Literature Assignment: Questions & Answers based on Poetries
You are required to prepare a well-researched literature assignment answering the following questions:
- ‘We are the detectives in a colonial crime scene, the miners searching for hearts of gold.’ (Natalie Harkin) With detailed reference to ONE or TWO of the poems, consider how Australian poets used their poetic craft to respond to Australia’s colonial legacy.
- ‘He looked around but there was nothing to see. He spoke into blackness without depth or dimension.’ (Cormac McCarthy, The Road) With reference to at least TWO passages in The Road, discuss how McCarthy portrays a dying ecology. Can hope be drawn from so dire a picture of a destroyed planet?
- (3) ‘People all know the usefulness of what is useful, but they do not know the usefulness of what is useless.’ (Pierre Ryckmans) Discuss the uses of literary uselessness with reference to ONE or more of the core literary texts.
(2) ‘We are the detectives in a colonial crime scene, the miners searching for hearts of gold.’ (Natalie Harkin). With detailed reference to ONE or TWO of the poems discussed in Module 2, consider how Australian poets used their poetic craft to respond to Australia’s colonial legacy
Impacted and developed by some 50 years of Native verse in English language, the past few decades of the Australian coloniser poems have developed and cultured effective attempts to "denote (oneself) in the country." This offers diverse and occasionally deep-seated poems of regionality, climate, histories, topographies, milestones, human beings, narratives going through as well as over them. It could be seen that such contemporary works by settler poets underline range-defying purposes to inscribe in the current not only of Native poems, but also the colonisation's continuous impacts and of un-ceded aboriginal dominion.
In the poem, “The Buladelah – Taree Holiday Song Cycle” Poet Murray developed the themes of recovering the rural traditions. This piece of art is featured by its confident faith in convergence among past and the current, the rural and the metropolitan cultures that involve those of aboriginal tribes. This also outlines a full account of the Manning Valley. Through the reading of the poem, it could be identified that the rural principles, which emerge in natural vicinities and are closest to the heart of the author. Murray here relates the 3 integral levels of Australian culture- Pastoral, Aboriginal and Urban in this poem. Therefore, this literary piece and the poet have become a part of the Jindyworobak movement. A massive part of this verse concentrated on the urban-rural oppositions in the Australian culture.
The poetry, The Buladelah – Taree Holiday Song Cycle, underscored poet’s recognition with the Australia’s indigenous; this applied indigenous narrative types for underlying vacationing people in the country. There is low concentration made on the ravages that invasion brought to the natives and the poet did not shared Wright’s sense of incommensurability among natives and white cultures. Instead, there is a sense of fused personalities in the poem. This shows the vernacular native people facing a bigoted, ill-spirited, snobby urban elite filled with the chic thoughts of the 1960s and 1970s.
However, what of the Australian poets who are the apparent subjects and aim of the hoax? Strangely enough, references to as well as parodies of their works suggest rather thin on the ground here. The closest people come-the most viewable suggestion-seems to have the fact both ways. This is to the work of any poet such as Ern Malley, who may around to be said to sit on both sites, a fellow-man with this experimental works-one that has been mentioned in “Angry Penguins, A Comment"; however, additionally, one who had documented and developed therein his poems of them.
There are different causes why the Australian poets may be so little in indication here. Initially, it should be considered that the poem of Ern Malley himself that since he is the self-developed leader of the new poem in the country, with probably the higher public interests as a poet, is one of the most effective matters of parody-is in a sense also out of the limits. Since he is also the core aim of the hoax and the people could not risk their total endeavours by having the poet underline parodic types of his lines. On a second level, the poems of the experimental poets are not well-criticised and established about Australian colonial legacy, and the force of explanation may lessen in time. On the other hand, the poem named; “Boult to Marina," represents the struggle of the colonial period and the urge to rise above the struggles faced. Expressions and words like "Boult-upright;" "Go to the Wars?" could be cited here for the reference of the fact that the poet indeed makes use of metaphors and sometimes the direct expressions of the cultural, political, human right struggles.
The use of neo-classical verse and patterns in the works are also effective in showing the fact that the poem mentioned above has become more like an imaginary recent around time as well as being. This is a suggestive Australian settler voice, which outlined the minds of a deepening relationship to place and locality as the main of identity.
(3) ‘He looked around but there was nothing to see. He spoke into a blackness without depth or dimension.’ (Cormac McCarthy, The Road). Concerning at least TWO passages in The Road, discuss how McCarthy portrays a dying ecology. Can hope be drawn from so dire a picture of a destroyed planet?
