Management Accounting Assignment Examining The Performance Of Students
Question
Task:
Assignment report on students’ performance in Management accounting
subject
An Australian Business School is keen to improve students’ performance in
the subject of Management accounting, and understand important differences
in students’ performance across gender, campuses, trimesters and student
status.
Assume you work as an Analyst for this Business school and you have been
asked to study the current students’ performance. You have collected data for
362 students taking the subject in the Business School. The data is on an excel
file named “Marks Accounting”. The data collected are recorded in the file as
follows:
Mark  Mark of each student
Trimester 1 for trimester 1, 2 for trimester 2 and 3 for trimester 3
Status 1 for Domestic students, 2 for International students
Gender 1 for female and 2 for male
Campus 1 for Sydney campus and 2 for Wollongong campus
Assignment Tasks:
1. Visually present data for the marks from different trimesters.
Calculate descriptive statistics for the marks of different trimesters. Comments on the location, shape and variability of those
distributions.
2. Visually present data for the marks for domestic and internationalstudents. Calculate descriptive statistics for the marks of domestic andinternational students. Comments on the location, shape and variability ofthose distributions.
3. Visually present data for the marks of students in trimester 3 fordomestic and international students. Calculate descriptive statistics for themarks of students in trimester 3 by domestic or international status.Comments on the location, shape and variability of those distributions.
4. Many academics at business school believe that female students havehigher marks than male students in accounting area. How do you test whetherthe average mark in female students is significantly higher than the averagemark of male students? Use appropriate inferential statistical techniques.
5. Using the data collected, how do you test the claim that there is nosignificant difference of the average marks of students from the differenttrimesters? What do you find from your analysis? Use appropriate inferentialstatistical techniques.
6. The Business School is interested in understanding the performanceof domestic and international students. How do you test whether there is asignificant difference of average marks across the two groups? Useappropriate inferential statistical techniques.
7. Many academics at business school believe that Wollongongstudents perform better than Sydney students. How do you test whether theaverage marks of Wollongong students is higher than the average mark ofSydney students? Use appropriate inferential statistical techniquesMore information on this assessment will be provided during the sessiontime including the presentation of the assignment and submission toTurnitin. Please note that you should submit the assignment according tothe format given in the Moodle site.
Answer
Business Problem:
The business report on management accounting assignment tries to understand the performance of students in management accounting. For this, the report considers an Australian Business School for collecting primary data from the target population. The main concern of the report is to find whether performance of students differ significantly based on their gender, campuses, trimesters and status of students or not. In this context, it is essential to mention that the report considers 3 trimesters, which are Semester 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Moreover, gender of the students is divided into male and female while their status is also divided into domestic and international one. Furthermore, the university has campuses in Sydney and Wollongong. Therefore, the report will try to find whether the performance of students differs due to these factors or other factors influence students’ performance the most.
The main aim outlined for the study conducted in this management accounting assignment is to analyse and present real world data with proper statistical techniques. In the modern business, it is essential for an organisation to apply different statistical methods as well as concepts in business data. Furthermore, the report also focuses on hypothesis testing by applying inferential statistics with the help of MS Excel software.
What is the main statistical problem of the study examined in the management accounting assignment?
The main statistical problem of the study explored in the management accounting assignment is to summarise the variables in a descriptive way to observe the location, shape as well as variability of the dataset. In addition to this, the report also intends to provide a visual presentation of the data set for different variables with proper statistical diagram. Moreover, the report also tries to analyse the mean difference between two or more than two variables. For doing so, the report prepares statistical hypothesis for testing it with proper statistical methods. As a result, the report considers twotailed ttest having equal variance and oneway ANOVA and measures the hypothesis at 5% significance level. For simplicity of the calculation, the report selects 362 students as sample from different trimesters from a large population size. In the report, gender, status, campus and trimesters represent categorical variables and hence they are represented with dummy variables.
The descriptive statistics represents location and shape by measuring central tendency of the data set. Furthermore, variability of the data set is measured by variance. In other words, descriptive statistics actually provide the summarise description of a specific data set. In hypothesis testing, the report considers two types of hypotheses, which are, null and alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis presents the assumption that the report wants to prove while alternative hypothesis provides an alternative view of that assumption which completely opposite.
Analysis:
The objective of this management accounting assignment is to conduct the analysis of data set based on 7 tasks as per the requirement. The following section represents the visual presentation of the data as well as tables of corresponding findings and explains this based on statistical concepts. Here the data uses histogram, which shows data distribution based on frequency and class.
Task 1:
Figure 1: Visual presentation of marks from Semester 1
The above figure provided within this management accounting assignment shows students’ maximum marks in semester 1 lies between 50 and 60. The width of the each bar is equal which implies that the total marks for semester 1 are divided equally. From the figure, it can also be observed that fewer students get marks between 80 and 90.
Table 1: Descriptive statistics of marks from Semester 1
MARK (1) 

