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Networking Assignment Identifying Five Ways Of Increasing Cellular System Capacity


Task: How are wire networks reusing the channels through entire network coverage area mobile network system?


On this Networking assignment we review the advancements in technology, there has been an increasing security issue because of which several protocols has been designed. These protocols are susceptible to threats and attacks by the intruders. In this report, a survey has been done on the security issues and other network technologies such as Blueetoth and Zigbee. Added to this, comparison of the protocols has also been done.

1. Identify five ways of increasing the capacity of a cellular system
The development and advancement in wireless communication network over the past decades has improved immensely in the past few years. Reusing the channels through entire network coverage area mobile network system is dependent on intelligent allocation system (Panasyuk et al, 2016). With the increasing demand for wireless services, the number of channels assigned to the cell increasingly becomes difficult to manage with the growing number of users on a specified network area. Therefore, to increase the capacity of the cellular system, five possible best ways can support its maximum structure and service giving position.

Adding cell sites: Adding cell sites is considered as an expensive but suitable approach to improve the capacity of the cellular network system as the users are also increasing in the system. It is considered as an effective approach but it is a bit time-consuming process as adding each cell site needs a lot of resources and mental work to be conducted. 

Cell splitting: Cell splitting is identified as the process that subdivides a congested and large cell into various small individual cells by creating their own base station and a reduction in the height of the antenna and the transmitting power (Snyder et al, 2016). It increases the capacity of the channels in the cellular system as it helps to evaluate the number of times the channels and the customers are reusing the network. 

Adding sectors: Changing the sectors in a cellular system from 3 to 6 is considered as a useful way to approximate the introduction of new cells (Renkis, 2019). Therefore, to maximize the capacity of the radio network system, this sectors addition is crucial for its high usage and expansion.

Improving air interface capabilities: The air interface capabilities that are evolving from a universal mobile telecommunication system to high-speed downlink packet access aggregates the downlink capacity over four times, thus increasing the size of the cellular system network through airwaves transmission.

Installation of smart antennas: On this Networking assignment, smart antennas or adaptive antennas helps to increase the cellular capacity with its electrical tilt, beam width and azimuth control that follow a comparatively slow varying traffic pattern (Mehboob et al, 2016).  Therefore, the installation of smart antennas helps to increase the cellular capacity of the wireless system network.

2. Suggest other ways than Bluetooth from preventing jamming your WLANS
Bluetooth or IEEE 802.15.1 is responsible for pushing the WLANS system for its operational function as identified on the Networking assignment. A wireless LAN cable saves the cost of the installation of LAN cable and moving it from one to another, thus making easier the task of relocation for a modified network structure (Lu et al, 2015). A Wireless LAN is required to meet the typical requirements of any LAN by efficiency of loading high service weight, covering smaller distances and coverage area, full connectivity, and service functional capabilities. The main advantage of WLAN determined on this Networking assignment is that it can be used without having to go through the licensing procedure. In order to prevent jamming in the WLANS supply and service generation, apart from Bluetooth, Wi-Fi plays another critical role that can avoid disrupting the functionality of WLANs. Along with this, the various standardized versions of IEEE 802.11 can be used to prevent jamming in the wireless LAN cable networks. IEEE 802. 11e that is MAC enhances to improve the quality of services by improving the security mechanisms of the system. The Wi-Fi alliance, along with its development of 802.11a products called Wi-fi5 prevents disrupting jamming the various architectural system structures of wireless LANs cable networks (Buddhikot, Kolodzy & Miller, 2015). The IEEE802.11 MAC layer covers three functional areas; called as trustworthy data delivery channel, control system and security Networking assignment. Therefore, to prevent jamming with WLANS network, Wi-Fi plays a significant role, thus establishing a physical network control through data transmission. On the other hand, the MAC framework acts as a medium for the current communication as collision detection is not practical on a wireless network as observed during research of this Networking assignment. The point coordination function (PCF) is also considered as another functional activity that helps to prevent jamming with WLANS for avoiding any faults in the system network. Therefore, apart from IEEE 802.11, that is Bluetooth, Wi-Fi is considered as another medium to prevent jamming with WLANS service network.

