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Nursing Assignment: Implement & Monitor Healthcare Of Older People


Prepare a nursing assignment answering the given questions.


1. Provide a response to the following points mentioned within this nursing assignment:

  1. List five (5) chronicaged related health problems.

    Arthritis is the most common age-related health problem during life expectancy. Heart disease can be referred to as another leading chronic disease for elderly people specifically for more than 65 years. Further mental health and depression, diabetes, and Alzheimer's are other major chronic aged health problems (Raghupathi, and Raghupathi, 2018).

  2. b. Explain briefly the impact of multiple diagnoses of those health problems on identifying and prioritizing care of older clients in health care settings.

    Multi diagnosis for age-related health problems helps to priorities the aging population to have such type of treatment and prevention strategy can help them to deal with all issues.

2. Provide a response to the following:

  1. Discuss the importance of oral hygiene or a partial or full edentulous client.

    Oral hygiene is very important for everyone specifically for the edentulous client as they are completely at the stage of loss of dentition, hence they do not have any preventive mechanism to fight the bacteria. If they would not maintain oral hygiene then bacteria can reach the level which immediately confirms oral infection like gum disease and tooth decay.

  2. Explain in brief the care of soft tissues and dentures.

    Care of soft tissues and dentures starts taking the danger out from the mouth, brushing all surfaces of the denture for removing food is important. It is important for one to hold the denture firmly through gently. For keeping soft tissues healthy some essential nutrition tips can be vibrant like having proteolytic enzymes, protein, magnesium, vitamin c, and fatty acid like omega 3.

3. Provide a response to the following:

  1. State any(2) examples of external factors that may contribute to faster ageing processes. Are there any products available in the market that can slow down the ageing process? If so, state one (1) Such examples.

    Smoking and sun exposure are the most contributory factor for the faster-aging process. Certain products are available in the market to slow the aging where mononucleotide, crocin, Coq10, collagen are some of the substances to confirm anti-aging effects (Khan, Agashe, and Rolff, 2017).

  2. State five(5) common stereotypes associated with aging, and explain briefly how they adversely impact the older person?

    Stereotypes of aging are mostly associated with mental functioning, poor physical functioning, dependency, loneliness and ill health. Most of the aged person is well aware of the fact that with aging he or she can have this type of issues and due to their much concern over the fact they eventually started to face the issues mentally which gets followed by physical issues as study has proved that people who don't think about this way confirm fewer difficulties in their aging.

4. List five(5) functional assessment tools for assessing older clients
Katz ADL Scale, Get Up, Lawton-Brody IADL Scale and Go Test and Timed Get Up and Go, Test Clock Drawing, Test Mini-Mental Exam, Geriatric Depression Scale

5. Provide the responses for the following.

  1. Define physical, chemical and psychological restraints.

    Physical restraint contact with the intention of preventing restriction or subdued movement of the body can be referred to as physical restraint. The chemical resistant can be referred to as the international use of medication to restraint period or subdue an individual (Teece, Baker, and Smith, 2020). Psychological restraint includes constantly telling; where one is not allowed to do something as it is too dangerous for him then it can include depriving the person of lifestyle choices.

  2. Describe briefly legal and safety implications in the use of restraints

    Restraint needs to be applied in a physical way through medication or more certain means. Restraints can only be legal and justifiable if the individual person is trying to prevent the person from committing a crime where for other circumstances it is not legal. For safety consideration restraints can only be used for keeping a person in perfect position preventing falling while surgery or on the stretcher. For preventing or controlling harmful behavior restaurants can even be used

6. Provide a response to the following:

  1. What are advanced care directives?

    Advanced Healthcare Directive can even be referred to as advance decision, medical directive, advance selective personal directive, living ill. It is a legal document through which a person denotes what action needs to be taken to confirm decision if they become unable to make decisions for themselves due to incapacity or illness.

  2. List three(3) examples of legal and ethical issues that a nurse may encounter while caring for older clients.

    Three examples of ethical and legal issues an EN encounters while caring for the older client are informed consent affecting dignity on human rights and improper care. Informed consent and improper field belongs to ethical consideration whereas affecting dignity and human rights are directly linked with a legal issue

7. Identify at least one (1) purpose of the Aged Care Act 1997 and the Carers Recognition Act 2010 in Aged Care.
The Aged Care Act: The aged care Act 1997 for government-funded aged care where rules are there for the quality of care, right of people to receive care approval of provider, Regulation, and funding (Biggs, and Carr, 2019).

