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Maori Assignment On Childhood Obesity

Question

Task: Write a detailed report on Maori assignment addressing the concept of childhood obesity in Maori communities with various evidences?

Answer

Introduction
The research on Maori assignment illustrates that Maori children exhibit high risk of obesity as well as connected morbidities when constricted to the children from other communities. While some of the researchers consider the connection between poverty as well as obesity as paradoxical, it is not at all the poor populations who tend to suffer from the obesity, but the people who have the accessibility of the cheap foods. These types of food are quite high in sugar, salt, fat and they also have no minerals and vitamins (Littlewood, Canfell& Walker, 2020). However, personal choice plays one of the most important roles in this segment as well as the ability for participating in the physical activity is always one of the greatest advantages for the children who are socially advantaged (Blakely et al., 2020). Some of the evidences presented in the maori assignment also clearly indicate the fact that interventions that tend to rely on the individual agency can also enhance the social inequalities with regard to the obesity. However, the role of government also have one of the most vital role in terms of reversing the obesity in the maori children as promotion and protection of health is one of the main responsibility that must not be left to the individuals, non-government companies who have limited finance, power as well as resources for doing so. The research on maoriassignmentsignifies that most of the studies have concluded that maori children always tend to face huge amount of burden in terms of obesity along with the obesity-related disease when contrasted with the children from non- maori Newzelander (Metcalfe et al., 2020). In terms of interventions the researchers have suggested that significant amount of lifestyle modification is the key in terms of reducing morbidity related to obesity along with the cardiovascular disease among the maori children. In New Zealand a lot of higher rates in terms of obesity are related for maori children aged between 2-14 years. There are some of the major consequences due to the obesity noted in this section of maori assignment are hypertension, dyslipidaemia, weak cardio-metabolic conditions as well as the type 2 diabetes. Obese maori children are also disadvantaged by severe cardiovascular and physical constraints because of extra body weight along with the effort that is involved in terms of moving huge mass, hence, limiting the capacity of maori children for complying with the recommendations that is provided by the WHO. Obesity in children can be highlighted as the global concern and people from maori community are represented in a dissappropriately manner among the ethnic group that is lowest and they also have the highest record of obesity among the children(Lacey et al., 2020). This study will mainly revolve around examining the prevalence of obesity among the maori children, main causes and results as well as also exploring how the public health interventions can be implemented in effective manner with regard to future (Glover et al., 2019). Particularly, this research question was also answered by the study prepared in the maori assignment: What are the causes of the childhood obesity among the maori communities and how it can be controlled?

Method
Design

For this particular report on maori assignmentmixed-methods systematic review tend to apply the principles with regard to the mixed-methods research for reviewing procedure. I have also studied from the various research traditions for combining to produce evidence for guiding the decision-making. Furthermore, the maori assignment is also focused on various types of evidence that is connected with a specific topic (Howe et al., 2015).

Search strategy as well as identification of included articles
There were some of the databases searched with regard to this particular maori assignmentsuch as SCOPUS, PUBMED along with the CINAHL were searched from the year 2007 to till date. Furthermore, keywords were also identified through the discussions with the authors as well as the research librarian (Rahiri et al., 2020).However, for making the research work on maori assignment more meaningful basic term used for identifying maori populations such as “Oceanic Ancestry Group” that is regarded as: “People whose origins of ancestors are basically in the islands of South and central pacific consisting of Australasia, Micronesia etc.”(Stoner et al., 2013).

Throwing light on the above-mentioned discussion on maori assignment it can be said that the search strategy was flourished as well as implemented using the PICO (Intervention, Population, Outcome, and Comparison) format: Population- maori community children aged from 2-12 years (Theodore, McLean &TeMorenga, 2015).

Comparison - health service, imitative and no program
Interventions- Initiative for preventing obesity among maori children and health service/program
Outcomes- BMI, weight, body composition, behavioural, psychological
All of the keywords were used in a combination and also alone.

Methods and selection criteria
The abstracts along with the titles of the authors were thoroughly reviewed within the maori assignment and the articles were only considered if they met the specific criteria such as: Original reports or if it is the blueprint of the original research work, subjects revolved around children aged between 2-12 years, the subject of the sub-groups or subjects were basically under ‘Oceanic Ancestry Group’ consisting of the maori community, health services, intervention, or initiatives for treating or preventing obesity among maori communities.

