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Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory Of Motivation

Question

Task: Provide a short note on how arrangements in the management are being affected by the magnitude of the firm and the type of technology installed in it. Also, describe regulating processes that are significant and conclusive in the allocation process which is handled by the management.

In this report, I also try to address various kinds of issues in the process of management which would have stirred up by the process of organizational changes.

Answer

Introduction
Motivation theory plays a very crucial role in any organization since it inspires the staff to work collectively to arrive at a previously defined target by the management (Kamasheva et al., 2015). We have discussed some of the motivational theories in the below-drafted report which are widely accepted by organizations all over the world. The adoption of various motivational theories in the firm would make an impact on various sections of the operation of the business consequently resulting in the elevated performance of the human resources working in a very professional environment (Friederichs et al., 2015). A great part of the organizations in the world utilize the motivational theories which seem to be appropriate for their business environment and hence bring crucial changes in the operations and outcome. It is the primary objective of all the organizations to satisfy the customers by fulfilling their demands and requirements and thus to achieve it the companies are ready to implement any sort of developmental and strategic steps (STARLIGHT TELECAST, INC v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD ROVI SOLUTIONS, CORPORATION v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD, 2015). The major part of their strategic advancement comprises of the motivational programs. Below are given some prominent type of motivational theories implemented by the organizations:

  • Vroom’s Theory
  • McClelland’s Theory
  • Maslow’s Theory of Motivation
  • Herzberg's two-factor theory

To enhance the productivity of the staff, increase job satisfaction among the employees, and identification of appropriate reward system motivation theories are implied by the management of the company. The manager’s role in a motivational program is to observe each employee in the organization and encourage them at the individualistic level to attain the goals of the organization. The primary motive of drafting this report is to provide a better summary of two selected theories that would define the ideology of motivation in the place of work along with addressing the issue of job satisfaction. By implementing the below given motivational theories, you could be able to emphasis more on the internal forces, course of every action, and the effectiveness of the actions.

Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory of Motivation
This theory was put forward by the American psychologist Abraham Maslow in his paper which highlighted mainly on Maslow’s hierarchy theory to desire (Taormina and Gao, 2013). In his research, Maslow had made an effort to recognize the factors which would contribute to the constructive growth of mental fitness and happiness rather than focusing only on the illness of the mind. As a part of it Maslow had initiated a new movement in the field of psychology ‘third waves’ which was also termed by him as ‘humanistic psychology’ (Pereira, de Campos, and Camarini, 2012).

Maslows's hierarchy theory of motivation

Fig: Hierarchy of needs
(Pereira, de Campos, and Camarini, 2012)

With the help of this figure, Maslow had defined various necessities of Human Psychology. A short account of it is given below:

Physiological requirements – In this section of the human needs, various factors for survival of the body like water, food, sleep, rest, etc. are considered.

Safety requirements – It should be given attention by the management that the major factor of safety is the psychological aspects of the human needs. Nobody would pose a risk to himself deliberately. Although a considerable level of tangible comfort should be provided to the employees to cope up with the unprecedented actions and confusing environment. The divisions of human needs like physical security of humans come under thus classification (Pereira, de Campos and Camarini, 2012).

Requirements for esteem – The presence of confidence that stages a crucial part in the presentation and satisfaction in the job of the employees. The renowned researcher in the field of psychology had termed this type of requirement as the need for esteem. As per the observation of McClelland, it is the differences amongst the needs of the individuals who are causing differences in their personality and only a gradual transfer is possible in this regard. Having self-acknowledgment and the feeling of prestige comes under the tag of self-esteem.

Self-actualization – This requirement is being labeled by Malow as “the quest to be converted into more like oneself, thus transform into the whole thing he is capable to turn into being". Under the classification of self – actualization comes to factors like innovative methodology and perspective, maximum potential, etc. are included (Pereira, de Campos, and Camarini, 2012).

Malow had mentioned the needs and requirements as per the hierarchy in this theory. In this theory, different levels of human motivation are being discussed very efficiently. In this concept various designs that make the employees inspired to work for the betterment of the company with extreme dedication by focusing additionally on the requirements of self-fulfillment and other general needs (Wu, 2011).

Although it should not be misunderstood that the hierarchical arrangement is proposing that the factors at the top position are better than others in any way and thus initial prejudice should be avoided in this case. As per the aforesaid opinion, it could be deducted that the fulfilling of the lower requirements is very important rather than focusing just on fulfilling the higher demands (Pereira, de Campos, and Camarini, 2012). If considered a situation that an employee is tolerating severe hunger and cold, the individual has been deprived of basic requirements thus the issue of self-esteem would not come into his primary list of preferences (STARSIGHT TELECAST, INC v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD ROVI SOLUTIONS, CORPORATION v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD, 2015).