The Carers Recognition Act: The Carers Recognition Act, on the other hand, depict the role of careers in the community to confirm successful addressing towards the aged care act.

8. Identify at least one(1) purpose of the Aged Care Funding Instrument (ACFI) and Residential Care Quality Assessment (ResCareQA) in residential aged care.

  • Aged Care Funding Instrument: The Aged Care Funding Instrument can be referred to as a tool to measure the percentage of subsidy. A residential aged care facility receives for powering the cost of care for every individual resident.
  • Residential care quality assessment addresses 24 questions from four domains to allow easy calculation of 36 clinical indicators to confirm the overall assessment of quality for residential aged care.

9. Provide a response to the following:

  1. List (3) examples of physical triggers for aggression among older clients in aged care.

    Examples of physical triggers for aggression in older clients of aged care can be constipation, stress, depression, or pain and feeling of loss as all the factors confirm mental deterioration to trigger aggression (Funk et al. 2021).

  2. b. Describe at least four (4) techniques and four (4) immediate management strategies that can be used to address and manage such behaviours.

    Techniques include: Four techniques for managing aggressive behavior among older clients of aged care start with remaining silent and calm to give them enough time to be quiet. An empathetic and friendly manner can even be helpful to control them and manage aggression. Avoiding any work or activity which can be a catalyst for the aggressive behavior needs to be stopped and identifying the source of aggression and mitigate that can help to sustain a positive environment removing aggression.

    Immediate management strategies: Briefly explain, in your own words, the following theories of ageing: In order to talk about strategies one can challenge the client by body language, voice to put pressure on them. Staying around the client to make him come or argue with the client to understand his mentality and for some situations to manage the aggressive behavior of the older client in aged care.

10. Briefly explain, in your own words, the following theories of ageing:

  • Biological Theory - modern biological theories of aging can be divided in two categories damage or error theory and program theory. Anything can be referred as a result of sequential switching off on regarding certain gene where sequences can be defined as the time while age-associated definition started to happen.
  • Psychosocial Theory - Three major psychosocial theories of aging are continuity theory, engagement theory and activity theory. Due to tentative nature and lacking support further explanation and development for the theories are needed. Engagement theory was first explicitly stated for psychosocial theory of aging which hold under normal condition of health and economic independence.
  • Disengagement Theory - Disengagement theory of aging confirmed aging is inevitable, disengagement or mutual withdrawal which decrease interaction between the ailing person and others of social system
  • Social Exchange Theory - Social exchange theory of aging addresses for loss of power and status which is associated with aging
  • Wear and tear Theory - The wear and tear theory of aging assess the progressive damage of cells as well as body systems which confirms effects of aging
  • Activity Theory - Activity theory can be known as implicit theory of everything which propose successful aging can offer when old people stay active maintaining social interaction

11. Provide a response to the following:

  1. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of neurodegenerative dementia. Briefly outline the neurological conditions of at least five (5) types of dementia.

    Alzheimer - the most common dementia tile confirms abnormal shrinkage of brain to affect every brain function damaging interpersonal relationship

    Dementia with lewy body- similar to Alzheimer and present features like stiffness, commonly Parkinson confirming sleep disorder and visual hallucination (Becker et al. 2018).

    Vascular dementia- vascular accident causes brain damage and tissue loss to confirm Alzheimer like symptoms like memory disorder difficulty in planning, bad decision making

    Frontotemporal dementia- the neurodegeneration in this case affects the temporal and frontal lobes of brain to call important changes in personality and behavior with language difficulty to memory and move

    Mixed dementia- two types of dementia like dementia and Alzheimer dementia

  2. List a minimum of four (4) nursing strategies/interventions which can be used with clients who have dementia.

    4 nursing strategies to deal with client with dementia can start with encouraging exercise as it would help to reduce the problem. Socialization even can be a better strategy. Further cognitive stimulation and encouragement of meaningful activity can be another strategy and most importantly providing support for carers and family is the best strategy to adhere

12. Discuss the normalphysiology of the ageing process and its relation to the disease processes with respect to each of the following.