The following information provided in the maori assignmentwas extracted from each of the article for excellent synthesis: study design, intervention (country), characteristics of the participants and the participant retention (Rush et al., 2003). Furthermore due to the heterogeneity between the design of the study developed in the maori assignment as well as the outcome measures for the treatment interventions, a qualitative synthesis with regard to the results were conducted as quantitative meta-analysis approach was assumed to be quite inappropriate (Anderson et al., 2017).

Findings
The description of the studies

As per 2017, almost 20% children from the Maori community are obese when contrasted with the other communities (Anderson et al., 2016). The research strategy submitted 26 articles that consisted of 24 studies that were more or less similar. Moreover, these studies were classified into the tab of qualitative and quantitative. Few studies are presented out of 26 studies in the below segment of maori assignment:

References

Country studied

Sample

Data collection

Study aims and design

Ethical considerations

Littlewood, Canfell& Walker, 2020

New Zealand

The entire sample size mainly ranged from 18 to 6629 (mean 1431)

In piloted forms

The main aim was reviewing and identifying and the design was mixed-method

Ethics approval was not required as the review was available publically

Sherriff et al., 2019

Australia

A cohort study based is NSW population (Children less than 17 years)

Data from the Western Australian Children’s Diabetes Database 

The main aim was designing some of the initiatives that will be minimizing the obesity among the children in the Aboriginal communities

Ethics approval was not required

Howe et al., 2015

New Zealand

The sample size of this research work done in the maori assignment was not at all sufficient for assessing any differences between Pacific children and Maori children. But the sample size provided 55% of power for detecting the differences

687 participants from infant’s ethnicity who have formed eligible sample

The main aim of this study prepared under this maori assignmentunderstood the ethnic differences with regard to the early risk factors of life of obesity may hence help for informing strategies that has one of the main goals at stopping the inequalities in the ethnicity of obesity as an adult. This study on maori assignment used survey as its research design

The ethics approval was mainly done from the Massey University Human Ethics Committee, New Zealand.

 

Glover et al., 2019

New Zealand

37 participants and the participants were all aged under 20 years

Simple random sampling

The main aim of the study was exploring the viewpoints of the Maori parents as well as the other caregivers in terms of the relative importance of health and wealth. Furthermore, another aim of the paper was how decisions are made in terms of the unhealthy and healthy foods.

The sample design that was used to build this Maori assignment is questionnaire and focus group method

This particular study was approved by the University of Auckland Human Participants Ethics Committee

Stoner et al., 2013

New Zealand

The sample was mainly gathered from 200 non-indigenous as well as Maori population

The data collection took place over a time period of 7 days approximately. Questionnaire was used in this study

The main aim of the study revolved around investigating the efficacy of a health program in terms of the obesity in the Maori and Pasifika children. The COMPASS intervention was evaluated using the randomized control trial study.

This particular study received the ethical approval was obtained from the regional Health and Disabilities Ethics Committee. Furthermore, the accountability contract will be quite independent with regard to the consent form.

 

 

 

 

 

 

It can be said in the Maori assignment that all the above-mentioned studies the aims of the study was same despite of the different research question. However, some of the studies identified the rate of obesityMaori community children and children from other communities as well. On the other hand, other studies suggested the interventions that can be quite beneficial for the children of these communities (Stoner et al., 2016).

The studies that were qualitative in nature used questionnaires with open ended question as the method of data collection. The age of the participants was below 20 years as most of the studies considered children for examining ‘obesity’. Furthermore, each of the study was quite ethical as it did not harm anything (Chiavaroli et al., 2019).

Critical appraisal
As stated earlier 25 articles are used for this study and it is directly identified as proper via quality assessment analysis. One of the main factors that were discussed in all of the studies was the trustworthiness. Some of the studies had some limitations with regard to the methods and specifically it was because of the sample sizes. All the samples of the studies included children from Maori community who were suffering from obesity. However, for constricting obese children from other communities were also included (Howe et al., 2015).

