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Networking Assignment:Standardization within the Protocol Architecture


Task: Standardization within Protocol Architecture
Report format: MS Word format submitted via vUWSTurnitin assignment. Not more than 2000 words (12 point Arial) excluding references. The aim of this assignment is for you to learn the importance of standardization, the process of standardization and the relevant standards organizations in the telecommunications sector.
Protocol architecture is the layered structure of hardware and software that supports data communication and distributed applications on a network. The concept of layered protocol architecture has greatly assisted the standardization process in data communication and computer networks (data networks).

This assignment has four parts:
1. TCP/IP protocol architecture, which has been widely used for many years, is named after its two primary protocols. Briefly describe this reference model with more emphasis on the lower layers (Physical, Data Link and Network).
2. Choose a protocol used in the Link layer of the TCP/IP reference model and identify the organization or entity responsible for its standardization. Alternatively, you may choose a relevant interface (e.g., RS232, IEEE 802.11) to research the standardization process.
3. Describe the process of standardization undertaken by the organization or entity.
4. What are some advantages and disadvantages of standardization?


Networking Architecture
1. TCP/IP protocol architecture

TCP/IP protocol architecture consists of many protocols those are responsible for good data communication. It assists the transfer of data from one end to another. TCP/IP networking architecture ensures timely and quality delivery of data within the network (James 2008).The protocols essential for communication between two hosts is distributed in 4 layers as shown in figure 1.


Figure 1 TCP/IP Network Architecture


Figure 2 Protocols at different layers

Layer 1: Network Access Layer

This layer is a combination of Physical Layer and Data Link Layer. It contains protocols that converts a data to bit stream so that carrier could carry the data securely. The data is carried into it by packet (Douglas 2006). Physical Layer: This layer is responsible for linking two hosts on the network. It decides the cabling, device configurations and frequencies between communicating devices. Frames from data link layer are converted into signals, precisely binary bits that can be sent over communication link. Physical layer is mostly responsible for checking compatibility of two devices and communication media on the basis of hardware components it uses in communication.

Data Link Layer: It is responsible for data communication between stations at the same level in network. It ensures errorless communication between hosts. If errors occur, data link layer is responsible for knowing the reasons and rectifying the issues. Before the data is transmitted on the communication media, the connection needs to be set up between the hosts first. This is ensured by data link layer. Similarly, at receiver, data received correctly or not is audited by data link layer at receiver (Forouzan 2003).

Layer 2: InternetLayer
Internet Layer is responsible of packaging data into IP packets so that it is recognized and read by other devices in the network (Richard).
Functions performed by network layer are as follows:
Passing on data science packs
Performing managing
Keeping off from blockage

Layer 3: Transport Layer
Transport layer puts data header that contains correct source and destination addresses so as to identify the data address correctly. It performs fragmentation of data if the payload extends the acceptable data size in one packet. The data is fragmented or not is identified by fragment bit and sequence number in IP header. The fragmented data once received is arranged into sequence by the transport layer at destination. The main protocols are UDP and TCP so as to assist the correct transport layer functions (Forouzan 2003).

Layer 4: Application Layer
Application layer is the topmost layer of protocol stack which receives the data from the user and sends it to the next layers for converting it into the packets. It contains protocols responsible for data presentation at receiver as well as data acquisition at sender (Douglas 2006).

2. Interface IEEE 802.11 and Standardization
For understanding the standardization process, we chose IEEE 802.11 interface. This interface is overseen by IEEE.The 802.11 standard, while a solitary standard,has numerous signs that permit remote system get to. It covers everything from how synchronization ought to be performed, to how infrared (IR) remote systems ought to be arranged, to spread range chip rates for various applications.

3. Standardization Process of IEEE 802.11
The guideline work of the IEEE 802.11 WG is semiconductor diode in TGs. TGu is dealing with interworking with measures isolated from 802.11, for example, the third-age singular organizer or 802.16, and TGv is systematizing remote structure the board to move functionalities, for example, different BSSIDs (urgent help set identifiers) and multicast. These TGs have essentially made drafts of adjustments and are endeavouring to complete their undertakings.

TGn and TGw have astonishingly finished systematization work and were searching for positive guaranteeing of their draft fill in as of Gregorian timetable month 2009. For the high-throughput WiFi frameworks being systematized in TGn, the making must be obliged to dispatch them at the transcendent reliable conceivable time incited different draft-based contraptions being discharged onto the market while not keeping it together for undeniable help. Systematization take an endeavour at IEEE 802.11ac and IEEE 802.11ad (incited sorts of IEEE 802.11n) has in like way started in TGac and TGad, on an individual reason, with the target of abundant speedier web get to.

