Nursing Assignment Examining No School No Pool Project
Nursing Assignment Instructions:
A video concerning an Australian Indigenous community’s health project will be used as a trigger for students to respond to four (4) written questions about the Social determinants of Health, the Principles of Primary Health Care, Health promotion and Cultural competence. Watch the video ’No School No Pool’ and answer the 4 questions listed below. Responses must be in full, complete sentences. Your responses must not be in point form.
1. Identify and discuss two (2) social determinants of health that helped to determine the need for the project. Provide examples from the video and include at least one (1) scholarly reference for each social determinant.
2. Identify and explain how two (2) primary health care principles guided the project in the video. Provide examples from the video and include at least one (1) scholarly reference for each principle.
3. Identify and discuss one strategy from the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion that relates to the project in the video. Provide at least one (1) example from the video and include at least one (1) scholarly reference.
4. Define cultural competence and discuss why it is important in determining the success of the project. Provide at least one (1) example from the video where this concept is demonstrated and at least one (1) scholarly reference.
No School No Pool’ Video project
Herein nursing assignment, the need for the 'No School, No Pool' project, a project that is aimed at improving school attendance by pupils from remote indigenous communities, was determined by several social determinants of health. Two of the determinants that must have been considered include; access to quality education and residential segregation. Education is known to affect a person's overall health because it helps in improving the healthy behaviors of a person. For instance, basic early education has proven to be very important as it sets the foundation for a healthy life. Education affects the health of a person in the same measure that it affects, to a larger extent, the income of a person. Moreover, it helps one lead and sustains a controlled lifestyle with positive choices as well as nurture positive human relationships and the development of the wellbeing of a person, a family, and a community. According toAdeleye and Ofili (2010), "across all ethnic and racial groups, adults with lower educational attainment are more likely to report worse health outcomes; babies of mothers who did not graduate high school are twice as likely to die before their first birthday, and college graduates are expected to live at least five years longer". Therefore, it is considered that investing in education equals to an investment in a person and communal health altogether. In the video 'No School No Pool,' the putting up of a swimming pool in a remote village in Australia is meant to improve education in the area by reducing the levels of truancy. The main objective of the project was achieved because the school attendance of the local children improved, which would, in turn, improve the general education of the community hence improving the health conditions of the people living in the community.
Residential segregation as a social determinant of health was also a factor in determining the need for the project. Usually, the neighborhood where one resides determines the quality of their health and even life expectancy. This is because one's neighborhood is determined by their social class and economic income, which in turn affects the availability of quality health care, availability of food as well as proper housing, which, overall, impact the health of a person. The video reveals the community where the project was taken asa remote desert with persons of low economic income where availability of quality health care, recreational facilities, food, and water, as well as proper housing, is a problem. A large number of the inhabitants are also indigenous persons, and that could serve as a factor for the segregation. "Socioeconomic status explains much of the association between neighborhood segregation and health outcomes (Sudano et al., 2013).” The swimming pool project was therefore important in improving the health of the community as it would provide recreation, improved eye health, and provided a place to cool off in the scouring heat of the desert under a safe, healthy, and controlled environment. Therefore, the swimming pool proved to be a fastidious remedy to skin infections, eye, and respiratory infections, as well as a social, recreational amenity where young people interacted with the intention of changing their behavior and attitudes.
The two primary healthcare principles that guided the project include public-community participation and intersectoral coordination.
Regarding public participation and involvement, it is important to involve individuals, families, and communities for which a facility that aims to improve their healthcare is being put up. The participation should be done at the levels of planning, implementation, and maintenance of the health services or facility. Public participation helps in encouraging the community to take ownership of the facility as well as the health and wellness of its people. Hughes (2016) found that "community participation is a foundational principle of primary health care, with widely reputed benefits including improved health outcomes, equity, service access, relevance, acceptability, quality, and responsiveness." This then suggests that a public healthcare project is deemed more successful with the community's involvement. From the video on the project, there was public participation on the project because the decision to put up a pool to help in combating truancy came from the members of the community, including land custodians, elders, teachers, and parents. The public involvement further helped in the acceptance and support of the project by the members of the community; hence, the project had positive health outcomes.
