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Literature Review of 5 Articles on Human Resource Management

Question

Task: You are required to compile a ‘Reviewing the Literature’ of 5 peer-reviewed journal articles.
Step 1. Select one of the options for Essay 3.
Read the Assessment 3 Essay options and identify which one you will work on for assessment 2 and 3.
Step 2. Undertake research of the recent academic literature since 2010.
Identify five (5) academic peer reviewed journal articles relevant to the Assessment 3 Essay topic. These must be aligned to the unit themes from Weeks 1 to 5 (e.g. evolution of SHRM, the context of HRM, industrial relations, HR planning and work design challenges in a global environment). It is recommended that you undertake your research via the online ‘search’ of CQUniversity Library. You cannot use the article from your Assessment 1 presentation for Assessment 2.
Step 3. Write 500 words on each article (500 x 5= 2500 words)
For each journal article, write to the headings in the template. These include:
• full reference
• outline of research objective and research question
• outline of the method
• discussion of the findings
• summary of the conclusions
• indication of how this will be relevant for your Essay 3.
Place each article on a new page.
Present your Reviewing the Literature in format provided in the template. For more information, see the library guide for writing an annotated bibliography.

Answer

Article 1
Full reference of the article
Dawson, Angela J, Stasa, Helen, Roche, Michael A, Homer, Caroline S E, & Duffield, Christine. (2014). Nursing churn and turnover in Australian hospitals: Nurses perceptions and suggestions for supportive strategies. BMC Nursing, 13(1), 11.

Objective and research question
The main objective of this study on Human Resource Management is to add up an acknowledgement into the experience of the nurse turnover in the hospitals of public sector. It aims in providing the insights to the perceptions of nurses working in the medical surgical wards and factors which contribute to the nurse’s turnover from the perspective of nurses working is Australian Public hospitals. It also aims at building strategies for improving he is working environment of the public hospitals and to improve the retention of the nurses in the same.

Methodology
The study has been conducted with the descriptive qualitative study method so that the perceptions and views of the nurses working in Australian public hospitals can be explored. There are some participating hospitals for which the ethical approval was gained from the University of Technology, Sydney.

Findings and discussion 
The study on Human Resource Management gained the responses from 362 nurses and these responses were analysed to reach the findings. It is found from the research study that most of the respondents were female and over 40 years with an average of 14 years of working experience. Majority of the nurses stated that the working environment of the public hospitals were poor which is because the nurses left the job because they weren’t enjoying their job. They were not involved in the decision making and constant changes were experienced at the workplace. They also faced the issues with the shift timings, payments and the expectations of the patients.

It is further examined that the poor skill mix is a serious issue at work and there are workers with different levels of working experience and degrees which does not match, and the issues arise.

There is a problem of staff shortage in most of the hospitals which leads to lower job satisfaction levels in rest of the workers and affects Human Resource Management. The pressure of work increases which leads to absenteeism and poorer health conditions of the workers. Also, there are no incentives paid for extra work in most of the cases. Most of the workers leave the profession due to the limited job opportunities and less pay.

It is found that to attract more staff and to retain them, public hospitals should pay for the extra hours given by the worker and the work should also be rewarded so that it can boost the morale of the employee.

Conclusion 
It can be concluded that the positive solutions on Human Resource Management must be found to engage nurses and health workers in the health establishments. Performance management has to be enhanced and employment options must be increased so that they do not view these jobs as the dead-end jobs. The workers should feel empowered while working in the health sector which is the only way to retain the health workers.

 Article contribution to an Essay 3
The article focuses on the challenges faced by the health care workers because of the work design in the health sector. It focuses on the topic 5 of the essay “work design challenges in the global environment”. The theme is adequately covered and reviewed here. It will therefore help in contributing to Essay 3.

 
Article 2
Full reference of the article
Roche, M. A., Duffield, C. M., Homer, C., Buchan, J., & Dimitrelis, S. (2015). The rate and cost of nurse turnover in Australia. Collegian, 22(4), 353-358.

Objective and research question
The main objective of this study is to explore the solutions by which the nurse’s turnover can be resolved in the health organizations in Australia. Also, it is important to find out so that the cost of the nurse’s turnover can be minimized. The main research question of the study is:

What are the factors which brings high nurses’ turnover in the health organizations?

How the high employee turnover can be resolved in the health care establishments in Australia?

Methodology
The costs of the 11 hospitals across three states of Australia will be calculated and the relationship between the nurse turnover and the patient outcomes will also be analyzed. Data will be collected from the 62 general wards from 11 hospitals in three Australian states. Also, the costing and turnover data is collected at ward level.