On the basic level of the story in The Road is quite clear, outlining as this does the story of a after apocalyptic America, in which a son and father are on the street, searching for shelter and food. This is not vibrant how this all finished, however "…. (t)he clocks stopped at 1:17. A long shear of light and then a series of low concussions. He got up and went to the window." The trim of ray as well as the alarming outlines of brunt sceneries with the pallid blanket covers the landscape outline a nuclear holocaust. However, whatsoever the details, it is an ecological damage context on an unpredicted level. This is quite so that the reasons are not clear, it permits people and audience to concentrate on the dreadful results. As well as on how such places could bring out the poorest and sometimes the effects in people.
The author wrote a slow-paced, minimalist, and dark pose that can be the voice of the last newscaster on earth. Strangely, this discussion and familiarize people with the declamatory process of the Beats, specifically Ginsberg in Howl or Kerouac’s free-flowing fizziness. There are 2 types, continuous in their oppositions, the concerns of 2 diverse biospheres looking at one another in the face. However, the Beat inscription is moving in its recitatives, the appearances radiate vigour, the arguments are completed of fissile substantial or developing seasonal blossoms overflowing in the reader’s awareness. McCarthy’s word choices on the other side are deep responsibilities, as they collect the essence of synthesis strategies, the boom echoes from the pits.
While the environmental system has been harmed, so too has the moral quality, confidence, and love-leaving individuals to the inquiry whether they are all, nevertheless, affectation of an arranged society. It is where life is a useless cycle against not just the climate, infertile terrains, in any case, the covetous and rushed savages, the most horrendous indication of cultural decay.
Hope in the destroyed planet of The Road
The core tone and style of Cormac McCarthy’s The Road is a collaboration of different examples of hope and doubt throughout the entire book. The main figure of the speech has been presented on the religious belief of people. The father figure has quoted; “children were his permit, if he is not the word of God; God never spoke.”
While the expectation the man sustains in The Road is the normal kind—he never considers God—his expectation focuses both the kid and the peruse to that more noteworthy expectation. The kid implores, looks for, thus (the story alludes as far as possible) discovers God. Along these lines, as well, can the act of regular expectation set us up to want and get the main wellspring of our definitive expectation, the valid expectation. In “The Road” by Cormac McCarthy a common subject is trust, regardless of whether it is losing or picking up it. All through this novel, some innumerable cases and functions happen in which all appears to be lost at an impasse, yet at this time trust brings through and prospers (Cormac Mccarthy’S The Road: Death, Love, And A Dying Earth | The Artifice, 2020). In this dystopian world the man and kid or battle to remain alive while keeping their humankind. Just as looking for what humankind is left in this murder or be slaughtered barbarian planet. As their time travelling not far off increments, so do the perils they face to endure. The expectation is the motivation behind why, the dad and child travel to discover cover, trust is the motivation behind why they have not abandoned humanity and the child is the father’s expectation that is the motivation behind why he is yet alive (Harkin 2020, 1-13).
This matter of Aquinian grace is effectively developed in the movements of the child, who-despite sorrow for some minutes of desperation-displayed the kind flexibility of a supervisory character. The metaphor of hope and grace, which follows the pair by the dangerous ethics land of the literary piece, ensures the novel a description regarding the existence of honesty as well as hope-of the pure souls-rather than of life itself (Dunk 2019). Such unyielding leniency is uplifted by the solid irreverence of their reality. Indeed, even the benevolent dad recognizes a distinction between his youngster and himself; in the defilement of others, the father perceives his constraints.
(3) 'People all know the usefulness of what is useful, but they do not know the usefulness of what is useless.' (Pierre Ryckmans) Discuss the uses of literary uselessness concerning ONE or more of the core literary texts studied on the unit.
In order to be precise, the uselessness of literature underscores, rather than excluding literature from ever being applied. To apply the words of Oscar Wilde, “all art is quite useless,” free from any practical, emotional, or moral concerns." This statement could be related to the fact that literature, this is true, could never have any target, however, its perfection, a stance that is separated from any usefulness or association to people; literature importance, thus, is cleared from any user in the sense of in some process fulfilling the requirement or promoting the development of humankind. On the other hand, literature’s uselessness hiders this from outlying any type of truth, context, or moral value, as literature never outlines anything but itself (The Uselessness Of Literature 2020).