3. Compare and contrast Bluetooth and ZigBee technologies
Bluetooth is also known as IEEE802.15.1stanadard is a wireless protocol, which is designed on the radio system and is applied for short extension ` for replacing the cables of the computers and its peripheral devices. This extended source of application is commonly called as WPAN. There are two connectivity technologies which are defined in Bluetooth namely piconet and scatternet. The Bluetooth device, which acts as a master in the picone, usually forms piconet and the other Bluetooth devices act as a slave (Bihl, Temple, & Bauer, 2016). The devices which are involved in the communication for a provided piconet is aligned with the help of a clock. The slaves will only deliver message in a point-to-point manner with its master under its control. On the other hand, a scatternet refers to the group of operating Bluetooth piconets, which overlaps, with respects to time as well as space. Generally, two piconets when connected together form a scatternet. Bluetooth devices might participate in the various planets, which allows the information to flow the coverage area. The device, which exist in scatternet acts a slave for various piconets however, the master is only one.

ZigBee technologies on the other hand, refer to the applications which illustrates the particulars for the low rate WPAN and assists the simple devices which would consume low power as observed during this Networking assignment research and data collection. These typically run in the POS (Personal Operating Space) of around 10m. Along with this,. ZigBee technologies also offer a self-structured, reliable Networking assignment structure provided with longer battery life. In a particular LR-WPAN network, there can only be two elements, which are FFD (Full-Function device) and RFD (Reduced Function Device). FFD can run in three distinct modes, which are PAN modes, coordinator mode or may be a device. For FFD, it can communicate with RFD as well as other FFDs however, RFD has some restrictions over it. Thus, RFD can only be applied using some of the less resources and capacity in memory (Khan & Kabir, 2016). When FFD get activated, it sets its own network and act as a PAN coordinator and when this chosen, it's coordinator lets the other various users to collaborate with the other coordinators. In terms of radio channels, Bluetooth protocol uses a frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum with 79 channels of each having a bandwidth of 1MHz while ZigBee technology business Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum where can of the 16 channel carries a bandwidth of 2MHz (Kabir, Khan, & Ali, 2016). In terms of network size, the maximum number of devices, which belong to Bluetooth, is eight while for ZigBee technologies around 65000 is the network size. In terms of security, Bluetooth uses the E0 stream cipher as well as distributed secret along with the 16 bit CRC. ZigBee has adopted advanced encryption standard block cipher associated with the counter mode. With respect to the power consumption, Bluetooth and ZigBee technologies consume very less power. For the data transmission time, ZigBee requires longer transmission time than the Bluetooth protocol.

4. Justify that the RTS/CTS protocol can only reduce the hidden terminal or exposed terminal problems, but cannot eradicate them and explain with an example
The RTS/CTS scheme involves the transmission of short request-to-send and clear-to-send control packets before the transfer of the actual data. on this Networking assignment we identify that RTS/CTS scheme results in obtaining better performance by reducing the time of the collision period when the long data packets are transmitted (Lu et al, 2015). The RTS/CTS scheme can only reduce the hidden terminal or the terminal problems that are exposed in the system but it cannot be eradicated from the data packs and system network. It has been observed that it sometimes decreases the efficiency of the data packs as it transmits two additional packets without any payloads. The Bianchi's approach to determining the purpose extension of RTS/CTS can be drawn as the best example to state that this protocol can be reduced to hide the internal terminal problems, but it cannot be eradicated from the system. The various mathematical algorithms and the system structure can be explained in this regard to analyse the protocol of RTS/CTS and its hidden terminal problems and the reason behind stating its functional operations. According to Khorov et al, (2015), interference cancellation (IC) techniques have made a significant impact upon the wireless transmission of the data to recover the transmission errors that are caused by the interference. The attachment cancellation, data recovery and modulation help to control the interference correlation technique who carry attached signals. The collision at the node helps to get control over the channel, and in this manner, the hidden terminals or the exposed terminals is reduced with the help of the application of the RTS/CTS protocol. Therefore, from the above discussion, it can be identified that the use of RTS/CTS is recognizable and useful in reducing the hidden terminal in a wireless network and the complete eradication of the application is not possible.