IEEE 802.11 is one in everything about working groups (WGs) of the Institute of Electrical and physical science Engineers (IEEE), an overall systematization affiliation overseeing LANs. IEEE 802.11, whose essential employment is making specific subtleties for remote neighbourhood use, gave its underlying standard "IEEE 802.11" in 1997. From that time forward, it's given changes for snappy access at up to fifty-four Mbit/s (802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g), security (802.11i), nature of organization (802.11e), and very surprising regions.

In the mean sun-oriented time, there's an amazing issue: there are things any place interconnection between various vendors can't be cultivated in spite of the undeniable reality that the remote neighbourhood contraptions satisfy the IEEE 802.11 pointers. during this way, in August 1999, remote neighbourhood dealers designed up the Wireless LAN Compatibility Alliance to guarantee interconnectivity. The social occasion was renamed the Wi-Fi Alliance and is by and by making an endeavour to work out this issue.

Study groups (SGs) are made before Task groups (TGs). SGs set the degree and targets of activities to be coordinated by TGs. inside the occasion that those things are bolstered, a TG will start doing its activities. The methodology of regulation relies on each TG be that since it may, when all is guaranteed in done, a TG at first appearance at the specific issues and supportive stipulations expected to achieve the destinations of activities, and individuals around then propose progressions for idea to fulfil those needs. inside the occasion that the arranged headways are Affirmed by entirely unexpected individuals, around then drafts for those advancements are made and submitted for counsel and underwriting at the WG level. inside the contemplations, individuals WHO have throwing a voting form rights take support of underwriting and might be a piece of comments.

The cycle of idea and adjustment of drafts is reiterated and if the IEEE 802 board grants underwriting (last support), the arranged headways will be given as benchmarks.

4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Standardization

The standardization of created correspondences utilized by AN affiliation improves validity inside the firm even likewise with customers and providers. Systematized correspondences square measure viably conspicuous. Systematized formed correspondences may similarly improve truth and extra time. the work of regulated exchanges will in like manner encourage maintain a strategic distance from blackmail. for instance, if a customer grounds up mindful of acceptive explicitly structured messages from her bank, she will be supreme to comprehend AN email from a swindler calling to figure at the bank. The customer may then report the stunt email to the correct masters.

Different PCs from all the planet will interface along, in light-weight of the very truth that they're using the widespread typical.
Simpler help and organization since you get used on the quality.
If every last one of the systems square measure keeping an indistinguishable typical, it is by all accounts direct each-body for everyone} to relationship with each unique individual. At the highest point of the day, the overall measures give direct entomb network.

If any ordinary is commonly utilized, it grabs economies of scale. for instance, VLSI chips then forward. With every last one of the structures using an indistinguishable ordinary, the organization and in this way the help of the affiliations become awfully direct. Bundle organized by the specialists from everyplace all through the planet, won't have any issue in interfacing with the host structure and accordingly the distinctive programming. they'll perform admirable with a huge extent of working structures and instrumentation since each square measure using an indistinguishable ordinary.

While systematization of created correspondences could be significant to AN affiliation, it's essential to comprehend that theirsquare measure various disadvantages. for instance, the affiliation should prepare workers to use the sufficient association, which can as of now at that point be extreme. Finally, horribly unbendable benchmarks may impede the master from totally human activity the message in A viably passable methodology. Serious regulation may in like manner impede astuteness. it's rudimentary for chiefs and workers in any regard levels to see once it's fitting to stray from the affiliation's standards for created exchanges. Issues occur in standards; it'll be widespread issue.

All associations and manufactures ought to hold fast to the models as unfriendly developing new strategies. Poor standards can be encircled attributable to the ceaseless regulation. Once the quality is grasped generally, it will deplete to make changes thereto. it'll be depleting to blessing new and higher courses in thereto.
If an issue occurs, it ought to be seen as a world issue.
The makers and associations can surely keep an indistinguishable general benchmark so they won't have the decision to make one thing higher of their own.
Overall associations won't have the decision to pool everybody in to using their prohibitive shows and later no gigantic favorable circumstances.

Ciavaglia, L 2013, Autonomic Network Engineering for the Self-Managing Future Internet (AFI); Generic Autonomic Network Architecture (An Architectural Reference Model for Autonomic Networking, Cognitive Networking and Self-Management), v. 1.1.1, specification by European Telecommunications Standards Inst., pp. 80–167.
Comer, Douglas 2006, Internetworking with TCP/IP: Principles, protocols, and architecture. Prentice Hall.ISBN 0-13-187671-6.
Forouzan, Behrouz A.; Fegan, Sophia Chung2003,Data Communications and Networking, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, ISBN 9780072923544.
James F. Kurose, Keith W. Ross, 2008Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach, ISBN 0-321-49770-8
Richard, S W 1994,TCP/IP Illustrated Volume 1 The Protocols, Published by Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-20-163346-9.

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