What are the main reasons behind obesity identified in the context of Maori assignment, its impact and how it can be controlled among the Maori children?
In New Zealand it has been observed that ethnic factors are the main reason due to which there is a high risk of obesity among the children of Maori communities. However, there are a lot of health related issues that is connected with obesity among these children such as psychological, cardio metabolic as well as the gastrointestinal problems (Littlewood, Canfell& Walker, 2020). Childhood obesity is one of the most serious and urgent challenge not only in New Zealand where most of the Maori communities live but it is also a serious threat across the globe. The children from the Maori communities are more affected when contrasted with the non- Maori children, with the gap in the weight status between the two groups is widening day by day and it highlights the fact that there is enhanced risk in terms of metabolic disorders in later life. The adults from the Maori communities are already at the risk in terms of the premature death from the vascular disease and it consists of high amount of smoking as well as poor quality diet and the same is followed by their children (Berry et al., 2018). The Maori community’s children are quite vulnerable toward the following chronic diseases such as: Hypertension, dyslipidaemia, micro albuminuria, kidney failure, type 2 diabetes, enhanced risk of impaired of glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, sleep apnea, high cholesterol as well as asthma. However, the obesity of the children in the Maori communities is also related to the following factors: psychological problems for instance depression and anxiety, social problems such as stigma and bullying along with the low self-esteem and low-reported quality of life in these communities. The future health risks with regard to the maori community’s children are quite high (Rush et al., 2012). The children of this community who are suffering from obesity are most likely to become the obese adults and the adult obesity is connected with enhanced risk in terms of some of the serious health problems such as cancer, type 2 diabetes and heart disease among others. Moreover, if children from maori communities have obesity then they have high chances of getting obese in their adulthood and the diseases will be severe. It is needless to say that community acts as one of the biggest element for affecting the individuals in terms of making healthy choices. Violent behaviours in children among the maori communities influence them to gain weight and it consists of eating low nutrients foods, high calorie foods and not sleeping properly (Phadnis, Phillips & Willoughby, 2012).

Throwing light on the above-mentioned discussion on maori assignment it can be said that the complicated interplay with regard to the socio-environmental factors that tend to contribute toward the obesity among the children in the maori communities also consist of the financial related stress connected with the urbanisation, insecurity regarding food, overcrowded housing as well as lack of proper access in terms of health services. On the contrary, it can be argued that obesity in the children in the maori communities can be directly related with the several illnesses (Mihrshahi et al., 2017). New Zealand is regarded as one of the nations with highest number of obese children but maori and Indigenous people from all across the globe face a lot of health related burden. Sometimes the culture and the colonial history are regarded as the prime factor in terms of causing obesity among the children in the maori communities. In the recent times, the eating patterns of the children in the maori communities have changed at an alarming rate as they are quite inclined in terms of consuming cheap processed food which is high in fat and sugar and their physical activities have also reduced as they have gained weight (Butler et al., 2019). The dietary patterns among the maori communities are quite low and this particular community also have a diet high in saturated and total fat. It can be said their poor diet also indicates their poor economic status as well as the higher cost of the healthier foods for instance, vegetables, fruits, and low dairy products. It is suggested by the international evidence considered in the maori assignmentthat the strategies placing the responsibility on people for making healthy choices of food as well as being physical active are not quite likely to reduce the disparities in the final results (Rodriguez, George & McDonald, 2017).

It is quite evident in the present context of maori assignment that if the government with proper leadership along with proper collaborative program for the maori-specific obesity interventions that will be properly addressing this particular problem and then it can be solved. More specifically proper support and funding are also quite important for continuously facilitating the building of maori health workforce for coordinating, developing as well as evaluating the programs (Anderson et al., 2016). Furthermore, it has been observed that the government of New Zealand have introduced some of the interventions that are making difference for the maori community’s health. Public and Community Health tend to embrace a model of excellent practice that tend to promote as well as bring together the value of contemporary and traditional point of view on the wellness of the maori communities and present research for improving the service delivery (Glover et al., 2019). Additionally, observing the condition of the children in maori communities with regard to obesity the following are some of the more segments on which the government must work: Creating food environment that is extremely healthier by availability of unhealthy and healthy foods as well as marketing of the unhealthy foods to maori children and at the same time developing the food procurement procedures that are healthy, reducing the socioeconomic discrepancy that is driving the inequalities in the health and also creating built environments that will be promoting enhanced physical activity. However, the findings obtained in the maori assignmentsignifies that it can be one of the most significant challenges for the government but if it is coordinated well then it is quite likely to have positive impact (Boulton et al., 2011).