Mean 
69.81549 
Standard Error 
1.338143 
Median 
66.11 
Mode 
59.71 
Standard Deviation 
14.78028 
Sample Variance 
218.4565 
Kurtosis 
0.81716 
Skewness 
0.61219 
Range 
47.82 
Minimum 
50.84 
Maximum 
98.66 
Sum 
8517.49 
Count 
122 
The mean value shows that the marks of students in semester 1 lay around 69.82. However, the value of variance is 218.46 that imply that the marks of one student differ significantly from the mean value. The data set is skewed positively that indicates that the mean is greater than median. Moreover, from the above analysis done in this management accounting assignment, it can also be seen that median is also higher than mode (Ho and Yu 2015). Count implies that among 362 students, 122 are from semester 1.
Figure 2: Visual presentation of marks from Semester 2
The figure 2 provided in this management accounting assignment shows students’ maximum marks in semester 2 lies between 38 and 48. The width of the each bar is equal which implies that the total marks for semester 2 are divided equally. From the figure, it can also be observed that fewer students get marks between 58 and 68.
Table 2: Descriptive statistics of marks from Semester 2
MARK (2) 

Mean 
52.54463 
Standard Error 
0.871337 
Median 
49.19 
Mode 
42.44 
Standard Deviation 
9.6636 
Sample Variance 
93.38516 
Kurtosis 
0.57473 
Skewness 
0.655492 
Range 
34.67 
Minimum 
38.63 
Maximum 
73.3 
Sum 
6462.99 
Count 
123 
The mean value shows that the marks of students in semester 2 lay around 52.54. However, the value of variance is 93.38 that mean the marks of one student differ from the mean value. The data set analysed in this management accounting assignment is skewed positively that indicates that the mean is greater than median. Moreover, median is also higher than mode. Count implies that among 362 students, 123 are from semester 2.
Figure 3: Visual presentation of marks from Semester 3
The figure 3 shows students’ maximum marks in semester 3 lies between 36 and 46. The width of the each bar is equal which implies that the total marks for semester 3 are divided equally into four class boundaries. From the figure, it can also be observed that fewer students get marks between 56 and 66.
Table 3: Descriptive statistics of marks from Semester 3
MARK (3) 

Mean 
43.75085 
Standard Error 
0.727649 
Median 
44.38 
Mode 
42.52 
Standard Deviation 
7.870725 
Sample Variance 
61.94831 
Kurtosis 
0.243916 
Skewness 
0.43111 
Range 
32.55 
Minimum 
26.18 
Maximum 
58.73 
Sum 
5118.85 
Count 
117 
The mean value evaluated in the context of this management accounting assignment shows that the marks of students in semester 3 place around 43.75. However, the value of variance is 61.95, which imply that the marks of one student differ slightly from the mean value. The data set is skewed negatively as the mean is lower than median. Moreover, median is also lower than mode. Count implies that among 362 students, 117 are from this semester.
Task 2:
Figure 4: Histogram showing marks for domestic students
The figure 4 shows students’ maximum marks of domestic students on the entire semesters lies between 47 and 57. The width of the each bar is equal which implies that the total marks for those students are divided equally. From the figure, it can also be observed in this management accounting assignment that fewer students get marks within 77 to 107.
Table 4: Descriptive statistics of marks for domestic students
MARK(D) 

