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IT Ethics Assignment: Evaluation Of Different Theories

Question

Task:Choose one of the media articles or case studies from the following list:

  1. https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/internet-ethics/resources/students-and-sensors-data-education-privacy-and-research/
  2. https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/internet-ethics/resources/ai-death-and-mourning/
  3. . https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/internet-ethics/resources/chinas-social-credit-score/
  4. https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/internet-ethics/resources/targeting-a-broken-heart/
  5. https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/internet-ethics/resources/data-collection-harvesting-personalities-online/

Use the title of the article/case study provided as the title of your essay, so that I will know which article you are analysing. Undertake further research about your chosen case, to assist you in analysing and discussing it in your essay.

In your essay, you are required to analyse your chosen article/case study from the perspective of four classical ethical theories including utilitarianism, deontology, virtue and contract. Your essay should present well-reasoned arguments for your assessments and recommendations.

Write an overall conclusion that justifies your recommendations made in your essay. Include a Reference list at the end of your work, in the correct APA referencing style, corresponding to in-text citations.

The word limit for the essay is 1400-1500 words. Headings, citations and references do not count towards the word limit, but quotations do.

Answer

1. Introduction
Ethics is considered a significant factor in every organization or institution. It is highly crucial for the senior the different ethical authorities to efficiently adhere to and implement the different ethical norms in every situation in order to ensure high integrity in a system. However, in a number of situations it has been witnessed that the institutional or organizational systems are highly influenced owing to lack of effective ethical practices within the systems. In context to the University of Arizona, comparable situations have been observed, wherein, the researcher has conducted a research from which a set of information has been gathered from the students. However, the research was conducted without taking proper consent from the concerned students.

The data and information concerning the students was collected by the researcher with the help of the student ID’s from different departments of the college campus. The researcher collected the information concerning the routines and relationship of the different students and its impact upon the probability of the students to return to the University post completion of their first year. The final analysis of the collected data was later uploaded openly in the official website of the University. When disclosed publicly, the students were extremely offended and snubbed with the complete scenario, as according to them, their confidentiality was desecrated. In context to ethical norms and regulations, carrying out such organizational research without the consent or permission the individuals whose information or data are being used is considered extreme violation. In this it ethics assignment, different theories in context to ethics have been taken under consideration in order to analyse the case study of the unethical practice carried out in the University (University, 2018).

2. Utilitarianism Theory
The utilitarianism theory refers to a normative theory that considers the centre of what is correct or incorrect exclusively depending upon the outcomes of choosing an action or policy, above the other actions and policies. Above all, it abides by ahead of the probabilities of a person’s personal interest and taken under consideration the interests, which are put forward by other individuals. In addition, the utilitarianism theory comprises of a number of basic principles that are completely based on the level of pain and pleasure that is experienced due to it and connects the further consequences (Mill, 2016). This theory further equates the pleasure with pain and good and with vice and asserts that the pleasure and pain can be enumerated and therefore, deliberated. However, in the later years, the utilitarianism theory was revised; therefore, stating that the key focus of this theory is not the quantity or amount of pleasure by the quality of contentment or happiness. It further stated that it is not possible to quantify different qualities and therefore a difference between higher and lower pleasure. Majority of the personal utilitarianism essentially implies the ability of obtaining happiness. Considering the similar conception or idea in context to the chosen case study, the data and information collected by the researcher from the students of the University of Arizona is considered highly unethical. It can be said so, as it affected the students and caused them pain. According to them, their privacy was desecrated (Westermarck, 2017). In addition, the action that was carried out by the concerned researcher has fetched him/her happiness, as he/she was able to gather desired information and data for the concerned research. However, it was highly unethical for the researcher to carry out such as practice and should have taken under consideration the possible outcomes, which could take place owing to accessing the ID cards of the students, which informing them or taking their consent.

3. Deontology Theory
The deontology theory focuses upon the fundamental correct or incorrect to the autonomous in reference to the moral laws and duties. As opined by Greene (2015), it is necessary for an individual to act in an accurate manner and morally. Besides, the theory further bickers that the key purpose of any particular action signifies it to be wrong or right. It is not the outcomes, which appears by means of those actions. On the other hand, the theory sheds light upon the fact that the motivation of an individual cannot be understood by means of the outcome of a particular action. In a number of cases, it has been witnessed that actions carried out with a wrong motive turns out to provide good results. The theory further argues that a person must not cheat, steal or lie; thus interpreting that the deontology theory in reality associates the natural impulse of a person concerning what is ethical or unethical in accordance to them verifies their motivation. The theory further suggests the individuals not to infringe the regulations and imperatives of cheating or lying (MacKinnon & Fiala, 2014). It further suggests the persons who carry out their duties on the basis of morals and ethics, to consider what is right and wrong which performing different actions in order to become more successful in future. Besides, the deontology theory puts emphasis upon that in a conflict situation emerging during different duties, a person has the preference to make decision on the basis of instinctive judgement, which distinguishes the right from wrong and helps in determining what must be done in that situation (Broad, 2014). In context to the chosen case study, it was the researcher’s duty to take proper consent from the concerned students before considering their personal details and accessing their ID cards for the research study. However, the researcher did not succeed in doing so; thus, being unethical in advancing with the research with the help of the information of the students.