5. State the difference between hard and soft handoff
There are several types of handoff decision based on the usage of channels, namely hard handoff and soft handoff.

Hard handoff

Soft handoff

  • On this Networking assignment this is applied when the communication channel is released in the priority, and the new channel is achieved later from the nearby cells
  • Hard handoff is used by the system that uses time division multiple access and frequency division multiple access. 


  • The change in the frequency behaviour through switching into a new cell into different frequency is termed as the hard handoffs
  • In hard handoff, mobile system is connected to only one BS at a single time (Buddhikot, Kolodzy & Miller, 2015).
  • Signal quality is not sufficient in hard handoff 
  • The load of the network is high as all the process system of the network is handled itself.
  • Soft handoff refers to the establishment of several connections among the nearby cells. This is applied through a multiple access system. 
  • Soft handoff is used by the code division various systems where the cells use a similar type of frequency works based on multiple codes developed for the network


  • When the call in the mobile switches to a new cell that is of the same frequency, soft handoff takes place
  • In the soft handoff, multiple BS are connected with the single mobile system for a specified period (Lu et al, 2015).
  • Due to multiple BS station, signal quality is improved and is sufficient for the soft handoff. 
  • The network load is less here as the process application is minimum in this approach.

6. Explain the differences between CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA [5 marks]
CSMA/CA and CSMA/CD are the two types of system and Networking assignment collision detector for evaluating the broadcast of the data transmission (Khorov et al, 2015). The Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance is a network contention protocol that is used for carrier transmission in networks in the 802.11 supportive system technologies. The difference between the CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA are explained in the below section:



  • CSMA stands for carrier sense multiple access, and CD stands for collision detection (Snyder et al, 2016)
  • In the CSMA/CD techniques, the station listens before the transmission period
  • It detects the collision in the multiple carrier system
  • The cellular system network monitors the media of a data signal in the order
  • The 802 use the method. 3 Ethernet network
  • The wired network technology uses this system in their server
  • CA stands for collision avoidance.


  • In CSMA/CA it indicates the duration of transmission in the RTS signal
  • It determines the collision avoidance in the multiple carrier system
  • In the cellular system, the device examines the media for the presence of the data signal (Abbas & Yoon, 2015). A survey on energy-conserving mechanisms for the internet of things: Wireless-Networking assignment aspects. Sensors, 15(10), 24818-24847. ).
  • CA is used by 802.11 Ethernet network


  • The wireless network technology uses this system in their server

7. Write a survey paper on the security aspect of a wireless Networking assignment technology of your choice
Introduction: Wireless communication foundation and its services have reached its paramount with the aim of meeting up with the increasing demands. In the mid way, it has been reported that increasing frequency of wireless devices are getting abused due to the cyber criminal activities which is computer hacking, financial information and malicious thefts. Due to this, there have been huge losses across the globe impacted by the intruders (Dabhade et al. 2017). Thus, it is important to encourage and enhance the cyber security issues as many people are getting involved in the wireless security for personal emails, banking and so on. These wireless network protocols take into consideration the OSI protocols, which consists of application layer, MAC layer, transport layer and physical layer. The security issues, which are associated with these layers, are protected on a separate basis in each of the layer before meeting up the confidentiality, integrity and privacy of data.

Requirements of security in Wireless network
In the wireless network, the information is exchanged within the authorized people however, the process is considered as a vulnerable to different malicious attacks due to the characteristic of wireless medium. On a general basis, the security requirements for wireless networks codes consist of authenticity, integrity, availability as well as confidentiality.

