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IT Ethics Assignment: Importance of Ethics for Programmers

Question

Task: In Task 1 you will create an argument visualization using the MindMup software and you will produce a report in Task 2, which details the argument you construct in your argument visualization.
Choose ONE of the following media articles or case studies to prepare this IT ethics assignment:

1. This New Facebook Tool Reveals How You Are Being Tracked Online
2. Programmers need ethics when designing the technologies that influence people’s lives
3. Does regulating artificial intelligence save humanity or just stifle innovation?
4. I decided to quit Twitter and I feel like a new man
5. Artificial intelligence in Australia needs to get ethical, so we have a plan

Now follow the instructions given below to complete Task 1:
Use the title of the article/case study as the title of your argument visualization so that the lecturer knows which article you are analyzing.

Undertake further research about your chosen case and the ethical issue involved, to assist you in analyzing it in your argument visualization (and in your report in Task 2).

Identify logical arguments and construct an argument visualization using MindMup software. Your visualization should contain the conclusion, and all of the reasons and objections leading to that conclusion.

Your argument visualization should present a logical argument for your subsequent report in Task 2. Your report will develop these arguments based on a deeper analysis of the ethical issue(s).

Your report should contain all of the arguments contained in your visualization, and you should not introduce new arguments in your report that are not in your visualization.

MindMup - https://www.mindmup.com/tutorials/argument-visualization.html?orig=/ Philosophy Mapped (argument visualization information) - https://maps.simoncullen.org/home

Task 2 (17%): Applying Ethical Theories
Follow the instructions given below to complete this task.

Write a report based on your argument visualization created in Task 1 and the media article or case study you selected in Task 1.

Undertake further research about your chosen case and the ethical issues involved, to assist you in analyzing and discussing it in your report.

Analyze the ethical issues applying the classical ethical theories, including utilitarianism, deontology, contract, and virtue. Your report should present well-reasoned arguments, logically leading to appropriate recommendations. You should not introduce new arguments in your report that were not contained in your argument visualization, and your report should contain all of the arguments contained in your visualization.

Write an overall conclusion that justifies your recommendations made in your report.

Answer

Introduction
Ethical theories undertaken in the present context of IT ethics assignment are helpful in ensuring that the proper technologies are developed that would help with betterment of the lives of people. The ethical theories forms the base for ensuring that work is being properly done in the society that would not affect lives of people negatively. This report intends to apply the ethical theories on the aspect whether the programmers need ethics when designing the technology that would influence the lives of people. The application of ethical theories is being done along with the discussion of how the development of technology could affect lives of people. Lastly, an appropriate conclusion has been provided for the report that is being created.

Argument visualisation

Argument visualisation in IT ethics assignment

Based on the various ethical principles, this situation could be analysed as:
Deontology: In the contemporary moral philosophy, the aspect of deontology could be considered as the kind of normative theories regarding the choices that are morally needed, permitted or even forbidden. In other words, the aspect of deontology could fall within the domain of the moral theories that could help in guiding as well as assessing the choices of what could be done by the people, in the difference to those that would guide as well as evaluate what kind of the individual we are and what should be. And within this field of the moral philosophies that helps in assessing the choices, the deontologists stand in the opposition of the consequentialists (de Sousa, Rasmussen and Pierroux, 2018).From the analysis of this ethical theory, it could be considered that the aspect of whether the programmers should consider the ethical theories before developing any technology, it could be determined that the ethics should be considered before developing the technologies to ensure that the technology would only provide major benefits to the people and it would not affect the lives of people negatively. It is being recommended that the programmers should consider the ethics but if ethics is not allowing them to develop the effective technology, then the ethics should not be considered and with the help of proper safeguards, then technology should be developed according to the needs (Savulescu, Kahane and Gyngell, 2019).

Utilitarianism: Utilitarianism could be considered as the ethical theory that would determine the aspect of right from wrong by emphasising on the outcomes. It is the form of the consequentialism. Utilitarianism mainly holds that most of the ethical choice is one that would be provide the increased good for the larger number (Markovi? and Bokan, 2017). It could be considered as the sole moral framework that could easily be used for justifying majority of the tasks that are being done in the present times. This theory has been considered as the most popular approach for the moral reasoning utilised in the business because of method by which it would account for the costs and the benefits. Based on this ethical theory and the argument visualisation, it could be considered that the programmers should consider the outcome of the technology before developing the technology to ensure that only the positive impact is being done by the technology on society (Ellis, 2020).It is being recommended that during the development stage, if it has been observed that the technology could affect lives of people negatively, then this technology should not be developed. After completion of each of the stages during development, and before developing the next module, the ethical issues should be considered.