Maslow has adopted a strategy to recognize more efficient and famous personalities like Albert Einstein, Frederick Douglass, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Jane Adams by his theory as compared to the people with a fearful and unstable mind. As per his observation, the lecture based on the novice and immature mind would only provide an imperfect and crippled psychology (Pereira, de Campos and Camarini, 2012). For this purpose of research, Maslow had considered the 1% people of the college in the community of the academy (STARSIGHT TELECAST, INC v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD ROVI SOLUTIONS, CORPORATION v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD, 2015).

Maslow had presented his completed form of theory in the year of 1954 which referred to the level of inspiration and behavior. The remaining sequence in this theory is considered to be a major prospect in the subject of sociology and employee training.

The shape of a pyramid is generally used to demonstrate the Maslow's hierarchy of requirements. In this pyramid hierarchy, the very requirements are kept at the bottom and the physical aspects like self-actualization are placed at the peak of the figure. The figure designed by Maslow is very apt and efficient to display the classification of the human requirements.

The Maslow’s theory of motivation has very relevant stages which are being represented as in the mode of 4 stages in the hierarchical pyramid which was termed by him as the deficiency needs which was comprised of factors like security, love, self-esteem, etc. If the requirements described in Maslow's theory of motivation remain unfulfilled and unattended, the forthcoming situation would cause the employees to be very troublesome and stressful. In this concept, it is recommended that the basic needs of the persons should be covered on a very crucial basis by referring to Maslow's theory of motivation. In his studies, Maslow had referred to a new term called “meta motivation” that went into the matter of motivating the employees at the office or place of work and also give caution that to go beyond a level to attain the most needed and basic requirements and thus create a general progress (Kohte, 2015).

Herzberg’s Theory: The 2 factory theory put forward by the Herzberg is also termed as the dual factory theory or hygiene theory (Krankenhausbelegung beeinflusst Mortalität, 2015). The Herzberg’s theory has a strong co-relation with the ideologies of Maslow’s hierarchy of requirements. It is being observed by Frederick Herzberg that the ideology highly depends on the level of satisfaction of the employees at the place of work (Herzberg, 2009). He had classified the factors proposed in the theory under the facet of job satisfaction which is co-related to factors like hygiene, job satisfaction, external motivators, etc. (Krankenhausbelegung beeinflusst Mortalität, 2015).

Herzberg’s Hygiene and Motivational Factors

Fig: Herzberg’s Hygiene and Motivational Factors
(Krankenhausbelegung beeinflusst Mortalität, 2015)

With the help of motivation, the management of the company could instill psychological maturity into the working environment of the company. If contemplated to the root of the theory, it had been observed that it is associated with self-actualization. Maintaining hygiene and amiable environment in the organization would provide job satisfaction since the worse environment would affect the performance of the employees and thus eventually make a negative impact on the output of the company. In this theory Herzberg introduced 2 major steps:

Eliminate job dissatisfaction: As per the theory of Herzberg the factors like Hygiene in the company have the potential to cause job dissatisfaction among the employees.

This process would help in pointing out and eliminating weak and poor practices followed in the company. The authorities should showcase top-level management to fill in better esteem and self-respect among the members of the team in the company while referring a very competitive pattern of payroll strategy (Giorgi, Shoss and Leon-Perez, 2015).

Preparing the environment for job satisfaction: As per the opinion of Herzberg, the management should execute the motivating requirements that are well linked with the task provided to generate satisfaction among the workers. This process could be considered as a sort of upgradation in the job. A deep analysis should be done in the processes followed in commencing each task and a better way of performing the task should be suggested by keeping in mind that the new method could generate the job satisfaction among the employees (Tabvuma, Georgellis and Lange, 2015). To implement this theory successfully the workers should be provided with better awards for their achievements, their working environment, and their condition should be understood, allotting the workers with the job in which they are proficient and comfortable in doing. By conducting these steps more responsibility could be laid on the members of the team. The employees of the company should be provided with better training schemes and improved opportunities, which will make them attain the posts they have desired to work in a certain department (Krankenhausbelegung beeinflusst Mortalität, 2015).