Mean 
55.05194 
Standard Error 
1.130053 
Median 
54.31 
Mode 
52.37 
Standard Deviation 
14.51579 
Sample Variance 
210.7081 
Kurtosis 
0.951958 
Skewness 
0.820631 
Range 
70.33 
Minimum 
27.9 
Maximum 
98.23 
Sum 
9083.57 
Count 
165 
The mean value shows that the marks of domestic students over the 3 semesters lay around 55.05. However, the value of variance is 210.71 that imply that the mark of one student differs from the mean value by highly. The data set is skewed positively that indicates that the mean is greater than median while median is also higher than mode. Count implies that among 362 students, 165 students are from Australia.
Figure 5: Histogram showing marks for international students
The figure 5 shows students’ maximum marks of international students on the entire semesters lies between 46 and 56. The width of the each bar is equal which implies that the total marks for those students have been grouped equally. From the figure, it can also be observed in this segment of management accounting assignment that fewer students get marks between 26 and 36.
Table 5: Descriptive statistics of marks for international students
MARK (I) 

Mean 
55.91756 
Standard Error 
1.167338 
Median 
51.07 
Mode 
59.71 
Standard Deviation 
16.38438 
Sample Variance 
268.4478 
Kurtosis 
0.434251 
Skewness 
0.939936 
Range 
72.48 
Minimum 
26.18 
Maximum 
98.66 
Sum 
11015.76 
Count 
197 
The mean value shows that the marks of international students over the 3 semesters lay around 55.92. Moreover, the value of variance is 268.45 that imply that the mark of one student differs from the mean value by large number. The data set is skewed positively that indicates that the mean is greater than median. However, median is lower than mode. Count implies that among 362 students, 197 students are from other countries.
Task 3:
Figure 6: Histogram for domestic students showing marks in semester 3
The figure 6 provided in this management accounting assignment shows students’ maximum marks of domestic students in 3rd semester lies between 37 and 47. The width of the each bar is equal which implies that the total marks for those students have been grouped equally. From the figure, it can also be observed that fewer students get marks between 57 and 67.
Table 6: Descriptive statistics for domestic students showing marks in semester 3
MARK(D) 

Mean 
44.85 
Standard Error 
0.999628 
Median 
44.18 
Mode 
43.98 
Standard Deviation 
8.121016 
Sample Variance 
65.9509 
Kurtosis 
0.08068 
Skewness 
0.22582 
Range 
30.83 
Minimum 
27.9 
Maximum 
58.73 
Sum 
2960.1 
Count 
66 
The mean value shows that the marks of domestic students in semester 3 lay around 44.85. The value of variance is 65.95. It implies that the marks of one student differ from the mean value. The data set is skewed almost symmetrically. It indicates that the mean is almost equal with median. Moreover, median is also higher than mode. Count implies that among 362 students, only 66 domestic students are in the semester.
Figure 7: Histogram for international students showing marks in semester 3
The figure 7 shows students’ maximum marks of international students in 3rd semester. The number lies between 36 and 46. The width of the each bar is equal which implies that the total marks for those students have been divided in 3 equal groups. From the figure, it can also be observed that fewer students get marks between 36 and 46.
Table 7: Descriptive statistics for international students showing marks in semester 3
MARK (I) 