  • Sensory - with aging senses started to lose its sharpness and in disease process. As the sensor starts to lose its surface with aging it immediately gets followed by different diseases like eye problem, hearing problem etc
  • Cardiac - ageing can be the reason of changes in blood vessels and heart as with age, heart cannot beat fast which eventually gets followed by the disease of heart disease.
  • Respiratory - change in tissues or muscle near airways can lose the ability in keeping the airways completely open with aging which eventually gives followed by disease related to respiratory issues
  • Neurological- with aging nervous system through changes. different nerves lose their efficiency to be followed by different radical diseases.
  • Musculoskeletal - muscles become diseased with age and cannot be effective and efficient for long. Different types of diseases start to take place.
  • Renal function and Genitourinary - aging affects the basic structure as well as function of kidney cells to increase injury and other type of diseases
  • Endocrine - the system gets affected with aging by altering capitalism of hormone recreation and production. Hormonal imbalance direct to different types of diseases.
  • Integumentary - with ageing, skin becomes thinner and easily gets damaged confirming different types of skin diseases.
  • Cancer disorders cancer can be considered as age related disease as incidence of cancer increase with age

13. Provide a response to the following:

  1. AsanEN, explain three (3) strategies you would use to provide support and comfort for the grieving family or carer within your role of practice.

    By being an EN to provide support and comfort for grieving family or carer it's better to contact the brief person as soon as possible after the death of the loved one and attending the memorial service or funeral is better. Allowing the grieved person to express the feelings is most important (Blazin et al. 2018). Concentrating efforts for listening carefully with compassion can be another strategy for supporting all offering comfort to the grieving family or carer.

  2. AsanEN, list three (3) strategies you would use to provide care for the deceased person using standard precautions and in accordance with organization policy and procedures.

    Preventive strategies are very important where avoiding direct contact with blood or any body fluids from the dead body is important. Maintaining personal hygiene and putting on personal protective equipment including plastic apron for water resistant and surgical mask are even important. Practical support is another important consideration to be taken care.

14. Select the correct response
Statement A: An Enrolled nurse should take into account personal values, attitudes and beliefs during service delivery for the older person.

Statement B: An Enrolled nurse should impose personal views/attitudes on to residents in the residential care settings.

Statement C: An Enrolled nurse should recognize and monitor the impact of their own values and attitudes on care and ensure all interventions are conducted appropriately and within the scope of practice of the enrolled nurse.

  1. Statement A and B are correct and Statement C is incorrect
  2. Statement A and C are correct and Statement B is incorrect
  3. All are correct
  4. All are incorrect

15. What is complementary therapy ? Provide five (5) examples of complementary therapies in nursing practice.
Complementary therapies can be used with conventional treatment on medicine. Five examples of complementary therapies in nursing practices can be energy therapy, manipulative and body based method, biologically based therapies, mind body intervention, alternative medical system (Wojcikowski, Vigar, and Oliver, 2020)

16. Briefly describe how you would apply the Code of ethics for nurses in Australia and the Code of Professional Conduct for Nurses (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia) in your own nursing practice to support the old person’s rights and interests. Your statement should be between 250-350 words.

In order to apply code of ethics for nurses, it is important to have informed consent unless the patient is unconscious. Maintaining patient confidentiality is even important for the same. Further telling the truth and dealing with code of ethics for nurses to maintain

Understanding the principles of professional behavior through offered practice to the aging population and being acknowledged rate expected outcome by the nurses’ one can adopt professional code of conduct in nursing.

17. Describe briefly the Aged Care risk classification system.
Aged care risk classification system is to classify aged care residents can be referred as the Australian National aged care classification. It is for staffing and funding. For routine evaluation in aged care facility it can even be used (Dugré et al. 2021)

18. Considering the complex tasks involved in care giving of the elderly, provide two (2) examples of how this care giving may impact family or carer, and explain briefly why those impacts occur.
The complex tasks of care giving can a family or ethical and legal consideration. As for the ethical and legal consideration informed consent and truth delivery are important, however, while care giving of the elderly often these two aspects cannot be maintained to confirm best result of the care which adversely affect the carer or the family by having dilemma

19. It is a responsibility for EN to identify legal requirements and possible ethical issues and other issues of concern in aged care practice, including possible signs of elder abuse (Curry et al. 2018).

  1. List at least five (5) signs of elder abuse.

    Five signs of elder abuse are financial exploitation, physical abuse, and neglect, sexual abuse, and psychological abuse.

  2. Outline the EN’s legal responsibilities while caring for an elderly patient with physical abuse.

    Enrolled nurse can have the responsibility to take care of physical abuse while caring an elderly patient. I need to identify the person or incident where the elderly person is feeling physically abused and immediately need to be removed to confirm best care

20. List three (3) strategies that an EN working at an aged care facility could use to support the rights and dignity of clients and their family.
In order to confirm rights and dignity of clients and family, an enrolled nurse at aged care facility needs to confirm better monitoring process. Maintaining and returning positive respectful culture towards everyone is even important. Finally strict punishment needs to be there for any issues regarding rights and dignity of client or family

21. List three (3) things that an EN working at a residential aged care facility can advocate for their clients and their family members within their own scope of practice.

