Mental Health Case Study of a Person Experiencing Mood Disorder
Task: Please read the description of the symptoms of mental disorder below. Write a mental health case study based on this description.
Sarah is a 39 years old career consultant with a successful business. In the last two months she has experienced mood changes accompanied by a change in the overall level of activity. She feels that she lacks energy and recently lost her interest in everyday activities. Sarah experiences difficulties in getting to work on time, as she often wakes up three hours earlier than normally and cannot get back to sleep. She has always been interested in keeping fit and healthy, and attended gym regularly three times a week. However, in the last months Sarah has lost any desire in continuing with this activity, she often says that she doesn’t have the energy to exercise. She has lost 5 kilograms last month due to hear lack of appetite.
What bothers Sarah the most is her inability to perform well at work. Recently she has started skipping work altogether, and when she does go to work, she delegates most of her tasks to others because she does not feel confident enough to speak to clients.
Your case study should include:
• Identification of the presented mental disorder according to ICD?10 (ICD?10 classification can be found on?line: http://www.who.int/classifications/icd/icdonlineversions/en)
• Brief description of this disorder
• Explanation of the possible causes of this mental disorder
• Identification of the available treatments for the presented mental disorder
• Discussion of the historical and global perspectives on this mental disorder.
The ICD-10 includes a glossary of mental disorders, such as mood disorder which arises from the physiological condition, known as FO6. A mood disorder includes a mental health problem that impacts the individual's individual emotional state. In the current mental health case studyanalysis, a case of Sarah who is 39 years old career consultant with a successful business experiencing mood disorder has been diagnosed.
Identification of the presented mental disorder according to ICD?10 The presented case is of Sarah who is a 39-year-old successful career consultant facing mood changes. Her presentation of symptoms includes changes in the overall level of activity, lack of energy, and losing interest in everyday activities and inability to perform well at her work. She is seen to face difficulty in working on time and is seen to wake up three hours earlier than normal time with difficulties in sleeping. She was earlier seen to be interested in keeping fit and healthy however in the current time period she has lost desire and lost her weight due to her appetite. She has started skipping work and when at work she delegates her work to others as she feels less confident to perform her duties and functionalities.
All the present symptoms of the client reflect the prevalence of a psychological condition known as a mood disorder. Her lack of interest in performing regular jobs as well as her lack of interests aligns with this current psychological disorder and clinical features (Bech, 2012). In cases of mood disorder, a person is seen to experience long periods of extreme sadness, happiness, or both. As per ICD-10 mood disorder is seen as a physiological condition that is unspecified in nature. WHO has provided the block F30-F39 mood (affective) disorder discusses the long-standing and challenges that are associated with the clinical features along with associated features of the disorder (Di Florio et al, 2013). It includes the diagnostic guidelines for treating the disorder.
Brief description of this disorder
A mood disorder includes a mental health problem impacting the emotional state of an individual. This type of disorder can lead to inconsistent or distortion in circumstances and interferes with the ability to function. Psychiatrists as per ICD-10 will classify a client's case as a mood disorder by relying upon biochemical or physiological measurements (Sharma, &Xie, 2011).In such a type of mood disorder, it is normal for the individual to experience mood changes on the basis of the situation. To be diagnosed and categorized with a mood disorder, the client needs to be presented with the symptoms as in this case for several weeks long. Also, as the mood disorder leads to changes in behavior as in this case, it impacts the ability to deal with routine activities, as in this case is work. Categorize of mood disorders might include “major depressive disorder”, “seasonal affective disorder”, “cyclothymic disorder”, “bipolar disorder”, “persistent depressive disorder”, “disruptive mood dysregulation disorder”, “premenstrual dysphoric disorder”, “depression induced by medication”, or “substance use”, “depression from medical illness”, “persistent depressive disorder”.
Explanation of the possible causes of this mental disorder
A mood disorder is seen to be characterized by serious alterations in mood that lead to disruption in life activities. There can be different subtypes of mood disorders such as depressive, bipolar, and manic (Cipriani et al, 2013). There might be several underlying causes that lead to mood disorders are varied genetic, environmental, biological, and other aspects associated with such mood disorder. The underlying risk factors that increase risks of getting mood disorder are previous “diagnosed mood disorder”, “family history”, “physical illness” or “use of certain medication”, “stress”,“trauma”, or “major life changes” in cases of depression, and “brain structure” and function in cases of “bipolar disorder”. <
Identification of the available treatments for the presented mental disorder
Treating mood disorders will be dependent upon the specific symptoms as well as illnesses that are presented by the client. Therapy needs to be associated with combining psychotherapy and medication. Therapy sessions can be conducted psychiatrists, psychologists, or other healthcare professionals (Benros et al, 2013).