Intersectoral coordination as a primary healthcare principle involves the cooperation of all related community development sectors, including education, agriculture, animal husbandry, food industry, communication, public works, and housing (Draper et al., 2010). This principle appreciates that the health of a community is not dependent solely on health services. For example, in the video of the project on 'No School No Pool,' there was intersectoral coordination between the health sector and the education sector to ensure short term improvement of the health of children who attend school and use the pool as well as the long-term improvement on the health of the entire community as a result of improved literacy. According to Adeleye andOfili (2010), "some services normally require multidisciplinary and sometimes intersectoral inputs. For example, school health programs, which may engage health and education sectors, aim at improving the wellbeing of children, thus reducing school absenteeism and improving learning."
A strategy from the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion that relates to the project on the video is that of; 'Creating Supportive Environment.' This strategy emphasizes the irrefutable link between an individual's health and the environment in which they live in. Taking into consideration that; work, schooling, and leisure have a significant impact on one's health, this strategy aims at solving health issues through an approach that emphasizes the setting. This approach ensures that the way work, schooling, and leisure are organized should be in a manner that helps in creating a healthy society by offering conditions that are safe, enjoyable, and satisfying to an individual and the society. Project0r. (2008) states that the importance of the environment in human health and wellbeing has been known for centuries, but it has not always been given the precedence that it deserves. Housing, transport, and local communities could all be designed so that there are considerable improvements to health.In the video on 'No School No Pool,' the schooling environment of the children living in the remote desert community has been modified so that there is reciprocal maintenance between education, health, and leisure. The swimming pool doubles as a recreational amenity and a health facility where schoolchildren get to swim and reap health benefits, and it serves the purpose of attracting the children to come to school and acquire education, which will in turn help improve the healthy living of the community in broader ways.
Cultural competence refers to the ability to interact effectively with people of a different culture. According to Chamberlain (2005), culture represents "the values, norms, and traditions that affect how individuals of a particular group perceive, think, interact, behave, and make judgments about their world." In the no school no pool project conducted amongst the Aboriginal community of Australia, the success of the project depended on appreciating the fact that many children from the Aboriginal community are more likely to suffer from skin infections, eye, and respiratory infections because of poor hygiene as well as dusty conditions associated with desert regions. The success of the project also had to take into consideration the cultural aspect of the communities' interest in swimming and the lack of adequate health facilities. According to Acevedo-Garcia andLochner (2003) from age, gender, race, and ethnicity to social class, language, spiritual beliefs, and mental and physical abilities, the breadth and depth of differences found in the people populating our single planet are diverse and many in number. From the evidence in the video, when the project first began, many of the children who went to the swimming pool had skins infected with scabies, ears that had too much wax and eyes that were also infected. Still, after a period of swimming at the pool, their conditions improved significantly. The ability to swim by many children who have interacted with the pool has significantly reduced the mortality rates due to reduced drowning. The Aboriginal community stays in a region with rivers that flood during winter season. The social interactions amongst the young people at the pool also led to a great change in their behavior and attitude, which later started to show in the entire community's behavior.
Acevedo-Garcia, D., &Lochner, K. A. (2003).Residential segregation and health. Neighborhoods and health, 265-87.
Adeleye, O. A., &Ofili, A. N. (2010). Strengthening intersectoral collaboration forprimary health care in developing countries: can the health sector play broaderroles?. Journal of environmental and public health, 2010.
Chamberlain, S. P. (2005). Recognizing and responding to cultural differences in theeducation of culturally and linguistically diverse learners. Intervention in Schooland Clinic, 40(4), 195-211.
Draper, A. K., Hewitt, G., & Rifkin, S. (2010). Chasing the dragon: developing indicators for the assessment of community participation in health programmes. Socialscience & medicine, 71(6), 1102-1109.
Hughes, J. (2016). Why is cultural competence in healthcare soimportant? HealthcareStudies.Com. https://www.healthcarestudies.com/article/Why-Is-Cultural-Competence-in-Healthcare-So-Important.
McKinnon, G., Pineo, H., Chang, M., Taylor-Green, L., Strategy, A. J., & Toms, R.(2020).Strengthening the links between planning and health inEngland. bmj, 369. Project0r. (2008, March 1) No School No Pool [Video]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uqZtQEe9maY
Sudano, J. J., Perzynski, A., Wong, D. W., Colabianchi, N., &Litaker, D. (2013).Neighborhood racial residential segregation and changes in health ordeath among older adults. Health & place, 19, 80-88.