Discussion
Limitations and strengths of this review

One of the main strength of this entire report on maori assignment is the freshness as it used treatment interventions along with synthesising global evidence for the children of maori communities. Findings of this review are mainly transferable to the poor populations in the developed countries that highlight obesity among the children. However, implementing the spectacular engagement of the community and also intervention co-design procedure may be quite advantageous in terms of taking care of the childhood obesity within the maori communities (Poppitt, Silvestre & Liu, 2014). On the other hand, the main limitation consists of including fewer articles along with the risk of bias within the studies, which have limited the ability for developing particular, excellent recommendations that are applicable in a huge amount of settings with regard to the obese children in maori community along with the treatment in this population. Herein maori assignment, another limitation was due to the word count limitation all the studies I was unable to accumulate all the detailed findings in the table regarded as “description of the studies” but I took ideas from all 25 studies for conducting this study (Jani et al., 2018).

Findings discussion
It has been observed in the maori assignment that as per the researchers the entire maori community faces huge amount of burden due to obesity-related disease and also obesity when contrasted with the non- maori communities. Additionally, maori children are also quite less likely to live in the environment that is healthy. Obesity is found out to be the biggest contributor to the gap in terms of the health status among the children in maori communities (Haring et al., 2016).

Implications for the future research
This particular study prepared in the maori assignment may have implications for the social service workers or researchers in this field. Furthermore, the future research on the topic covered in this maori assignment will be optimizing the interventions for tackling the childhood obesity in the maori communities that highlights huge amount of health and socioeconomic disadvantage that enhances the risk of population for the long-term obesity (Gibson et al., 2011).

Conflict of interest statement
It is declared by the researchers that there is no such conflict of interest

References
Anderson, Y. C., Wynter, L. E., Butler, M. S., Grant, C. C., Stewart, J. M., Cave, T. L., ... &Hofman, P. L. (2016). Dietary intake and eating behaviours of obese New Zealand children and adolescents enrolled in a community-based intervention programme.maori assignment PLoS One, 11(11), e0166996.

Anderson, Y. C., Wynter, L. E., Grant, C. C., Stewart, J. M., Cave, T. L., Wild, C. E., ... &Hofman, P. L. (2017). Physical activity is low in obese New Zealand children and adolescents. Scientific reports, 7(1), 1-7.

Anderson, Y. C., Wynter, L. E., Treves, K. F., Grant, C. C., Stewart, J. M., Cave, T. L., ... &Hofman, P. L. (2016). Prevalence of comorbidities in obese New Zealand children and adolescents at enrolment in a community?based obesity programme. Journal of paediatrics and child health, 52(12), 1099-1105.

Berry, S. D., Walker, C. G., Ly, K., Snell, R. G., Carr, P. A., Bandara, D., ... & Grant, C. C. (2018). Widespread prevalence of a CREBRF variant amongst maori and Pacific children is associated with weight and height in early childhood. International Journal of Obesity, 42(4), 603-607.

Blakely, T., Cleghorn, C., Petrovi?-van der Deen, F., Cobiac, L. J., Mizdrak, A., Mackenbach, J. P., ... & Wilson, N. (2020). Prospective impact of tobacco eradication and overweight and obesity eradication on future morbidity and health-adjusted life expectancy: simulation study. J Epidemiol Community Health, 74(4), 354-361.

Boulton, A., Gifford, H., Kauika, A., &Parata, K. (2011). maori health promotion: Challenges for best practice. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples, 7(1), 26-39.

Butler, É. M., Derraik, J. G., Glover, M., Morton, S. M., Tautolo, E. S., Taylor, R. W., &Cutfield, W.

S. (2019). Acceptability of early childhood obesity prediction models to New Zealand families. maori assignmentPloS one, 14(12), e0225212.

Chiavaroli, V., Gibbins, J. D., Cutfield, W. S., &Derraik, J. G. (2019).Childhood obesity in New Zealand. World Journal of Pediatrics, 1-10.


Gibson, R. S., Bailey, K. B., Parnell, W. R., Wilson, N., & Ferguson, E. L. (2011). Higher risk of zinc deficiency in New Zealand Pacific school children compared with their maori and European counterparts: A New Zealand national survey. British journal of nutrition, 105(3), 436-446.