Findings and discussion 
The study is approved by the ethics committee in Human Resource Management. In this study, it is found that the direct costs of the hospitals include the advertising and training costs. It also includes the replacement and unfilled positions costs. Direct costs include hiring costs too. The indirect costs of the hospitals include training, productivity and termination costs.

The annual rate of the turnover per ward was found as around 15% and the total cost is approx. 69000. The reason for the high cost of replacement for the staff is not clear but it reflects that the Human Resource Management practices in the hospitals impacts its costs a lot. The temporary replacement agencies are contacted for filling the temporary positions which are very expensive to the hospitals. In Australia, the terminations costs can go up to 50% of the total indirect costs to the organisations. These costs include the separation of employees, long pay service leaves, termination and more. The other costs include the workforce planning, making nursing strategies and the payroll system. 

The nurse turnover in the health care organisations is critical in Australia and it carries high costs which impact the budgets of the hospitals and also the high expenditure costs. The hospital management should pay more attention on Human Resource Management to the projected workforce shortages so that the temporary vacancy filling should not pose heavy expenditures on the hospitals. Also, it could lead to the savings in cost which could be used in the training and development of the employees so that the turnover can be reduced.

Conclusion 
It can be concluded that the health system of Australia is facing key challenges as the population is ageing and the burden of chronological ill patients is increasing. The hospitals can include ‘stability index’ which can assess the proportion of the staff remaining in the post in definite period. It can lead to the sustainable health system for Australia.

 Article contribution to an Essay 3
 The article focuses on the costs which the hospitals have to bear because of the high turnover of employees. The article further helps in focusing on the work design challenges and workforce planning as a part of the Human resource management in health sector.

Article 3
Full reference of the article
Nelson, S., Azevedo, P., Dias, R., Sousa, S., Carvalho, L., Silva, A., & Rabelo, P. (2013). Nursing work: Challenges for health management in the Northeast of Brazil. Human Resource Management Journal of Nursing Management, 21(6), 838-849

Objective and research question
The main aim of this article is to use social exchange theory to examine the interaction between the supervisor subordinate relationships in health care centers. Also, the training and affective commitments for nursing professionals in Northeast Brazilian Public sector will eb explored. The objective is to find the determinants which bring organizational effectiveness in health care institutions and how nurses are the major source for the improved performance and labor turnover.

Methodology
Mixed methods are used for conducting this study on Human Resource Management which involves the qualitative and quantitative aspects of research. The quantitative data is obtained from the cross-sectional survey method for getting the data on the supervisors and subordinates’ relationships and the qualitative data is obtained from the in-depth interviews and focused group discussions. Both the methods would supplement each other and will help in exploring the relevant issues related to the supervisor and subordinate relationships.

Findings and discussion 
The results were derived in two parts: Quantitative results and qualitative results. It is found that there is a significant and positive relationship between the supervisor and subordinate relationship with the training practices. It also stands true for the affective commitment for the nurses of Northeast Brazilian health institutions. Also, it was asked in the qualitative analysis that what is the best and worst thing about this profession of nursing, and it was found that the best thing what nurses feel is that they are pursuing what they dreamt of. They like to take care of patients, but the worst thing is that they are paid low and have heavy workloads which affect their career growth and personal health.

Most of the respondents replied that that have good relationships with the co-workers. The best thing about the profession is that no matter how much workload the nurses feel, in the end they get stratified in caring of the patients.

The Human Resource Management department of hospitals and health centres do not focus on training and development programs as they go for cost cutting which is resulting in the job dissatisfaction of the nurses. Also, the nurses who are under contract, gets fewer opportunities for job and career. They have no career structure and no job security which leads to the high turnover of nurses from the health organisations. For this, the health care management need to work on the factors which can build up the confidence in the workers and can reduce the retention of workers from the same.

Conclusion 
It can be concluded that the relationships of supervisor and subordinates have low impact on the commitment to the organization as there are many other factors which forces nurses’ professionals to leave their career as a nurse. The low wage structure, challenges working as a health care worker and heavy workloads are the main reasons for the same.

 Article contribution to an Essay 3
 The article focuses on the challenges of nursing workers who are working in Brazil and worldwide. Also, the supply for nursing professionals and the work relationships are also been focused in the article which contributes to the Essay 3 which will focus on the Human Resource management of Health care sector.

 
Article 4
Full Reference of the article
Givan, R. K., Avgar, A., & Liu, M. (2010). Having your cake and eating it too? The relationship between HR and organizational performance in healthcare. Adv Ind Lab, 17, 31-67.

Objective
The objective of this research is to introduce the stakeholder framework for evaluating the relationship of HR performance in the healthcare sector. The article has undertaken the research by building two research questions. The first question is how human resource management practice put positive impact on any individual outcome. At the same time, it also outlines how Human Resource Management practices at the same time pit negative impact on some other performance outcome.

