prevention of rebuilding of the city into a green town is that the majority of the residents who presented their views on green city development are negative. It is important to raise awareness among the residents regarding the importance of the green city and the different aspects of sustainability in green towns.
The reason that is against the development of the green town is that the maximum portion of the residents think that their perspectives in decision making are not valued by the decision making authority. Therefore before proceeding with the green town development it is important to arrange stakeholder meetings and collect the viewpoint of every single resident in Greensburg city (Hill, 2019, p.242).

2. Week 8
(a) Organisational communication has been defined as an exchange of data or information among multiple groups or individuals within a company for creating a come on basis of feeling and understanding. According to Jiang and Men, (2017, p.240) communication can be of two types that are informal and formal. On the other hand, DuHadwayet al., (2018, p.15) explain that communication in organisations is divisible into 4 major types that are of upward, downward, horizontal, or diagonal. In horizontal organisational communication employees within an organisation communicate with the employees who belong to the same organisational level. Leeet al., (2017, p.955)have defined horizontal communication as the transmission of data among department’s divisions units for people within the same level of an organisational hierarchy. Horizontal communication can be distinguished from vertical organisational communication wherein information is transmitted among different levels within the organisation hierarchy. Sometimes, horizontal organisational communication is also termed as lateral communication.

Different types of organisational communication

Figure.1: Different types of organisational communication
(Source:Fominaya, 2016, p.100)

There are some distinct advantages of horizontal communication in an organisation. Firstly this type of communication can decrease discrepancies and misunderstandings by among different departments within the organisation that works on similar projects. Therefore the overall productivity and efficiency of the organisation are increased with reasonable communication. Moreover, the application of horizontal communication techniques can result in better implementation of top-level decisions. Recent research conducted by Galloet al., (2016, p.249)explained that teamwork in organisations is facilitated by horizontal communication. Furthermore, the researcher has also emphasized that this type of communication can result in higher motivation and job satisfaction among employees with the provision of impairment in communication. However, horizontal communication also involves some major disadvantages. With the increasing communication horizontally the top management can encounter problems in maintaining control over communication at the bottom level. In the opinion of Choet al., (2018, p.112) horizontal communication has the potential to generate conflict among employees who are exposed to each other during the process of communication. Therefore this type of communication is likely to hamper the organisational environment. Moreover, horizontal communication is more time consuming as compared to vertical communication.

(b) In the non-profit healthcare organisation Intermountain Healthcare, organisational communication is identified to be implemented in a form of horizontal communication. For Intermountain, good communication is highly important as it enables the word cost and better patient care. The horizontal communication in the company is prominent in the way in which the physician and nurse leaders communicate with their years as well as the team members. It has been identified from the case study that regular committee meetings are arranged in Intermountain Healthcare that promotes communication among the employees who are present in the similar level of the organisation. The different types of communication that are implemented in intermountain are putting flyers on bulletin boards, communication through the website, and meetings. Therefore, the organisation uses a combination of methods for communicating the organisational goals with the employees (Garget al., 2018). Another form of horizontal communication that is prominent in the concerned organisation is the arrangement of clinical programs through which all the providers of the company are allowed to interpret the company protocols and practices. Intermountain healthcare carries out the education of the patients through clinical programs. The standardized education allows the delivery of consistent messages to the patients that is also based on the principles of horizontal communication. The standardized education is supported by brochures during the discharge of any patient. The same standardized brochures are also provided to the service providers such as doctors and nurses to develop strong horizontal communication with the patients after their discharge from the hospital.