Glover, M., Wong, S. F., Taylor, R. W., Derraik, J. G., Fa’alili-Fidow, J., Morton, S. M., &Cutfield, W. S. (2019). The complexity of food provisioning decisions by maori caregivers to ensure the happiness and health of their children. Nutrients, 11(5), 994.

Haring, R. C., Hudson, M., Erwin, D., Rodriguez, E. M., Henry, W. A. E., & Haring, M. (2016). Developing an obesity-cancer intervention for workplaces: Indigenous, Native American, maori and other minority occupational settings. Journal of indigenous wellbeing: Temauri-Pimatisiwin, 1(1), 68.

Howe, L. D., Ellison-Loschmann, L., Pearce, N., Douwes, J., Jeffreys, M., & Firestone, R. (2015).Ethnic differences in risk factors for obesity in New Zealand infants. J Epidemiol Community Health, 69(6), 516-522.

Jani, R., Rush, E., Crook, N., & Simmons, D. (2018). Availability and price of healthier food choices and association with obesity prevalence in New Zealand Maori. maori assignmentAsia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition, 27(6), 1357.

Lacey, C., Clark, M., Manuel, J., Pitama, S., Cunningham, R., Keelan, K., ...& Jordan, J. (2020). Is there systemic bias for maori with eating disorders? A need for greater awareness in the healthcare system. The New Zealand Medical Journal (Online), 133(1514), 71-6.

Littlewood, R., Canfell, O. J., & Walker, J. L. (2020). Interventions to prevent or treat childhood obesity in maori & Pacific Islanders: a systematic review. BMC public health, 20, 1-14.

Metcalfe, L. K., Krishnan, M., Turner, N., Yaghootkar, H., Merry, T. L., Dewes, O., ...& Merriman, T. R. (2020). The maori and Pacific specific CREBRF variant and adult height. International Journal of Obesity, 44(3), 748-752.

Mihrshahi, S., Vaughan, L., Fa’avale, N., Weliange, S. D. S., Manu-Sione, I., & Schubert, L. (2017). Evaluation of the Good Start Program: a healthy eating and physical activity intervention for Maori and Pacific Islander children living in Queensland, Australia. BMC public health, 17(1), 77.

Phadnis, J., Phillips, P., & Willoughby, R. (2012).The epidemiologic characteristics of slipped capital femoral epiphysis in Maori children. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, 32(5), 510-514.

Poppitt, S. D., Silvestre, M. P., & Liu, A. (2014).Etiology of obesity over the life span: ecologic and genetic highlights from New Zealand cohorts. maori assignmentCurrent obesity reports, 3(1), 38-45.

Rahiri, J. L., Tuhoe, J., Gillon, A., MacCormick, A. D., Hill, A., & Harwood, M. (2020).Enhancing responsiveness to maori in a publicly funded bariatric service in Aotearoa New Zealand. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 90(4), 508-513.

Rodriguez, L., George, J. R., & McDonald, B. (2017). An inconvenient truth: why evidence-based policies on obesity are failing maori, Pasifika and the Anglo working class. K?tuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online, 12(2), 192-204.

Rush, E. C., Plank, L. D., Davies, P. S., Watson, P., & Wall, C. R. (2003). Body composition and physical activity in New Zealand Maori, Pacific and European children aged 5–14 years. British Journal of Nutrition, 90(6), 1133-1139.

Rush, E., Reed, P. W., McLennan, S., Coppinger, T., Simmons, D., & Graham, D. (2012). Tracking of body mass indices over 2 years in maori and European children. European journal of clinical nutrition, 66(2), 143-149.

Stoner, L., Matheson, A., Hamlin, M., & Skidmore, P. (2016). Environmental determinants of childhood obesity: a specific focus on maori and Pasifika in New Zealand. Perspectives in public health, 136(1), 18-20.

Stoner, L., Shultz, S. P., Lambrick, D. M., Krebs, J., Weatherall, M., Palmer, B. R., ...& Williams, M. A. (2013). The combating obesity in maori and Pasifika adolescent school-children study: COMPASS methodology and study protocol. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4(5), 565.

Theodore, R., McLean, R., &TeMorenga, L. (2015).Challenges to addressing obesity for maori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. maori assignmentAustralian and New Zealand journa

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