An enrolled nurse working at residential aged care facility can advocate for equality, respect, and sincere care for the client and family member within the scope of practice (Moquin, Seneviratne, and Venturato, 2018)

22. Provide a response for the following

  1. List at least three (3) signs of distress or behaviours of concern, especially in a person unable to communicate their symptoms or concerns.

    Irritating attitude, loss of interest, ignorance

  2. State three (3) measures an EN can take to respond to those signs of distress or behaviours of concern.

    Identifying the source, removing or mitigating the source, effective communication

23. Provide a response to the following.

  1. Identify ten (10) treatments including validation strategies, instructed activities and re-orientating therapy that an EN would apply to relieve distress and agitation in the person with dementia.

    10 treatment enrolled nurse can apply for relieving meditation and distress for person with dementia are maintaining the routine, moving to the secure memory care, community, calm approach, pet therapy, touch, aromatherapy, music, communication, noting down changes in behavior (Carrion, Folkvord, Anastasiadou, and Aymerich, 2018)

  2. Gladysisan 89-year-old woman with Dementia. She believes someone is throwing away her necklace, when in reality the necklace is being hidden under the mattress by herself. Using validation therapy, what would you, as an EN, say to her? List two (2) things you would say.

    At first instance it is better to accept her claim that someone is throwing her necklace away by the communication. Secondly telling a story of same type with the actual version can help to resolve the problem

24. Identify at least five (5) treatment strategies and/or nursing interventions that can be implemented to treat the neurological condition of the person with dementia. Medicine, physical therapy, spinal surgery, spinal cord stimulation, and empathetic attitude

Raghupathi, W. and Raghupathi, V., 2018. An empirical study of chronic diseases in the United States: a visual analytics approach to public health. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(3), p.431.

Khan, I., Agashe, D. and Rolff, J., 2017. Early-life inflammation, immune response and ageing. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 284(1850), p.20170125.

Teece, A., Baker, J. and Smith, H., 2020. Identifying determinants for the application of physical or chemical restraint in the management of psychomotor agitation on the critical care unit. Journal of clinical nursing, 29(1-2), pp.5-19.

Biggs, S. and Carr, A., 2019. How provider organisations interpret regulation in the context of residential dementia aged care. Australasian journal on ageing, 38, pp.83-89.

Funk, L.M., Herron, R.V., Spencer, D. and Thomas, S.L., 2021. Aggression and older adults: News media coverage across care settings and relationships. Canadian Journal on Aging/La Revue Canadienne Du Vieillissement, 40(3), pp.500-511.

Becker, E., Rios, C.L.O., Lahmann, C., Ruecker, G., Bauer, J. and Boeker, M., 2018. Anxiety as a risk factor of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Nursing assignment The British Journal of Psychiatry, 213(5), pp.654-660.

Blazin, L.J., Cecchini, C., Habashy, C., Kaye, E.C. and Baker, J.N., 2018. Communicating effectively in pediatric cancer care: translating evidence into practice. Children, 5(3), p.40.

Wojcikowski, K., Vigar, V. and Oliver, C., 2020. New Concepts of Chronic Pain and the Potential Role of Complementary Therapies. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 26.

Dugré, N., Bell, J.S., Hopkins, R.E., Ilomäki, J., Chen, E.Y., Corlis, M., Van Emden, J., Hogan, M., and Sluggett, J.K., 2021. Impact of Medication Regimen Simplification on Medication Incidents in Residential Aged Care: SIMPLER Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of clinical medicine, 10(5), p.1104.

Curry, S.J., Krist, A.H., Owens, D.K., Barry, M.J., Caughey, A.B., Davidson, K.W., Doubeni, C.A., Epling, J.W., Grossman, D.C., Kemper, A.R. and Kubik, M., 2018. Screening for intimate partner violence, elder abuse, and abuse of vulnerable adults: US Preventive Services Task Force final recommendation statement. Jama, 320(16), pp.1678-1687.

Moquin, H., Seneviratne, C. and Venturato, L., 2018. From apprehension to advocacy: a qualitative study of the undergraduate nursing student experience in clinical placement in residential aged care. BMC nursing, 17(1), pp.1-11.

Carrion, C., Folkvord, F., Anastasiadou, D. and Aymerich, M., 2018. Cognitive therapy for dementia patients: a systematic review. Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders, 46(1-2), pp.1-26.


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