Contract: In the ethical theories that is based on contract, it could be determined that the rights recognized by society are being sheltered as well as delivered the largest priority. The contract is completely ethically correct plus valid as the large people would be endorsing them. The individuals might impart rights upon others if the capability and the assets are possessed (Paradice et al., 2018). The main complication of the rights theory is that the on the larger scale there is a need of determining the features of the right are within the society.It should be ensured that the technologies are being developed that would be accepted by the society and major benefits could be provided to the society. The society is required to decide what rights are required. From the analysis of this ethical theory and the argument visualisation provided, it could be considered that the programmers should first determine what could be right for the society and then based on this principle, the technologies should be developed. If any technology would not provide any benefit to the society, the technology should not be developed. It is being recommended that it should be ensured by the programmers that the analysis of benefits is done for the society and whether the technology would be accepted or not before developing the technologies (Hairollizam, Masrom and Hashim, 2020).

Virtue: The virtue ethical theory mostly judges the persons by the character in its place of the actions that might stray from their respective usual behaviour. It mostly takes the moral of any person as well as the motivation into the account when the rating of unusual activity is being done (Ellis, 2020). It helps in ensuring that the situation of the individual is determined due to which the task was done. From the analysis of this ethical theory and the argument visualisation, it could be considered that if any technology has been developed that does not affect the society negatively and it has been developed based on the full conscience, then the virtue of the person should be analysed and determined why this kind of task was done (Skelton, 2017).

Ethics of programmers
Information is being considered to be power. The computers could be determined to be the devices which includes some of most private information as well as the useful programs that help in functioning of the systems. The ethics for the computer specialists are considered as the set of the standards which ensures the improved practices in this profession. The issues that are adjoining the ethics for the computer professionals includes the workplace computer utilisation by the developed, the computer associated crimes, the privacy, the intellectual property as well as the professional accountability. Based on the media article “Programmers need ethics when designing the technologies that influence people’s lives”, The computer specialists are being expected to behave themselves in the proper ethical method.