The evaluation of the tools utilized to execute each theory in a real-life organization:
In the ideology of Malow the factors of the motivation are depicted and classified in the form of a pyramid. Five kinds of requirements are comprised of Malow's pyramid model which are social needs, self-actualization, safety needs, self-esteem and, substantial requirements (Poorsheikhali and Alavi, 2013). These factors would comprise various requirements that would suffice the various needs of the customers at a personal level. The first factor discussed in the pyramid pertains to basic needs like food, water, drinks, shelter, and eventually the issue of self-actualization. These sets of requirements hold very crucial significance in their life and are basic. Without satisfying these requirements, it is impossible to generate job satisfaction among the employees of the company. There was also much criticization of the model put forward by Malow since it was being implied by him that the requirements could be fulfilled successfully since the primary set is being given the priority before fulfilling the factors mentioned later in his model (Stone and Lukaszewski, 2009).

If taken an instance, the major firm which has implied the theory of Maslow is Virgin Media. The Virgin Media utilize this theory to motivate its staff (Virgin Media employs a managed-learning company, 2011). In a well-organized firm, a specific framework is retained to record the progress and development of each worker which is termed as Your story framework (McPherson, 2014). In the document of Your story framework, the information regarding the day to day official meetings and their significant activities, developments and decisions made in general meetings, targets met by the concerned employee, various plans and strategies proposed to enhance the performance, other achievements made by the official in the business career, amenities and provisions provided to sustain the efficient working in the company etc. are recorded (Virgin Media employs managed-learning company, 2011). By keeping this record organization could guarantee itself a steady course of growth. By the strategies implied by the company Virgin Media, steadiness and balance in the performance were attained which satisfied all the requirements denoted in Maslow's theory of motivation pyramid. It was being observed by the managers of the company that if the working environment is amiable and well maintained, it would motivate the workers to function up to their maximum capacity and thus help the company to attain new heights in the operational market (STARSIGHT TELECAST, INC v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD ROVI SOLUTIONS, CORPORATION v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD, 2015).

Herzberg’s Theory: The company that has installed the Herzberg's theory is the giant British Multi-National Company TESCO, which operates in the global market f universal merchandise and grocery. If compared to the TESCO company to some dynamics in the market, it comes in the second position if considered the revenue and third position from the top if considered in the retailing field. TESCO is a multinational company and is currently operating in around 12 countries in the continents of Asia and Europe. The company has acquired a top and dominating position in the grocery markets of countries like Malaysia, Thailand, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Hungary and Thailand. Jack Cohen had laid the foundation of the company in the year 1919 by installing a few market stalls which over time had multiplied exponentially and by the year 1939, the company had over 100 stores all over the country. It was conceded by the company that the company had achieved this level of performance because of the diligence and high perseverance of the employees. The management of the company kept giving motivation and required guidelines to the workers so they keep focused on their designated tasks and streamline all their efforts to uphold the company in the market. It is the ideology of the company that the employees should be kept satisfied and motivated otherwise it would affect the businesses processes of the firm in a very negative way and these factors are very imperative in generating profit in the market (Kim and Hallsworth, 2015).

As per the theory put forward by Herzberg’s model, it satisfies many of the requirements which have the potential to suffice the needs and motivate the objective of the customers in the company and hence eliminates the issue of hygiene, the lack of which creates huge dissatisfaction among them (Krankenhausbelegung beeinflusst Mortalität, 2015). The fulfillment of aforesaid requirements would lead to eliminating the discontent among the workers and has also potential other people rather than the employees (Barnes, 2011). In his theories, Frederick Herzberg has discussed the finest methods to motivate their staff. He has opined that by motivating the workers, the company would benefit to its maximum and make feeling of satisfaction while completing the target for the firm (Virgin Media employs managed-learning company, 2011).

By concentrating more on satisfying the hygiene requirements TESCO had been successful in motivating its Human Resources. By following these methods, the company has been able to develop better communication systems in the company and besides that, they also incorporated the participation of the workers in major strategic meetings to draft crucial plans which indirectly had entitled the employees with responsibilities. The company organizes various meetings and forums where the employees are being participated regularly and are asked for their valuable opinions and recommendations on issues like an increase in the salary. The efforts and suggestions displayed by the employers are being given very primary concern by the company and are being highly rewarded. Highly configuring tasks like decisions on designing the menu cards are being offered by TESCO to its employees which generates motivation and feeling of being capable to take the decisions which increase their involvement and contributions towards the firm. TESCO takes the task of segregating the appropriate task to the concerned employee and managers very seriously since it makes the working of the firm in a very rhythmic way and brings out the maximum efficiency of it (STARSIGHT TELECAST, INC v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD ROVI SOLUTIONS, CORPORATION v VIRGIN MEDIA LTD, 2015).