  • Availability: This illustrates that the authorized users are provided with the accessibility for the wireless networks irrespective of place and time. If the availability gets violated, then the authorized uses won't be able to access the network and leaves the users unsatisfied. For combating the jamming attacks that often happens, some spread spectrum techniques must be applied such as DSSS and FHSS (Modieginyane et al. 2018). With DSSS, a PN sequence is implemented for spreading the spectrum to a broader frequency range. As a result, the jamming attacks which is running without the prior knwoledege of PN sequence dissipates much power and thus disrupting transmission. FSSS constantly changes the main frequency of the transmitted wave with the help of frequency hopping which does not allow the jamming attackers to monitor the transmission. 
  • Authenticity: This defines the conformation of an identity of a network node, which helps in identifying the authorized as well as unauthorized users. It is important to perform the mutual authentication in wireless network before setting a communication connection for the transmission of data. The unique MAC address is used for the purpose of authentication. Along with this, there are other authentication strategies such as application layer, network layer authentication and so on. 
  • Confidentiality: This defines the restriction of the data to the intended users with the prevention of disclosure of information to unauthorized users. Nowadays, the physical layer security has come out as a method of safeguarding the confidentiality of Wireless -transmission from the eavesdropping threats. This would help in getting the information security. 
  • Integrity: This states that the information, which is to be transmitted, should be reliable as well as accurate enough in the entire duration, which would demonstrate the source information without any faults of falsification. It is quite difficult to analyze the attacks by compromised nodes as these might have valid recognitions. This can be controlled by automatic updation of code and data recovery process. Along with this, the nodes can also be repaired through the recovery process. 

Vulnerabilities of security in Wireless networks
A system perspective of different security vulnerabilities, which is commonly found in the wireless network, has been presented in this section. There are various similarities which exists between the wired as well as wireless networks such as they both take into consideration the OSI layer protocols which comprises of the physical layer, transport layer, network layer, MAC layer as well as application layer.

Attacks occurring in the physical layer: The lowest layer in the OSI model is the physical layer, which specifies the characteristics of the transmission of signal. The main physical layer attacks include the eavesdropping and jamming. The eavesdropping attacks occur when an unauthorized user forces an attempt to know the data transmission between authorized users. For maintaining the confidentiality in the data transmission, cryptographic techniques  which  relies on the secret keys are taken into consideration for the knowing the transmission of data.  

Attacks occurring in the MAC-layer: this layer allows several nodes to access distributed mediums with the help of intelligent channel access mechanism, which includes CDMA, OFDMA and so on. Each of the network nodes is provided with a NIC as well as MAC address, which is required for confirming the authentication of the users. It is quite possible to spoof the MAC address even in the presence of hard-coded MAC address. Along with this, the MAC intruder can sometimes overhear the traffic in the network and can steal the authorized user's MAC address. 

Attack in Network layer: in this layer, the IP is the main protocol, which is responsible for the delivery of packets from SN to DO with the help of intermediate routers on the basis of IP address. These primarily exploit the IP weakness such as IP spoofing, hijacking and so on. The IP spoofing method is used for producing a forged IP address with the aim of hiding the identity of the intruder for conducting illegal activities. Another main attack, which happened in this layer, is smurf attack where the network is paralyzed through the launching of various ICMP requests. On configuring the authorized users with their individual routers is a possible so the solution for ensuring that the users do not respond quickly to the ICMP requests. 

Attacks in Transport layer
TCP is referred as a connection centered transport protocol which is especially designed for assisting reliable transmission of data such as emails, and files. While UDP on the other hand, refer to the connectionless transport protocol which is in alignment with the reduced overhead protocol however, this fails to ensure the reliability of the data delivered (Martínez et al. 2015). The TCP attacks involves flooding attacks and sequence number prediction attacks in which the TCP flooding refers to DoS attacks and here the intruder sends various ping requests suich as IMCP. UDP is also susceptible to flooding attacks, which happens by sending a number of UDP packets, rather than ping requests, which is primarily used in the TCP protocols

Attacks in Application layer: This layer assists the HTTP protocol for carrying on the web services, FTP protocol which aims at transfer of files and SMTPn protocol for the e-mail transmission. The main attack, which happens in this layer, includes the malware attacks, SQL injection attack and scripting attacks. Malware involves the malicious software which exists in the form of code but the attackers who are attempting to disrupt the authorized users . the SQL injection is usually made to attack the application which is based on data with the aim to gain access to the authorized users websites. The FTP is applied for the transfer of large files between two network nodes where some vulnerability are exhibited. The SMTP refers to the application layer protocol, which is designed for transferring emails over the Internet; however, it does not perform the encryption of personal information such as passwords, name, id and so on.

Defense protocols in security and paradigms for wireless networks
The security paradigms and protocols are applied in the networks for enhancing the security of such networks. The wireless networks are provided with several advantages and prevents the implication of costly wires. Some of security protocols include the Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and LTE which helps in protecting confidentiality, integrity as well as authenticity.