The code of ethics has been developed in this particular ground for helping the professionals making the good choices regarding manner of the professional functions, agreeing to ACM. Even though the main denotation of the essentials within the code of the ethics for the computer specialists are mainly focus to the understanding, the main question concerning the ethical conflict must be responded afterwards the consideration of the most basic principles with surrounding the situation thoughtfully(Programmers need ethics when designing the technologies that influence people's lives, 2021). It could be determined from the provided argument visualisation that the computer professionals must properly contribute to the society as well as the well-being of other individuals, and not hurt others through any kind of theft or even destruction, distinguish against any individual, be completely honest as well as reliable, act properly and honor the property rights. The computer professionals should have proper responsibility, for serving the interests of the other employers and the clients with proper loyalty as well as meticulousness.The computer professional should strive in providing the most improved quality of the work that is possible by acquiring as well as maintaining the professional competence. The computer developers are required to be completely knowledgeable in various laws that are pertaining to the professional as well as not disrupt them. ACM mainly adds that the specialists ought to be increasingly open for delivering as well as getting the expert peer reviews as well as the critiques and then maintain the objectiveness when the evaluation of the computer system is being done. Based on the media article “Programmers need ethics when designing the technologies that influence people’s lives”, The computer professionals have due obligation for upholding the agreements as well as the contracts that are being made with them, keeping the party properly informed regarding the progress towards the completion of the project as well as for letting their respective supervisor or even the client into knowing that he cannot complete any particular task that has been assigned(Programmers need ethics when designing the technologies that influence people's lives, 2021). It has been argued in the argument visualisation that because the computer professionals have the specialised information connecting to the field, they also possess the main duty of sharing the technical knowledge with the public for encouraging the improved knowledge of the computers. The privileged within the society of the computer professionals are required to encourage the acceptance of the social responsibilities that are outlined within the code of the ethics between various other professionals. It has also been stated by the ACM that the organisational leaders are required to properly ensure that the computer systems are being used for improving the quality of the work life of the professionals, by the taking into consideration regarding the professional as well as the personal development, the safety plus dignity of various specialists under their respective direction(Programmers need ethics when designing the technologies that influence people's lives, 2021). Those within the positions of the decision making should ensure that the systems protects the personal privacy by the clear defining of inappropriate and the appropriate uses of the resources of the organisation. It could also be argued from the argument visualisation that the future of the computing profession mainly relies on the both ethical and the technical superiority. As the result, those within this field who would not support the main code of the ethics for the computer specialists could have the licenses, the certifications and the memberships revoked. It has also been argued in the argument visualisation that the deterrence of the non-compliance is most applied when the computer specialists would inspire as well as care one another for upholding as well as adhering to code of the ethics(Programmers need ethics when designing the technologies that influence people's lives, 2021). The computer specialists are considered to be on the forward-facing lines of each of the present of this present world. It could be determined that the individuals are mainly involved in the response when the hackers would steal any of the individual information of the hundreds and thousands of individuals from any large organization. Their respective work could help in protecting or even jeopardising the serious infrastructure like the electrical networks and the transportation outlines. The technological professionals are considered to be the initial, and the last line of the defence against the misuse of the technology. Nobody could understand the system and nobody have the proper technical knowledge that would be required for handling the request of the particular data features or even ensure that networks among the one component and the others are suitable,harmless and dependable. The various code has been determined in the present times to ensure that the code of ethics has been upheld including the ACM members as well as the people external to the organisation plus computing and the technological occupations. It has been claimed by the researchers that the proper technologies should be developed that would be created with the help of consideration of technologies and ensure that the users would be provided with the safe and secure technology(Programmers need ethics when designing the technologies that influence people's lives, 2021). The technologies that would be created should not be used for impacting the lives of people negatively through some vulnerabilities that are embedded in the system when it was being developed. The duty of the computer professionals should be to ensure that only the technologies should be developed that would be used for improving the lives of individuals and not cause any kind of harm.

Conclusion
Therefore, conclusion could be determined from the above discussion that the programmers should always consider the ethics before developing any technology that would be used by the society. The consideration of the ethical theories would help in ensuring that the proper technology is developed and it would be able to provide major benefits to the society.In the ethical theories that is based on rights, it could be determined that the rights recognized by society are being sheltered as well as delivered the largest priority. The rights is completely ethically correct plus valid as the large people would be endorsing them. The computer professionals have due obligation for upholding the agreements as well as the contracts that are being made with them, keeping the party properly informed regarding the progress towards the completion of the project as well as for letting their respective supervisor or even the client into knowing that he cannot complete any particular task that has been assigned.

References
de Sousa, F., Rasmussen, I., &Pierroux, P. (2018). Zombies and ethical theories: Exploring transformational play as a framework for teaching with videogames. Learning, culture and social interaction, 19, 40-50.

Ellis, P. (2020). Ethical concepts: duty-based theories. Journal of Kidney Care, 5(1), 30-32.

Ellis, P. (2020). Understanding ethics for nursing students. Sage. Hairollizam, I. F., Masrom, M., &Hashim, N. F. M. (2020). A REVIEW OF INTERNET ADDICTION PROBLEMS USING THE PERSPECTIVE OF ETHICAL THEORIES. Issues in Information Systems, 21(1), 260-270.

Markovi?, M., &Bokan, B. (2017). Instrument for verification of ethical theories in physical culture. Fizi?kovaspitanje i sport krozvekove, 4(1), 71-91. Paradice, D., Freeman, D., Hao, J., Lee, J., & Hall, D. (2018). A review of ethical issue considerations in the information systems research literature. Foundations and Trends® in Information Systems, 2(2), 117-236.

Savulescu, J., Kahane, G., & Gyngell, C. (2019). From public preferences to ethical policy. Nature human behaviour, 3(12), 1241-1243. Skelton, L. (2017). Ethical Theories and Perspectives on End-of-Life Decisions. Dialogue & Nexus, 4(1), 13.

The Conversation. 2021. Programmers need ethics when designing the technologies that influence people's lives. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 May 2021].

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