Mean 
42.32843 
Standard Error 
1.032088 
Median 
45.53 
Mode 
42.52 
Standard Deviation 
7.370579 
Sample Variance 
54.32544 
Kurtosis 
0.457551 
Skewness 
0.97885 
Range 
25.97 
Minimum 
26.18 
Maximum 
52.15 
Sum 
2158.75 
Count 
51 
The mean value identified from the analysis done in the management accounting assignment shows that the marks of international students in semester 3 lay around 42.33. The value of variance is 54.33. It implies that the marks of one student differ from the mean value. The data set is skewed negatively. It indicates that the mean is lower than median. However, median is also higher than mode. Count implies that among 362 students, only 51 international students are in the semester.
Task 4:
In this task, the report tries to understand the performance of female students and male students based on their marks in overall semesters. The main intension is to observe whether female students perform better in management accounting subject compared to male students or not. For understanding the difference, this segment covered in the management accounting assignment applies ttest with equal variance in order to test the following hypotheses:
Null hypothesis (H0): Female students perform better than male students in management accounting area
Alternative hypothesis (H1): Female students do not perform better than male students in management accounting area
Table 8: tTest: for showing the difference between average marks of females and male students:
MARK (F) 
MARK (F) 

Mean 
61.82993827 
50.4144 
Variance 
388.5578317 
65.41635 
Observations 
162 
200 
Pooled Variance 
209.9324017 

Hypothesized Mean Difference 
0 

df 
360 

t Stat 
7.453750939 

P(T<=t) onetail 
3.40895E13 

t Critical onetail 
1.649097299 

P(T<=t) twotail 
6.81791E13 

t Critical twotail 
1.966575389 
As per the table 8, it can be clearly observed in the management accounting assignment that the university has 162 female and 200 male students of management accounting in total. The female students get around 61.89 marks on average in the subject over the 3 semesters. On the other side, the male students get around 50.41 marks on average in the subject over the 3 semesters. Moreover, the variability of marks from the mean value is high for female students compared to that of males. At 5% level of significant, the P value of twotail is 0.00. As the value is less than 0.05, the report rejects the null hypothesis by accepting the alternative one (Simonsohn, Simmons and Nelson 2015). Hence, from the finding, it is observed that female students do not perform better than male students in management accounting area by getting higher marks.
Task 5:
In this task of management accounting assignment, the report tries to understand the performance of students in 3 different trimesters. The main intension is to observe whether students perform better in only semester compared to others or not. For understanding the difference, the report applies oneway ANOVA in order to test the following hypotheses:
Null hypothesis (H0): The average marks of students in different trimesters do not have any difference
Alternative hypothesis (H1): The average marks of students in 3 trimesters have difference
The report considers oneANOVA as the number of variables is three.
Table 9: Oneway ANOVA: To analyse the difference between students’ average marks in three semesters:
SUMMARY 

Groups 
Count 
Sum 
Average 
Variance 

MARK (1) 
122 
8517.49 
69.81549 
218.4565 

MARK (2) 
123 
6462.99 
52.54463 
93.38516 

MARK (3) 
117 
5118.85 
43.75085 
61.94831 

ANOVA 

Source of Variation 
SS 
df 
MS 
F 
Pvalue 
F crit 
Between Groups 
42226.94 
2 
21113.47 
168.3928 
2.6E52 
3.02087 
Within Groups 
45012.23 
359 
125.3823 

Total 
87239.17 
361 
As per the table 9, it can be stated that at 5% level of significant, the P value is 0.00. As the value is less than 0.05, the report rejects the null hypothesis by accepting the alternative one. Hence, from the finding, it is observed that the average marks of students in 3 trimesters are different.
Task 6:
In this task, the report tries to understand the performance of Australian students and international students. The main intension of the findings used to develop this management accounting assignment is to observe whether domestic students perform better in management accounting subject compared to international students in different semesters or not. For understanding the difference, the report applies ttest with equal variance in order to test the following hypotheses:
Null hypothesis (H0): The average marks of domestic students does not differ with that of international students
Alternative hypothesis (H1): The average marks of domestic students differs with that of international students
Table 10: tTest: To analyse the difference between average marks of domestic and international students:
MARK(D) 
MARK (I) 