Method
It has undertaken the survey through collecting quantitative data. Data has been collected through survey from human resource executives in around 81 trusts of hospitals. Survey questions have been constructed and then it was collected yearly from the trust management. In addition to this, data is also collected from the publicly available data.

Findings and discussion
It is true that healthcare organisation is such sector where the relationship between HR practices and organisation performance can be found out for several reasons. Firstly, it helps in providing several organisational outcomes. Secondly, it is highly prevalent in every country. Research findings on the managerial practices and hospital restructuring states some of the positive link between practices such as use of teams on the performance of organisation. HR performance research has given the major emphasis on one performance indicator named mortality rates of patient. However, author has stated that there is need to include some additional stakeholder perspective such as patient satisfaction, financial performance, employee outcomes and patient satisfaction. At the same time, it has included that hospitals might include the cost strategy in some of the areas by maintain a quality strategy for better patient care.

It has also outlined the significance of adopting “multi-stakeholder framework” in healthcare setting. The reason behind adopting of this framework is that there are different measures for the organisation productivity in the healthcare sector. Due to this, it is also necessary to find quality of care data through multiple health-related outcome and clinical variables. In order to ensure the success of health care setting, different HR practices are to be sued such as performance appraisal, training, that are directly linked with the performance of organisation through its effect on the enhanced knowledge and skill. The survey conducted in this area also states the link between high involvement and high commitment HR practices. In relation to the HR practices, it has been said that high involvement practices might be positively associated with some of the outcomes and negatively with others.

Conclusion
In the limelight of above discussion, it can be concluded that the use of high involvement HR practices might bring positive patient outcome and at the same time, it will be being negative outcome with the financial outcome of organisation. It has been stated that frontline staff mainly bring out the outcome. Due to this, it is also necessary to provide them significant training for increasing their learning capacity and some significant skills.

Article contribution to an Essay 3
This article focusses on the relationship between HR and organizational performance in healthcare. It will reflect on the Human Resource Management issues in Healthcare sector. It shows that in healthcare sector, training and development are significant by providing learning capacities, and greater skills to the frontline staff. This is how it contributes to essay 3.

Article 5
Full Reference of the article
Trebble, T. M., Heyworth, N., Clarke, N., Powell, T., & Hockey, P. M. (2014). Managing hospital doctors and their practice: what can we learn about human resource management from non-healthcare organisations? BMC health services research, 14(1), 566.

Research objective
The main aim of this research is to evaluate the current Human Resource Management systems related to Human Resource Management in several successful public, commercial and voluntary sector organisations. This will help in knowing the common themes that are in practice in such sectors.

Methodology
The methodology used in this research is the secondary data collection wherein its ha undertaken the study in 10 successful partnership organisations within public, commercial as well as voluntary operating environment. In addition to this, data is also collected through survey where annual staff survey is found in the entire commercial sector organisation.

Findings and discussion
Human resource management is said to be strategic as it helps in achieving the goals of organisation as well as worked through theoretical framework. From the data collected, it has stated that Human Resource Management practice is positively linked with the healthcare staff behaviour where they tend to enhance the employee participation and autonomy in change. Participatory goal setting is another practice that is directly linked with the positive staff behaviour as well as improvement in the clinic care.

In the public sector, it has stated that one organisation used the talent profiling in the employees’ career for finding out the key skills to create value in the organisation. For this, they used the skills-based recruitment. The system of tangible and intangibles outcomes is seen in the commercial sector organisation. Competency based system includes the team working, leadership as we, as staff behaviour. At the same time, it was also seen in the voluntary and public sector. Another most significant common theme related to staff wellbeing, valuing and recognising their contribution is ensuring “staff enjoyed whatever is done by do.” This aspect is seen across all the sectors and it ultimately led to the satisfaction among staff, an ethical environment, retaining and attracting high quality staff, as well as organisational commitment.

It is also found that the use of values in ensuring the management of staff is common across ever organisation, but it is particularly seen in the voluntary and commercial sectors that their interpretation related to role.

Conclusion
From the above discussion on several Human Resource Management aspects, it can be concluded that respect and inclusion of employees and workers is most common and significant theme in order to ensure the success of working practices. In addition to this, it is also required to promote the wellbeing in organisation by valuing and recognising their contribution that they have made for the success of organisation. This is noted across every sector that further leads to the staff satisfaction and organisational commitment with high quality.

Article contribution to an Essay 3
The article shows that it is across every sector that staff satisfaction and organisational commitment with high quality is required and it is gained through effective Human Resource Management. In every sector, the benefit of engagement and communication has been seen. These findings definitely have the implications for management of clinicians.

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