Two Factory theory of motivation

Fig: Two Factory theory of motivation

Discuss and find out the success rate of the application of the proposed ideologies in the aforesaid companies
In the theories of motivation provided in the above content of this report the effective ways to inspire the staff and thereby reap the positive and beneficial results are described. The right type of motivation would provide an improved degree of job satisfaction consequently leading to the development of elevated efficiency and increased range of profit (Virgin Media employs a managed-learning company, 2011). If related the Virgin Media to TESCO it could be observed that by satisfying the described factors in the proposed models there was a great increase in job satisfaction among the workers (Krankenhausbelegung beeinflusst Mortalität, 2015). There have been surveys conducted in these companies very recently and they have specified that they are very well satisfied by the job and has no further intentions to leave the company. The staff in the Virgin media company are very satisfied with the job and emoluments provided since they opine that the company is fulfilling their needs efficiently (Furnham, Eracleous and Chamorro‐Premuzic, 2009). It was also said by the employees that the company is providing them with timely grants, which is inspiring them to stay for more period in the company. As per the argument of the employees working in the company the salary provided to them is well enough to satisfy their needs and for other savings which are creating a great sense of satisfaction and fulfillment among them. If the considered the second company TESCO, they have installed the Herzberg’s two-factor theory in their system of business processes for inspiration (Werbel and Balkin, 2010). The TESCO company had carried out very good training programs for their employees in the company to provide the workers with guidelines about how to work properly with interest to the ideologies of the firm for a better result that would satisfy the customers. The company has also taken serious steps regarding the hygiene of the working environment since the lack of hygiene would dampen the efforts made. The employees of this organization had displayed great job satisfaction because of the high acknowledgment of their ideas and remuneration on a punctual basis (Amaratunga and Baldry, 2002).

Recommendation on how to imply these theories in your organization more efficiently
By using Maslow’s theory of motivation many companies had implemented an innovative motivational ideology in their office which had created a large sense of satisfaction in the employees towards their company which eventually had resulted in the increasing performance and outcome of the firms. It is high time that the Virgin Media company should explore other new aspects of this theory like the requirements of physical nature and that of self-actualization. A perfect balance should be made between different stages mentioned in the pyramid of Maslow’s theory of motivation by providing a united effort on the overall sides (Virgin Media employs managed-learning company, 2011).

The second theory of motivation mentioned in this report is Herzberg's two-factor model which was implied by the multinational company TESCO. The company had envisaged its total focus on increasing the skills and aptitude of the human resources by the means of high-quality training programs. It is recommended that the company should deviate a substantial amount of focus on improving and addressing the hygiene issues rather than focusing just only on increasing the skills of the employees. The working environment of the company should be enhanced, since the worse working environment would dampen the productivity of the company, no matter what other measures are taken.

References
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Friederichs, S., Bolman, C., Oenema, A. and Lechner, L. (2015). Profiling physical activity motivation based on self-determination theory: a cluster analysis approach. BMC Psychol, 3(1).

Giorgi, G., Shoss, M. and Leon-Perez, J. (2015). Going Beyond Workplace Stressors: Economic Crisis and Perceived Employability in Relation to Psychological Distress and Job Dissatisfaction.International Journal of Stress Management.

Herzberg, F. (2009). Elementary non-Archimedean utility theory. Mathematical Social Sciences, 58(1), pp.8-14.

Kamasheva, A., Valeev, E., Yagudin, R. and Maksimova, K. (2015). Usage of Gamification Theory for Increase Motivation of Employees. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences.

Kim, W. and Hallsworth, A. (2015). Tesco in Korea: Regulation and Retail Change. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, p.n/a-n/a.

Kohte, W. (2015). Leitsätze. Juristische Rundschau, 2015(3).

Krankenhausbelegung beeinflusst Mortalität. (2015). Krankenhaus-Hygiene + Infektionsverhütung, 37(1), p.27.

McPherson, J. (2014). You told me your story without words. Journal of Poetry Therapy, 28(1), pp.63-64.

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Poorsheikhali, F. and Alavi, H. (2013). Correlation of Parents’ Religious Behavior with Family’s Emotional Relations and Students’ Self-actualization. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(1), pp.235-241.

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Taormina, R. and Gao, J. (2013). Maslow and the Motivation Hierarchy: Measuring Satisfaction of the Needs. The American Journal of Psychology, 126(2), pp.155-177.

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Werbel, J. and Balkin, D. (2010). Are human resource practices linked to employee misconduct?. Human Resource Management Review, 20(4), pp.317-326.

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Stone, D. and Lukaszewski, K. (2009). An expanded model of the factors affecting the acceptance and effectiveness of electronic human resource management systems. Human Resource Management Review, 19(2), pp.134-143.


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Maslow's Theory of Motivation Assignment


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