4. Virtue Theory
Virtue ethics, also referred to as character ethics is not apprehensive of the different roles being depicted by the social contracts, outcomes and duties, in the ethical system, which establishes the suitable standards in order to assess the ethical behaviour (Van Hooft, 2014). A virtue or desirable quality is basically a particular trait or characteristic of an individual being valued communally. While carrying out any significant research, it is necessary for the researcher to be well-informed, meticulous, empathetic and responsible, instead of simply adhering to rules and regulations, in the direction of safeguarding the individuality of the research topic (Barnes & Kenny, 2014). In context to the case scenario, the researcher must have informed the students prior to making use of their data and waited for them to give proper consent for the same. Here, the researcher is accountable to be responsive towards the consent and views of the concerned students whose information is being used for the study.

5. Contract Theory
The contract theory is considered a political philosophy that is subject to the correctness or aptness of the governmental or authoritarian control over an individual concerning the communal origins. The ethical system requires being recognized through a set of votive accords amongst the partaking individuals, wherein they are permitted to act in the manner they feel comfortable and free to their personal expectations and desires so as to evade things or repugnance they have an aversion to. This theory was initially determined by Thomas Hobbes, who discussed the scenario of the community devoid of rules and state of the nature. However, a number of other authors criticised this theory to a great extent (Gasper, 2016). They further argued that life in a particular state of nature would perhaps turn out to be Darwinian, with the weaker section being perished and the stronger section surviving successfully. In addition, the theory stated that the development of social or communal contract will further result in a collective comprehension amongst the individuals in the community, wherein regulations and rules will be as per the interest of all the people; thus, ensuring security for everyone, including the weaker section of the society (Martin, 2016).

In this context of it ethics assignment, it is extremely significant for the researcher to avail the consent of the students before accessing their information. Furthermore, it is also significant for the researcher to carry out a proper research on the specific students who are not apprehensive of the research; thus, benefitting all.

6. Conclusion
The above it ethics assignment discussed different theories based on ethical grounds; thus¸ providing substantiations that the concerned researcher of the institutional research along with the concerned University must have provided the students. This it ethics assignment further highlights the fact that, the researcher must have taken proper consent and conformation from the students prior to accessing their data and information, specifically the ones being published or uploaded in public provinces. The researcher must have further considered the outcomes of availing the data and information for the study being carried out. Furthermore, the discussion outlined in this it ethics assignment the fact that the researcher must have considered the correct and incorrect ethical norms that were linked with the unethical use of the students’ information. Besides, the researcher must have used the collected data in a much more responsible manner; thus, ensuring to take proper consents from the students involved in the research. This would further facilitate the researcher in avoiding any unethical practice in the research. IT Ethics assignments are being prepared by our IT assignment help experts from top universities which let us to provide you a reliable assignment help online service.

References
Barnes, J., & Kenny, A. (2014). Aristotle's ethics: Writings from the complete works. Princeton University Press.

Broad, C. D. (2014). Five types of ethical theory. Routledge.

Gasper, D. (2016). Ethics of development

Greene, J. D. (2015). Beyond point-and-shoot morality: Why cognitive (neuro) science matters for ethics. The Law & Ethics of Human Rights, 9(2), 141-172.

MacKinnon, B., & Fiala, A. (2014). Ethics: Theory and contemporary issues. Nelson Education.

Martin, K. (2016). Understanding privacy online: Development of a social contract approach to privacy. Journal of Business Ethics, 137(3), 551-569.

Mill, J.S., (2016). Utilitarianism. In Seven Masterpieces of Philosophy (pp. 337-383). Routledge.

University, S. (2018). Students and Sensors: Data, education, privacy, and research. Scu.edu. Retrieved 17 September 2018, from https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/internet-ethics/resources/students-and-sensors-data-education-privacy-and-research/

Van Hooft, S. (2014). Understanding virtue ethics. Routledge.

Westermarck, E. (2017). Ethical relativity. Routledge.

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