Bluetooth: This refers to as the low power and short range data transmission protocol which has a variety of applications in the field of communication and computing devices and its peripherals such as keyboards, headsets and so on (Alblwi & Shujaee, 2017). However, these devices are vulnerable to various attacks and security threats. For protecting it from such threats, varied security features has been implemented for ensuring the transmission of data. Each bluetooth is provided with four basic entities namely RAND, BD_ADDR, a personal authentication key and personal encryption key which are applied for the authentication and encryption.

Wi-Fi: These are based on IEEE 802.11 b/g standards and the most commonly used protocol in Wi-Fi includes WEP and WPA (Oracevic, Dilek, & Ozdemir, 2017). The WEP protocol comprises of authentication and encryption part which helps in the establishment of the control through the prevention of unauthorized access without the presence of WEP key.

In this paper, a survey of the various security challenges, which are faced in the wireless network and the prevention mevansism, is illustrated. These include the integrity, authenticity, availability as well as confidentiality of the wireless transmission against the attacks. A wide range of attacks and threats which area experienced at the several layers of the OSI model has been presented. Then, the current security paradigms and protocols, which are, adopted for the protecting giants the various protocol layers. Finally, various wireless networks such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi has been reviewed. The report focuses upon the various discussions of the computer Networking assignment system and its implications in modern-day technology. The ways wireless Networking assignment technology is changing the functional operations of the IT firms have been discussed in the report. The ways to increase the capacity of the cellular system have been identified, and preventive methods to jam with WLANs have been illustrated in the report. On the other hand, various wireless technologies like Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Zigbee technologies have been discussed, and the differences between them have been analysed in the report. Further, the differences between hard handoff and soft handoffs and CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA have been critically identified. The eradication of the RTS/CTS protocol in the exposed terminal setting is not possible, and this has been explained in this report. Finally, a survey paper has been established to discuss the various network security threats in wireless technologies.

Reference List
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Khorov, E., Lyakhov, A., Krotov, A., & Guschin, A. (2015). A survey on IEEE 802.11 ah: An enabling Networking assignment technology for smart cities. Computer Communications, 58, 53-69. Retrieved from:

Buddhikot, M. M., Kolodzy, P., & Miller, S. C. (2015). U.S. Patent No. 9,161,231. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved from:

Abbas, Z., & Yoon, W. (2015). A survey on energy conserving mechanisms for the internet of things: Wireless Networking assignment aspects. Sensors, 15(10), 24818-24847. Retrieved from:

Wang, S., Yin, Z., Chen, Y., Li, Z., Kim, S. M., & He, T. (2019). Networking assignment Support For Bidirectional Cross-Technology Communication. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing. Retrieved from:

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Renkis, M. A. (2019). U.S. Patent Application No. 10/194,119. Retrieved from:

Mehboob, U., Qadir, J., Ali, S., & Vasilakos, A. (2016). Genetic algorithms in wireless Networking assignment: techniques, applications, and issues. Soft Computing, 20(6), 2467-2501. Retrieved from:

Panasyuk, A., Rangegowda, D., Viswanathan, R., Chavez, A. S., Chen, J., Brown, M., ... & Outhred, G. H. (2016). U.S. Patent No. 9,379,946. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved from:

Bihl, T. J., Temple, M. A., & Bauer, K. W. (2016, July). Feature selection fusion (FSF) for aggregating relevance ranking information with application to ZigBee radio frequency device identification. In 2016 IEEE National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (NAECON) and Ohio Innovation Summit (OIS) (pp. 80-87). IEEE. Retrieved from:


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Modieginyane, K. M., Letswamotse, B. B., Malekian, R., & Abu-Mahfouz, A. M. (2018). Software defined wireless sensor networks application opportunities for efficient network management: A survey. Computers & Electrical Engineering, 66, 274-287. Retrieved from:

Martínez-Pérez, B., De La Torre-Díez, I., & López-Coronado, M. (2015). Privacy and security in mobile health apps: a review and recommendations. Journal of medical systems, 39(1), 181. Retrieved from:

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