3. Week 9
(a)From the chapter regarding early behavioural approaches to leadership, an introduction to the leadership grid also termed as the managerial grid has been studied. It has been identified that the managerial grid provides a measure for the evaluation of the style of leadership of individuals and it trains them to move forward to develop an ideal style of behaviour. In the managerial grid, the concern of the leaders regarding the task is presented in the X-axis. In the Y-axis the concern of the leader for relationships and people is presented. The five different leadership styles that are located within the 9*9 grids are Team Management, Authority-Compliance, Impoverished Management, Middle-of-the-road Management, and the Country Club Management. Based on the analysis of the case study of the leadership style of Steve Hewitt, it can be said that the managerial approach of Herbert falls in the team management level in the managerial grid. According to Roy (2019, p.170), the team management leadership style is related to the accomplishment of works from the committed people. In a team management approach to leadership, independence is achieved through common stake that leads to relationships that are based on respect and trust.

Different types of organisational communication

Fugue.2: Managerial Grid
(Source:Kessleret al., 2017, p.547)

The leadership style of Hewitt can be regarded as the Team management approach to leadership as Hewitt has focused greatly on the needs of the people simultaneously while prioritising the tasks after the Tornado. By being on the front level in managing situations after the Tornado, Hewitt has put major efforts so that the right things can be carried out in the right situation. While leading the project in the town after the Tornado, Hewitt has greatly focused on managing interpersonal relationships with the managers hired by him to carry out the tasks that were previously done by him. The strong interpersonal relationship with the others is one of the major principles of team management leadership style included in the managerial grid.

(b)From the analysis of the case study, it has been identified that there is a lack of real deficiencies in the leadership style of Hewitt. The personality of Hewitt is presented as an analytic, strategic, and large-hearted individual. It has been also identified that by developing strong fission and strategies Hewitt can direct the subordinates regarding the achievement of a better future for Greensburg. The case study has mentioned that Hewitt was concerned about the need for adjustments to make the changes in the town. However, a deep analysis of the case study can identify some of the shortcomings and deficiencies in Hewitt's leadership. One of the major shortcomings of hey what's leadership is the lack of enthusiasm. It has been identified that the initial leadership strategy that was approached by heavy it was highly effective in motivating the subordinates and employees working on the project. However, in the later phase, it has been identified that excessive exposure to the media that was done by Hewitt had created conflict among the employees. According to Péréaand Von Zedtwitz(2018, p.15), excessive connectivity is one of the major weaknesses of the team management leadership style. It has been identified that after the Tornado Greensburg had become a site of attention for the media. All the staff from different levels of the project had contributed to the work of rescuing people and rebuilding the town, major attention was taken by Hewitt in front of the cameras. Therefore, the inability of Hewitt to reward people and recognise others' efforts is a major deficiency of Hewitt's leadership style. However, as compared to the shortcomings and deficiencies within leadership style, there are more advantages of Hewitt's team management leadership style.

4. Week 10
(a) According to McFarlandet al., (2019), influential people possess the power; however, not all the powerful people are influential on the others. Influence tactics are used by individuals for applying their power for influencing others' behaviour. It has been identified that the usage of influence tactics can enhance the probability of the others to respond favourably to certain requests influential and persuasion tactics can be used to get things done with the uses of logic and facts. From the analysis of the case study of Numi, the major issue of the China-based suppliers is identified to be the lack of compliance with the sustainable goals of the organisation. Another main issue in relation to China-based suppliers of Numi is ethical and cultural differences. Due to these differences, the suppliers face problems in understanding how Numi wants them to perform (Lamet al., 2017, p.49). From the case study, it has been identified that the managers of Numi are pressurized to use persuasion and influence tactics as the majority of the suppliers do not follow the sustainable approaches such as waste reduction, use of recycled materials, and treatment of the workers. The influence and persuasion tactics in this context can help the managers to enhance the understanding of the suppliers regarding the consequences of maintaining sustainability. Moreover, these tactics are also used by the managers as it is important to allow the suppliers to identify the results of the maintenance of sustainability in the supply chain.