The concept of literary freedom is not isolated from operation; rather, based on its regulations, freedom has around aim in a hypothetical or effective sense. The literary uselessness, as a kind of freedom, therefore required no to be separated from the aim; in fact, the “Verbal Art as Performance" has suggested that literary freedom is what permits the verbal art and performance to be purposive in various ways. On the other hand, this piece of literature has outlined that nature of performance in the verbal art representation in literature and its freedom from a given application is what this enables this to be applied in diverse ways, despite being characteristically confined to one use or aim to the folklore. This exposure of the concept is a negative understanding, rather than explaining empirical presence (Bauman 2002, 88-165). The conception of verbal art as communication outlines unhindered by subjective, empirical context: literature does not offer an understanding of the current reality through reflecting this form of art or from a specific context. However, through revealing whatever is indirect by the empirical evidence assumed by reality as well as it is probably only by the practice of verbal art's autonomous status (Kappenberg 2018, 251-271).
The literary piece named; “Orality and Literacy” contextualized restriction of words not sensuous, however rather moral, in a rational context. For the author, purposiveness is only effective during the presentation of an object is appealingly attractive: therefore, presentation of the oral culture, purposive despite having an innovative aim, should also be an object that motivates the feelings of pleasures (Marques, Eduardo Marks de, and Anelise 2016, 9-15).
This piece of writing and book represented the Oral cultural aspect that has been capitalised in substantial energy in following people’s understanding, as well as saying the same facts repeatedly (Wang 2016, 279). This could be said that having developed around the scripted and printed word, literate human beings such as common people could not understand the knowledge of spoken awareness. Literateness alters awareness finally. Knowledge to recite and inscribe restricts the spoken mind; when the awareness is presented to manuscript, the spoken attitude vanishes repeatedly (Best 2020, 431-439).
Through making another world as well as through criticizing this real presentation of literary pieces, authors sometimes become rebels. The readers of such a literary art returned to reality with a sharp sensibility, which translated itself in the act of rebellion against authority, the development, or authorised politics. Outcomes in the production of stimulation narratives for readers’ thoughts that are then immediately consumed in the academic area as Resistance literature (Cassidy 2016). The application of the term resistance almost the same level of times as authors applies the word fiction. Although, the difference is that when authors talk regarding resistance literature; they do not apply this as a synonymous of the literary pieces, as authors almost do with fiction as well as literature.
Additionally, it could be said that information offering context of the literature could also be accounted for here. Information sharing act of literature could rebuke the uselessness concept of literary arts. Thus, it could be said that usefulness and uselessness of literature are subjective and could be changed by the interpretations of the authors. This is a matter of perceiving the meaning and suggestions of the art and how they could be presented in real life.
"Cormac Mccarthy’S The Road: Death, Love, And A Dying Earth | The Artifice". 2020. The-Artifice.Com. https://the-artifice.com/cormac-mccarthys-the-road-death-love-and-a-dying-earth/.
"The Uselessness Of Literature". 2020. One-Way Street. https://onewaystreet.typepad.com/one_way_street/2011/03/the-uselessness-of-literature.html. Bauman, Richard. "Verbal art as performance." Linguistic anthropology: A reader (2002): 88-165.
Best, Stephen. "Walter J. Ong, Orality and Literacy (1982)." Public Culture 32, no. 2 (91) (2020): 431-439.
Cassidy, Bonny. 2016. "Unbidden: Settler Poetry In The Presence Of Indigenous Sovereignty". Cordite Poetry Review. http://cordite.org.au/essays/unbidden-settler-poetry/.
Dunk, Jonathan. 2019. "The Stump: Looking Back On The Republic Of Murray". Overland Literary Journal. https://overland.org.au/2019/06/the-stump-looking-back-on-the-republic-of-murray/.
Harkin, Natalie. "Weaving the Colonial Archive: A Basket to Lighten the Load." Journal of Australian Studies (2020): 1-13.
Kappenberg, Claudia. "The Use of Uselessness." In Performing Process: Sharing Dance and Choreographic Practice, pp. 251-271. Intellect, 2018.
Marques, Eduardo Marks de, and Anelise R. Corseuil. "New Cultural Landscapes: Australian Narratives in Literature and Film." Ilha do Desterro 69, no. 2 (2016): 9-15.
Wang, Ban. "Use in Uselessness: How Western Aesthetics Made Chinese Literature More Political." A Companion to Modern Chinese Literature (2016): 279.