Mean 
55.05194 
55.91756 
Variance 
210.7081 
268.4478 
Observations 
165 
197 
Pooled Variance 
242.1441 

Hypothesized Mean Difference 
0 

df 
360 

t Stat 
0.52712 

P(T<=t) onetail 
0.299216 

t Critical onetail 
1.649097 

P(T<=t) twotail 
0.598432 

t Critical twotail 
1.966575 
As per the table 10, it can be observed in the management accounting assignment that at 5% level of significant, the P value is 0.60. As the value is higher than 0.05, the report accepts the null hypothesis by rejecting the alternative one. Hence, from the finding, it is observed that the average marks of domestic students are equal with that of international students.
Task 7:
In this task, the report tries to understand the performance of Wollongong students and Sydney students. The main intension of the readings examined in the management accounting assignment is to observe whether Wollongong students perform better in management accounting subject compared to Sydney students in different semesters or not. For understanding the difference, the report applies ttest with equal variance in order to test the following hypotheses:
Null hypothesis (H0): The average marks of Wollongong students is equal with that of international students
Alternative hypothesis (H1): The average marks of Wollongong students differs with that of Sydney students
Table 11: tTest: To analyse the difference between average marks of Wollongong and Sydney students:
tTest: TwoSample Assuming Equal Variances 

MARK (Sydney) 
MARK (W) 

Mean 
48.701 
64.03994 
Variance 
104.5884 
283.0522 
Observations 
201 
161 
Pooled Variance 
183.9056 

Hypothesized Mean Difference 
0 

df 
360 

t Stat 
10.6944 

P(T<=t) onetail 
1.15E23 

t Critical onetail 
1.649097 

P(T<=t) twotail 
2.3E23 

t Critical twotail 
1.966575 
As per the table 11 shown in the management accounting assignment, it can be stated that the university has 201 students in Sydney and 161 students in Wollongong reads management accounting. The Sydney students get around 48.70 marks on average in the subject over the 3 semesters. On the other side, the Wollongong students get around 64.04 marks on average in the subject over the 3 semesters. Moreover, the variability of marks from the mean value is high for Wollongong students compared to that of Sydney. At 5% level of significant, the P value of twotail is 0.00. As the value is less than 0.05, the report rejects the null hypothesis by accepting the alternative one. Hence, from the finding, it is observed that the average marks of Wollongong students differ with that of Sydney students.
Conclusion:
Therefore, considering the overall analysis of the readings explored in the management accounting assignment, the report concludes that the students’ performance differ with gender, location and semesters. However, the status of the student does not play any significant role in this aspect. With the help of statistical analysis, diagrammatical representations and the analysis of inferential statistics, the report concludes that the performance of students depend gender, location of the university and semesters. Thus, the merit of students depends on these external and internal factors except status of them. Therefore, the finding obtained in the management accounting assignment will help the university to give emphasis on those issues without considering that whether the student is coming from other countries or not. Moreover, the semester wise variation of performance indicates that they perform well in some particular semester due to the easiness of syllabus. In addition to this, the university also observes that the study in Wollongong is different from Sydney.
Implications:
From the above finding and conclusion the report on management accounting assignment can draw the following implications:
 The university needs to focus on courses in different semesters
 The university needs to equate the educational system in Sydney with Wollongong
 The university needs to focus on male students for understanding their difficulties in understanding management accounting
 The university should focus on other external and internal sources that affect the students’ performance level in this aspect.
References:
Ho, A.D. and Yu, C.C., 2015. Descriptive statistics for modern test score distributions: Skewness, kurtosis, discreteness, and ceiling effects. Management accounting assignment Educational and Psychological Measurement, 75(3), pp.365388.
Simonsohn, U., Simmons, J.P. and Nelson, L.D., 2015. Specification curve: Descriptive and inferential statistics on all reasonable specifications. Available at SSRN 2694998.