(b) How does Numi get suppliers to comply with its policies
According to the statement of Leeet al., (2017, p.218) development of supplier ethics and compliance policies can help organisations in making their suppliers comply with the laws, policies, Human rights, health and safety, and environmental responsibilities. In the present case of Numi organic tea, it has been identified that a major portion of the suppliers of Numi does not follow the sustainable standards of the company with which they are working. For this purpose, the organisation has taken a number of approaches for making the suppliers abide by its policies regarding sustainability. Communication regarding the organisational values with the suppliers is one of the major approaches of the company to make the suppliers effective to follow sustainable goals. Apart from that, the owner of Numi is also identified to meet with the factory managers and workers to identify the level of sustainability within the suppliers’ organisation. The frequent visits of the owner in supplier’s organisations enforce the suppliers to improve the standard of living of the workers. It has been identified that by communicating effectively with the suppliers has resulted in a strong relationship between organisations based on which the suppliers have now been able to improve their own factories to reach the standards of the company with which they work. The influence tactics used by the company have helped it in enabling the suppliers to understand why the maintenance of sustainability of the whole supply chain from the starting to the end product is important for the company (Rangus and erne, 2019, p.172). However, in this process, the development of direct and meaningful relationships with the farming partners has ensured the quality as well as quantity of the products. While implementing this process, the managers and owner of the organisation have ensured that no cultural changes among the China-based suppliers are promoted by any means. The major focus of the company behind the processes was to improve the standard of living of the workers and farmers of the suppliers.

5. Week 11
(a)Organizational structure can be referred to as the way in which information within a different level flows and the ways in which different activities are carried out in an organization. An organic organizational structure relates to the flat organizational structure that involves horizontal interactions and communications. On the other hand, a mechanistic structure is a bureaucratic structure that includes centralized and formal networks. Organic organizational structure relates to a more flexible and decentralized structure as compared to the mechanistic structure. According to Marriet al., (2018, p.10), mechanistic organizations follow traditional bureaucracy that makes the organizations rigid. In companies implementing an organic organizational structure, the employees are highly motivated and encouraged to perform their duties and carry out team works. From the case study of Honest Tea, it has been identified that the structure implemented by the company is more likely to be an organic structure. Honest Tea is a US-based company that produces bottled organic tea and it is also a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Coca-Cola Company. The analysis of the case study indicates that the structure of the company is not rigid. Moreover, the company does not follow a traditional bureaucracy that is the major principle of a mechanism of organisational structure. Like an organic organisation, Honest Tea focuses greatly on competitive changes through the innovation of its products.Contribution of the employees is encouraged and appraised, which results in increased employee motivation and retention. Moreover, the communication among the different levels of the company is also contradictory to communication used in the mechanistic structure. Therefore its structure is more likely to be an organic structure.

(b) From the analysis of the case study, it has been identified that the organisation Honest Tea focuses greatly on becoming competitive in the market and responds to the changes in the market. Corresponding to the competitive changes in the market the organisation focuses highly on mission-driven innovation. Therefore, the advancement of the mission of the company is highly prioritised. This particular aspect is contradictory to the mechanistic organisational structure which is a rigid structure wherein changes in the organisational mission is not allowed. On the other hand, as an organic organisational structure is based on the principle of flexibility in the organisation, the organisational structure of honesty can be effectively explained in the form of an organic structure. The analysis of the case study has also indicated that in the company honesty hire organisational transparency is maintained for the employees. According to Mallénet al., (2016, p.472) higher organisational transparency relates to the presence of open communication channels for the uses of the employees. On the other hand, it has been also identified that in companies with organic organisational structure, open communication channels are highly utilised for promoting interaction among the employees. Therefore, mentioning the organisational structure of Honest Tea as an organic structure is justified with the uses of open communication channels to enhance transparency. It has been identified that in organic organizations, a lot of employees work in the horizontal clusters. In the concerned organization, it has been identified that horizontal communication is carried out among the employees at a similar level. The employees within the concerned organisation have been identified to develop communication while working across teams in a horizontal fashion rather than following communication that is based on up and down the traditional hierarchy. This particular aspect of communication is visible in companies that follow organic structure. Therefore, it can be said that mentioning the company Honest Tea to be an organic organisation is highly justified.

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