Certain medications that can be used in treating the client and symptoms of mood disorders include antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics. Antidepressants can be used as medications for the treatment of “depression” as well as “episodes of bipolar disorder”, some of the drugs that are used most widely are “selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)”. Effect of antidepressants might be found to be effective on certain individuals and such antidepressants need to be taken as prescribed if the client continues to feel better (Kessing et al, 2013). Antidepressant needs to be taken for a period of 4 to 6 weeks prior to it beginning to work.
Mood stabilizers need to help regulation of “mood swings” which arise for people facing “bipolar disorders” as well as other disorders. It can help reduce abnormal brain activity and such medications might be used with “antidepressants” in certain cases. Widely applicable “mood stabilizers” are “anticonvulsants” and “lithium drugs” (Sanacora et al, 2017).
Antipsychotics are not applicable to the patient in this case and cannot be used in the case of the patient. It is used for patients experiencing mania or mixed episodes might be treated with drugs such as aripiprazole.
Psychotherapy might be used for patients with mood disorders. Patients as in this case might benefit from various types of psychotherapy or counselling sessions such as “cognitive-behavioral therapy”, “problem-solving therapy”, and “interpersonal therapy”. Brain stimulation therapy might be used as they are thought to cause chemical changes in the brain which are associated with symptoms of “bipolar disorder” as well as in“depression”. Such therapies are not much in use and include “electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)” and “repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)”. In the case of seasonal depression, which is not applicable in this case, antidepressant medication might be used, such as SSRIs and bupropion and psychotherapy (Whalley et al, 2013). Patients might also be able to benefit in such cases from light therapy and vitamin D supplements.
Discussion of the historical and global perspectives on this mental disorder
Historically mental disorders were considered negatively and left untreated. People in society often ill-treated individuals with mental disorders and secluded them from the society. The global burden arising from mental health conditions is tremendous in nature with being underappreciated as well as currently under-resourced across most developing nations. In the absence of inadequate as well as quality mental health infrastructure as well as workforce being recognized with ethical implications of such inequalities across nations in mental health as well as people, which has to be addressed to respect individuals, provide justice, beneficence, and non-malfeasance (Tan, &Bhate, 2015). There are global stigmas as well as discrimination against individuals who are living with mental disorders which in turn impacts their education, access to care, employment, and hampers capability to make a contribution to society. Globally there still remains inaccessibility to mental health care leading to patient as well as family suffering. Non-treatment of mental health care enhances suffering and has been seen to be associated with negative effects on poverty reduction capabilities as well as on economic development (Ösby et al, 2016). Also, they have capabilities to increase absenteeism from work and school, dropout rates, unemployment, and increased expenditure in healthcare.
Burden as well as inequalities arising in mental healthcare around the globe is presented as a global issue presented with a tremendous ethical challenge. It has been estimated that annually 30% of the population is impacted by mental disorders with 2/3rds being impacted not receiving the care they require. Amongst the most prevalent conditions are alcohol, depression, substance abuse, and psychoses. Globally there are also prevalent mental health inequalities along with unmet needs of individuals (Twenge et al, 2019). There are also prevalent high rates of stigma as well as discrimination that act as a major barrier to the effective management of mental disorders. In many developing countries, mental health services are needed to provide tertiary levels with no integration with primary care interventions. The economic impact of mood disorders is also tremendous in nature and can affect earnings, labor supply, productivity, and participation. There is lacking reliable data in mental health across the nation which includes unmet mental health needs. Lack of data also hinders the understanding of mental health needs in developing nations.
In conclusion, mood depressive disorder is a commonly occurring mental illness especially amongst people in developing nations. The burden of mental healthcare throughout the globe has presented with tremendous global challenges. The increased burden of mental health disorders requires attention from primary health services. A mood disorder is one of the most commonly occurring mental health disorders that causesbehavior-related disorders. There is a various treatment currently available that can be used for clients facing mood disorder. Case basis treatment provided to the client can help resolve and treat individuals in a better manner.
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